Flashcards in Section C Deck (101):
What is the lack circular aperture in the center of the iris?
What is a system of muscles, tendons,and ligaments,in the horses body and legs that allows the horse to sleep while standing up?
What is the bulge on the head of an Arabian called?
What is the pigmented membrane of the eye situated weekend the cornea and the lens?
What muscular membranous chamber is common to both the digestive and respiratory tract?
During swallowing the myohyoid and hyoglossus muscles raise what part of the mouth against the hard palate?
During ingestion what change in the pharynx forces feed into the esophagus?
Increase in pressure
What are the two blood vessels of the liver?
Portal vein and hepatic artery
Which one of the hepatic blood vessels, hepatic artery or portal vein, supplies the oxygen to the liver cell?
Insulin and glucagon are the hormone secreted by what gland?
What part of the horse is located at the middle of the shoulder joint?
Point of shoulder
The modern horse walks on his third digit, which is comparable to what part of the human body?
The middle finger
What six main parts of the horses for like make up the area of the horse known as the manus?
Carpus/knee, metacarpus/cannon, fetlock/ankle, pastern, coronet, hoof
What six main parts of the horses hind leg make up the area of the horse known as the pes?
Tarsis/hock, metatarsus/cannon, fetlock/ankle, pastern, coronet, hood
What are the two scientific terms indicating locations of body parts toward the back or the belly?
Dorsal indicates back and ventral indicates belly
What directional term describes relative locations of parts of the horse which are located near the back?
What directional term describes relative locations of parts of the horse which are located near the belly?
What directional term describes the relative location of parts of the horse that are located closer to the horses cranium?
What directional term describes the relative location of parts of the horse that are located closer to the horses tail?
What is the scientific term for the horses skull case?
What is the scientific term for the horses tail?
What directional term describes the relative location of parts of the horses head which are closer to the nose?
What is the scientific term for the horses nose?
What directional term describes the relative location of parts a horses leg which indicates a location towards the attached end of the limb?
What directional term describes the relative location of parts of the horses leg which indicates a location towards the free end of the limb?
The axis represents the center of a horses limb. What directional term describes the structure which is located away from the axis?
The axis represents the center of a horses limb. What directional term describes the structure which is located towards the axis?
What directional term describes an imaginary line which divides the body into right and left halves?
What directional term describes structures closer to the median plane?
What directional term describes structures which light away from the median plane?
What directional term describes a plane which passes through the head, trunk for lamb perpendicular to the parts long axis?
Directional term describes a plane which passes through a body part parallel to it's dorsal surface?
What term describes the hairs that protrude from the skin around the horses eyelids, nostrils, and lips?
Tactile or feeling hairs
What is the term for the sheath covering the penis?
Name the structures which are located proximal to the carpus on the front likes, and distal to the hock on the hind leg, and are used to help identify horses.
Chestnuts or night eyes
What structures can be found by parting the hairs on the Palmer on the forelimb or plantar on the hind limb surface of the fetlock?
What structures are believed to be vestiges of the carpal and tarsal pads of carnivores?
Chestnut or night eyes
Ergots are considered to be vestiges of what structures?
Metacarpal and metatarsal pads
What substance creates color in horses hoof?
What is the body's largest organ?
What part of the mares anatomy consists of mammary glands and highly developed and modified apocrine tubular gland's?
What five parts of the top line lie between the poll and the tail head?
Crest, withers, back, loin, croup
On the horses skull, sutures are fibrous joints that ossify with what?
The upper incisor teeth are located in what bone?
What structure divides the nasal cavity into halves?
Name the structure that supports the guttural pouches, pharynx, larynx, and the root of the tongue
The lacrimal gland secretes what substance?
A blocked nasal lacrimal duct causes overflow of what substance?
List four locations where saliva enters the oral cavity
Parotid duct, buccal glands, mandibular duct, sublingual gland
In a mare what teeth are absent or rudimentary?
What is a wolf tooth?
A small inconstant first upper pre-molar
What is usually done when a horse has a wolf tooth?
It is removed
What term describes deciduous teeth that remain attached to erupted permanent teeth?
Of the central enamel, layer of cement covers the crown and fills in what part of the tooth?
In the early infundibulum there's a dark cavity called what?
Sharp edges that develop on the buccal side of the upper cheek teeth and the lingual side of the lowers is called what?
Sharp points on molars can cut the cheek or tongue and have to be cut off which is called what?
Floated or filed down
The lateral profile angle of incisors becomes more acute as the horse does what?
Yellowish bone marrow primarily consists of what cells?
In the horse, this is the largest gland.
Name the structure that may be visible on the left side of the neck during swallowing
With the exception of the atlas and axis joints or the vertebrae joined together?
By discs of cartilage
What is the common cause of wobbler syndrome and most prevalent in which two breeds?
Malformation of the cervical vertebrae mostly males and prevalent in thoroughbreds and quarter horses
What is another name for the proximal middle and distal phalanges
First second and third phalanx
What is the term for the wings on the atlas and sacrum?
The atlantooccipital joint is more commonly known by what term?
The horse has 18 pairs of ribs. How many pairs articulate with the sternum?
What does the term floating ribs refer to?
The false ribs of the horse that are not connected to the sternum and lack costal cartilage
What do true ribs articulate with?
What is another name for false ribs?
Name the four shapes the bones are classified as
Long, short, flat, or irregular
What is the production source of most blood cells?
What is the vessel Rich, bone producing membrane that covers the bone?
What articulates with both the middle and distal phalanges?
Which two bones serve as pulleys that change the direction of the deep digital flexor tendon?
Proximal and distal sesamoid bones
Which leg bones are deeply imbedded in and supported by ligaments but are still prone to fractures?
Proximal sesamoid bones
What is the name of the hyaline cartilage that grows and ossifies, increasing a bones length?
Give an example of a spheroidal joint
Give an example of a ginglymus joint
What is another name for the metacarpal phalangeal joint
What is another name for the distal interphalangeal joint
What is another name for the proximal interphalangeus joint
What is the function of the superficial digital flexor tendon?
To resist downward motion
Stabilization of the joints of the fore limb by ligaments and tendons by the stay apparatus allows the horse to do what
Sleep while standing
The suspensory ligament, the proximal sesamoid bones, and the three distal prevent overextension of what joint?
With what does the dermal laminae interlock?
The navicular bursa acts as a cushion between what two structures?
Navicular bone and the deep digital flexor tendon
Name the five bones of the pelvic girdle
Ilium, pubis, ischium, sacrum, caudal vertebrae
Name the four bones of the thigh and leg
Femur, patella, tibia, fibula
What joint is made up of the femoropatellar joint and the femorobiial joint?
Describe the difference in functions of insulin and glucagon in horses body
Insulin decreases blood sugar and glucagon mobilizes the blood sugar
What causes the horses gut sounds?
Propulsion of gas and fluid through the large intestine
A trocar can be used to allow gas to escape from witch distended part of the large intestine?
What is the purpose of the subcutis layer of the horses skin?
Attaches the skin to the underlying structures
What term refers to the halie cellular tissue with flat, horny surface cells, and contains the hair follicle?
Which layer of skin contains the hair follicle?
Which layer of the skin is constructed of loose, connective tissue containing deposits of fat and attaches the skin to underlying structures?
What two types of skin glands empty into the hair follicles?
Sebaceous oil glands and apocrine tubular sweat glands
What substance is secreted by the sebaceous glands?
Oil not acceptable
What substance is secreted by the apocrine tubular glands?