Section C Flashcards Preview

2017 Update > Section C > Flashcards

Flashcards in Section C Deck (101):
1

What is the lack circular aperture in the center of the iris?

Pupil

2

What is a system of muscles, tendons,and ligaments,in the horses body and legs that allows the horse to sleep while standing up?

Stay apparatus

3

What is the bulge on the head of an Arabian called?

Jibbah

4

What is the pigmented membrane of the eye situated weekend the cornea and the lens?

Iris

5

What muscular membranous chamber is common to both the digestive and respiratory tract?

Pharynx

6

During swallowing the myohyoid and hyoglossus muscles raise what part of the mouth against the hard palate?

Tongue

7

During ingestion what change in the pharynx forces feed into the esophagus?

Increase in pressure

8

What are the two blood vessels of the liver?

Portal vein and hepatic artery

9

Which one of the hepatic blood vessels, hepatic artery or portal vein, supplies the oxygen to the liver cell?

Hepatic artery

10

Insulin and glucagon are the hormone secreted by what gland?

Pancreas

11

What part of the horse is located at the middle of the shoulder joint?

Point of shoulder

12

The modern horse walks on his third digit, which is comparable to what part of the human body?

The middle finger

13

What six main parts of the horses for like make up the area of the horse known as the manus?

Carpus/knee, metacarpus/cannon, fetlock/ankle, pastern, coronet, hoof

14

What six main parts of the horses hind leg make up the area of the horse known as the pes?

Tarsis/hock, metatarsus/cannon, fetlock/ankle, pastern, coronet, hood

15

What are the two scientific terms indicating locations of body parts toward the back or the belly?

Dorsal indicates back and ventral indicates belly

16

What directional term describes relative locations of parts of the horse which are located near the back?

Dorsal

17

What directional term describes relative locations of parts of the horse which are located near the belly?

Ventral

18

What directional term describes the relative location of parts of the horse that are located closer to the horses cranium?

Cranial

19

What directional term describes the relative location of parts of the horse that are located closer to the horses tail?

Caudal

20

What is the scientific term for the horses skull case?

Cranium

21

What is the scientific term for the horses tail?

Cauda equina

22

What directional term describes the relative location of parts of the horses head which are closer to the nose?

Rostral

23

What is the scientific term for the horses nose?

Rostrum

24

What directional term describes the relative location of parts a horses leg which indicates a location towards the attached end of the limb?

Proximal

25

What directional term describes the relative location of parts of the horses leg which indicates a location towards the free end of the limb?

Distal

26

The axis represents the center of a horses limb. What directional term describes the structure which is located away from the axis?

Abaxial

27

The axis represents the center of a horses limb. What directional term describes the structure which is located towards the axis?

Axial

28

What directional term describes an imaginary line which divides the body into right and left halves?

Median plane

29

What directional term describes structures closer to the median plane?

Medial

30

What directional term describes structures which light away from the median plane?

Lateral

31

What directional term describes a plane which passes through the head, trunk for lamb perpendicular to the parts long axis?

Transverse plane

32

Directional term describes a plane which passes through a body part parallel to it's dorsal surface?

Dorsal plane

33

What term describes the hairs that protrude from the skin around the horses eyelids, nostrils, and lips?

Tactile or feeling hairs

34

What is the term for the sheath covering the penis?

Prepuce

35

Name the structures which are located proximal to the carpus on the front likes, and distal to the hock on the hind leg, and are used to help identify horses.

Chestnuts or night eyes

36

What structures can be found by parting the hairs on the Palmer on the forelimb or plantar on the hind limb surface of the fetlock?

Ergot

37

What structures are believed to be vestiges of the carpal and tarsal pads of carnivores?

Chestnut or night eyes

38

Ergots are considered to be vestiges of what structures?

Metacarpal and metatarsal pads

39

What substance creates color in horses hoof?

Pigment

40

What is the body's largest organ?

Skin

41

What part of the mares anatomy consists of mammary glands and highly developed and modified apocrine tubular gland's?

Udder

42

What five parts of the top line lie between the poll and the tail head?

Crest, withers, back, loin, croup

43

On the horses skull, sutures are fibrous joints that ossify with what?

Age

44

The upper incisor teeth are located in what bone?

Incisive bones

45

What structure divides the nasal cavity into halves?

Nasal septum

46

Name the structure that supports the guttural pouches, pharynx, larynx, and the root of the tongue

Hyoid apparatus

47

The lacrimal gland secretes what substance?

Tears

48

A blocked nasal lacrimal duct causes overflow of what substance?

Tears

49

List four locations where saliva enters the oral cavity

Parotid duct, buccal glands, mandibular duct, sublingual gland

50

In a mare what teeth are absent or rudimentary?

Canine teeth

51

What is a wolf tooth?

A small inconstant first upper pre-molar

52

What is usually done when a horse has a wolf tooth?

It is removed

53

What term describes deciduous teeth that remain attached to erupted permanent teeth?

Caps

54

Of the central enamel, layer of cement covers the crown and fills in what part of the tooth?

Infundibulum

55

In the early infundibulum there's a dark cavity called what?

Cup

56

Sharp edges that develop on the buccal side of the upper cheek teeth and the lingual side of the lowers is called what?

Points

57

Sharp points on molars can cut the cheek or tongue and have to be cut off which is called what?

Floated or filed down

58

The lateral profile angle of incisors becomes more acute as the horse does what?

Ages

59

Yellowish bone marrow primarily consists of what cells?

Fat cells

60

In the horse, this is the largest gland.

Liver

61

Name the structure that may be visible on the left side of the neck during swallowing

Esophagus

62

With the exception of the atlas and axis joints or the vertebrae joined together?

By discs of cartilage

63

What is the common cause of wobbler syndrome and most prevalent in which two breeds?

Malformation of the cervical vertebrae mostly males and prevalent in thoroughbreds and quarter horses

64

What is another name for the proximal middle and distal phalanges

First second and third phalanx

65

What is the term for the wings on the atlas and sacrum?

Transverse processes

66

The atlantooccipital joint is more commonly known by what term?

Atlas joint

67

The horse has 18 pairs of ribs. How many pairs articulate with the sternum?

8

68

What does the term floating ribs refer to?

The false ribs of the horse that are not connected to the sternum and lack costal cartilage

69

What do true ribs articulate with?

Sternum

70

What is another name for false ribs?

Asternal ribs

71

Name the four shapes the bones are classified as

Long, short, flat, or irregular

72

What is the production source of most blood cells?

Red marrow

73

What is the vessel Rich, bone producing membrane that covers the bone?

Periosteum

74

What articulates with both the middle and distal phalanges?

Navicular bone

75

Which two bones serve as pulleys that change the direction of the deep digital flexor tendon?

Proximal and distal sesamoid bones

76

Which leg bones are deeply imbedded in and supported by ligaments but are still prone to fractures?

Proximal sesamoid bones

77

What is the name of the hyaline cartilage that grows and ossifies, increasing a bones length?

Growth plate

78

Give an example of a spheroidal joint

Hip joint

79

Give an example of a ginglymus joint

Elbow joint

80

What is another name for the metacarpal phalangeal joint

Fetlock joint

81

What is another name for the distal interphalangeal joint

Coffin joint

82

What is another name for the proximal interphalangeus joint

Pastern joint

83

What is the function of the superficial digital flexor tendon?

To resist downward motion

84

Stabilization of the joints of the fore limb by ligaments and tendons by the stay apparatus allows the horse to do what

Sleep while standing

85

The suspensory ligament, the proximal sesamoid bones, and the three distal prevent overextension of what joint?

Fetlock joint

86

With what does the dermal laminae interlock?

Epidermal laminae

87

The navicular bursa acts as a cushion between what two structures?

Navicular bone and the deep digital flexor tendon

88

Name the five bones of the pelvic girdle

Ilium, pubis, ischium, sacrum, caudal vertebrae

89

Name the four bones of the thigh and leg

Femur, patella, tibia, fibula

90

What joint is made up of the femoropatellar joint and the femorobiial joint?

Stifle joint

91

Describe the difference in functions of insulin and glucagon in horses body

Insulin decreases blood sugar and glucagon mobilizes the blood sugar

92

What causes the horses gut sounds?

Propulsion of gas and fluid through the large intestine

93

A trocar can be used to allow gas to escape from witch distended part of the large intestine?

Cecum

94

What is the purpose of the subcutis layer of the horses skin?

Attaches the skin to the underlying structures

95

What term refers to the halie cellular tissue with flat, horny surface cells, and contains the hair follicle?

Epidermis

96

Which layer of skin contains the hair follicle?

Epidermis

97

Which layer of the skin is constructed of loose, connective tissue containing deposits of fat and attaches the skin to underlying structures?

Subcutis

98

What two types of skin glands empty into the hair follicles?

Sebaceous oil glands and apocrine tubular sweat glands

99

What substance is secreted by the sebaceous glands?

Sebum

Oil not acceptable

100

What substance is secreted by the apocrine tubular glands?

Sweat

101

What are two ways to increase hoof moisture content?

exercise; coronary band massage