Flashcards in Section I Deck (80):
Describe 4 symptoms of a horse in shock?
Pale membranes, cold and clammy skin, decreased blood pressure, slow breathing.
During what time of the year is the peak challenge time of Potomac horse fever on horses?
What is dourine?
Contagious disease marked by lymph gland swelling, genital inflammation, and paralysis of hind limbs?
Where in the body do papillomas usually occur?
Around the head?
What is another name for ring worm?
Barn itch or trichopytosis
In what condition is there an abnormal amount of fluid beneath the skull resulting in an enlarged head, brain atrophy and mental disorientation?
What is another term for an impaction where feeds are tightly packed in one part of the intestines?
What 3 vaccines should you give performance horses annually?
Tetanus, encephalomyelitis, rabies, West Nile virus.
Horse over 18 years old are prone to having thyroid and pituitary tumors which can cause excess hair growth and failure to shed, sweats more frequently, frequent weight loss increased thirst with excessive urination?
What is one of the most potent toxins known to man?
The conjunctiva is a membrane of the eye. Describe 2 specific places where it is found.
Lines the inside of the eye
Iid and covers the exposed surface of the eyeball surrounding the cornea.
Describe how antitoxins and toxoids differ?
Antitoxins- confers immediate but short lived immunity
Toxoids- induces long lasting protection but takes 3-4 weeks to establish protective titers.
What causes supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles to shrink?
Injury to the supra scapular nerve.
What are the membranes of the upper hard plate of the mouth just behind the upper incisor teeth called?
What does the term ossify mean?
To change or develop into bone.
What is alopecia?
Lack of hair in areas where normally present.
Name 3 ways to help relieve the symptoms of heaves?
Don't feed moldy or dusty hay, wet hay before feeding, remove dusty bedding, place hay containers of higher than shoulder level of the horse, do not bed with straw, feed as little Hay as possible use pasture as main feed stuff, do not stable horses
What is mastitis?
Bacterial infection of a mammary gland, causing swelling, pain and infected milk.
Name the type of anemia that occurs a newborn foal if it has an incompatible blood type with its dam?
What is torticollis?
Condition marked by contracted neck muscles, producing twisting of the neck and and unnatural position of the head.
What can you do to prevent foal from Getting septicemia?
Treat the foals navel cord with.05% chlorhexidine r other antibacterial medication as soon as possible after birth (never iodine)
What is a fever?
And elevation of the body temperature above the normal.
The administration of text us antitoxin induces immediate protection and lasts for how long?
Up to 4 weeks or 7-14 days or 2 weeks
What is a crusted, infectious skin inflammation that lifts the hair and removes it at its roots, resulting in slipping away of affected areas of the hair coat, triggered when small amounts of moisture fall on a dirty, infected coat?
Rain rot, RAIN SCALD IS NOT ACCEPTED
What term describes a condition resulting from excessive loss of body water or inadequate intake of water?
What term describes a condition of partial blood circulation failure due to injury, blood loss infection, allergy or reaction to drugs?
Name 6 clinical signs of rabies.
Unexplainable changes in behavior(strange behavior), appear nervous and upset, become aggressive to humans or other animals.
Facial expressions are very alert and anxious while pupils dilated and noise stimulates aggressive attacks. Initially appear dull, depressed, lethargic or ataxic, lameness, neurological deficits, self mutilation, paralysis of throat and master muscles, excessive salvation, inability to swallow.
Name 3 types of Developmental Orthopedic Disease.
Osteochondritis, dissecans, epiphysitis, flexure and angular limb deformities and perhaps wobblers syndrome.
Name 4 factors that can cause Developmental Orthopedic Disease.
Genetics, nutrition, exercise,trauma due to excessive concussion, obesity, strenuous forced exercise, mineral imbalances, high carb rations.
Name 4 symptoms of Potomic Horse Fever.
Depression, dehydration, mild to profuse diarrhea , loss of appetite, shock, congested mucous membranes, reduced or absent gut sounds, laminitis.
What are 5 signs of inflammation.
Redness, swelling, heat, pain and various exudates
( loss of function in the inflamed area no longer part of the answer)
Describe 4 signs that a horse is dehydrated.
Decreased dry feed intake, decreased physical activity and ability, dry membranes and mouth, sunken eyes, decreased physical performance
Name 3 good areas where you can check your horses pulse.
Margin of jaw(facial NOT mandibular artery)
Below and slightly behind the eye (but above the zygomatic arch) on the transverse facial artery
Inside the elbow
On hind limb in dorsal groove between 3rd and 4 th metatarsal artery
On lateral and medial surfaces of Pastern on the digital arteries
Underside of the tail no longer part of the answer.
How long is the life cycle of a mosquito?
How long does it take to complete the lifecycle of a house fly?
6.5 -10 days
NOT 1-2 weeks
Which adult parasite may reach a length up to 14 inches NOT (5-22)?
Ascarids parascaris equorum
Doubling the dose of pyrantel pamoate is an effective treatment for which parasite?
Tape worms if 2x the dose, ascarids, small strongyles
The foundation of a good fly control program involves the integration of what 4 methods?
Eliminate breeding material, control moisture, mechanical control, judicious use of insecticides.
What is the term for keeping biological things (both plants and animals) from being infected with agents that can cause health and disease issues by mechanical means?
Threadworms produce parthenogenic eggs. What are parthenogenic eggs?
Eggs that are able to mature and hatch into larvae without fertilization by males.
Which internal parasite infection is usually related to exposure to donkeys?
What is the common name for the internal parasite, Dictyocaulus-arnfieldi?
Which of the two general types of mites cause the most damage to the host?
Burrowing or sarcoptic mites
What are the two general types of mites?
Burrowing or sarcoptic mites and biting or psorptic mites
What are the two main types of flies and give two examples of each.
Biting flies- stable fly, horse fly, deer fly, horn fly, gnat, black fly and non-biting flies- house fly and face fly
Name the four stage lifecycle of most internal and external parasites.
Egg, larva, pupa, adult.
Name four disorders of the foot.
Navicular disease, laminitis (founder), thrush, white line disease (seedy toe)
Name seven equine health issues caused by infections from viruses.
EIA ( equine infectious anemia), Equine influenza, Equine viral artiritis, Equine vial Encephlomyelitis (sleeping sickness), rabies, Rhinopneumonitis, Viral enteritis (rotavirus infection), vesticular stomatitis, West nile virus
Name a health issue caused by infections from rickettsia.
Equine ehlichiosis and potomac horse fever
Name two health issues caused by infections from protozoa.
Equine piroplasmosis (babesiosis), equine protozoal myeloenchephalitis (EPM), Giardiasis (Giardia infection)
Name three health issues caused by infections from fungi?
Aspergiliosis, blastomycosis, coccidiodomycosis, histoplasmosis
Name 5 health issues caused by infections by bacteria.
Anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis, lyme disease, salmonellosis, strangles (distemper), tetanus (lockjaw)
What are the two basic types of immunity?
Passive and active
What are microorganisms that are smaller than bacteria but larger than viruses in size and are found in and usually spread by parasitic arthropods such as lice, ticks, fleas and mites?
What are four classifications of fungi?
Yeasts, molds, mildew or mushrooms.
Even though they are a plant, they contain no chlorophyll and reproduce from spores and can be classified as yeasts, molds, mildews and mushrooms. Name this item.
What is the term for and illness or health related issues that is within the animal's body and may affect one, several or all parts of the body?
What are the minute bundles of genetic material wrapped in a protective outer layer of protein, do not need oxygen to survive, have no waste products, need a living organism in order to reproduce, can cause health problems and affect the immune system of the horse?
What is the term for not being able to spread from one animal to another through exposure to the ill animal itself or to its body secretions, to a wound or sore or to a parasite from the infected animal?
What is the term for being able to spread from one animal to another through exposure to the animal itself, to its body secretions, to a wound or sore or to a parasite from the infected animal?
What is the term for the ability to cause the spread of disease by means of organisms such as a bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungus and rickettsia?
What is the term for the condition resulting from the presence of organisms in the body that cause health issues or disease?
What is the term for an imbalance in normal body function, an infection or state of illness in one or more parts of the body, causing health issues?
Name two simple ways to determine the dehydration level of a horse.
Skin pinch test at the junction of the neck and shoulder at the center of the neck on the slope of the shoulder of more than two seconds shows dehydration and open horse's lips and check with the tip of your finger whether the gums feel moist, gums that feel dry or tacky show dehydration.
Describe the CRT of a healthy horse.
Capillary refill time of 1-3 seconds and gums should be medium pink in color.
When body systems are calling all the available blood to the center of the body and away from the extremities in an effort to maintain functions of the vital organs , the horse may be going into shock and have a slowed CRT. What is CRT?
Capillary refill time
Name the two places in the foot region to check for a digital pulse.
Just to the outside center on the back of the pastern just above the coronary band and just above the pastern joint.
Which pulse rate is barely detectable in a healthy horse at rest but becomes strong and throbbing if there is injury or laminitis in the foot?
Name two easy methods for determining the respiration rate in the horse.
Count the rise and fall of the flank as one movement or hold a tissue about three inches in front of one nostril and count the number of moves per minute
The pulse rate is usually taken under the elbow, along the girth, on which side of the horse?
The left side of the horse's body (the heart is closer to the left side than the right)
You can use your fingers to feel the artery inside of the jaw or cheek groove when taking the pulse rate. Which artery is being felt in this case?
What veterinarian tool is used to listen to the heart rate?
What is the term for the measurement of how fast the heart is pumping blood throughout the body?
Pulse rate or heart rate
What should be done to a conventional thermometer to ensure that it is not sucked into the anus or expelled and broken?
Attach a string 1-2 feet long to the loop at the top of the thermometer and the other end of the string to a clothes pin or hair clip
How long should both the conventional and digital thermometer remain in the anus to get an accurate reading?
Conventional- 3-4 minutes. Digital- generally less than one minute but check manufacturing instructions
When using a conventional thermometer to take a horse's temperature, it should be first shaken down to a reading below what number?
Less than 96 degrees F
What are the two types of thermometers used with horses?
Conventional thermometer and digital thermometer
What are the normal TPR rates for a foal?
Temp- 100 +/- 2 degrees, pulse- 80 +/- 10 beats per minute, respiration- 30 -/+10 breaths per minute
What is the common term for the nutritional disease, osteodystrophia fibrosa?
Bighead disease (hyperparathyroidism)