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Flashcards in Section D Deck (28):

What is a sac or sac-like cavity filled with fluid and situated at places in the tissues where friction would otherwise develop?



Which artery supplies all the arterial blood to the small intestines, great cool and cecum?

Central mesentaric artery


Where in the horses body would you find the turbinate bones?

Located in the nasal passage


What sulfur containing protein comprising the structure of hair and hoof?



Which chamber of the heart has the strongest muscle surrounding it?

Left ventricle


The horses body temperature can be influenced by what three functions of the skin?

Changes in blood flow, erection of hairs, sweating


Name for functions of the skin

Interface with the environment, serves as a barrier to living, chemical and physical agents, provides sensory information, flexible support, control of water loss, immuno logical responses, regulation of blood pressure, control of body temperature


What is the normal heart rate in most horses that are swimming, cantering, or loping?

160-200 bpm


The horse's heart rate can be recorded by numerous on-board heart rate monitors during
exercise but how would you take the horse's pulse before or after exercise?

by placing your finger on the inner part of the lower jaw just by the jowl, feeling for the artery that crosses under and to the outside and counting the beats for 15 secs and multipling them by 4 or counting when listening to a stethoscope


At how many beats per minute does heart rate begins to plateau?

220 bpm


On average, how much weight does a Thoroughbred lose during a race & then regained within 48 hrs?

9 lbs


About 60-90% of Thoroughbreds in training &/or competing will develop major lameness problems. How can they be detected before being visible?

monitoring the heart rate during exercise and post exercise


What is the main benefit of the development stage of training for athletic performance horses?

develops the cardiovascular system and muscles for future competition


If a horse is over trained or overused, how long of a recovery period is usually needed after being
placed on paddock rest?

30 days usually is sufficient without losing previously achieved fitness


What is the maximum heart rate for most horses?

220-250 bpm


What is the normal heart rate in most horses that are trotting?

120-140 bpm


What is another name for renal failure?

kidney failure


If a horse doesn't have noticiable physical damage, how can you tell if the horse is overtrained or

by 2 different blood tests. One checks the a persistantly low ratio of white blood cells called neurtrophils/lymphocytes and another checks an increase in plasma activity of the liver enzyme called gamma-glutanyltransferase (GTT)


What are the 2 reasons that you should closely monitor the physical fitness of the equine athlete?

check the progress of training so it can be altered if necessary and appropriate steps can be taken to avoid injury or respiratory problems


In what part of the body is heat primarily produced during exercise?



What is done to achieve the benefits of the development stage for training of athletic performance horses?

a good balance between high-intensity and prolonged duration workouts and performing activities that are planned for future competitions and neural learning


At what age is it beneficial to start to increase physical fitness in racehorses?

18 months


Lameness-induced increased heart rate can be best detected at what gait?



Name 4 benefits that athletic performance horses will receive from the initial stage of training.

increases the horse suppleness, mobility and adaptation to saddle, rider and or sulky, increases bone, tendons and ligaments strength, decreases risk of injuries, stocking up, bucked shins, splints, bowed tendons, carpal bone chips, fractures, etc.


How long will it take for a horse to lose its fitness after fitness training stops?

muscle oxygen utilization can be maintained for 5-8 weeks


In most horses, what is the normal heart rate when they are walking?

80 bpm


Besides exercise, name 3 other ways the heart rate can be increased.

fatigue, apprehension, anxiety, discomfort or pain from any cause, respiratory dysfunction or difficulty


What is the body condition score of a Thoroughbred when he is at optimal racing weight?

body score of a 5 or moderate body score