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Flashcards in Section B Deck (74):
1

What time do most mares foal ?

Between 11- pm and 4 am

2

What is the physical makeup and visible traits of an animal?

Phenotype

3

What is the term for a group of brain disorders found in foals which usually appear within the first day of a foals life?

Neonatal maladjustment syndrome

4

The labia and clitoris make up what part of the mares reproductive system

Vulva

5

What would be the term used when a mare opens and closes the labia quickly with elevation of the clitoris during estrus?

Winking

6

Endometritis is inflammation of which part of the mares reproductive system

Endometrium or lining of the uterus

7

What hormone is responsible for stimulating the maturation of a developing ovarian follicle into a Graffian follicle?

FSH

8

What is the term for the union of the stallions spermatozoa with the mares ovum?

Fertilization

9

When does waxing of the mares teats occur?

Usually 48 hours before paturition

10

Describe the position of the foal when it is in the dorsso pelvic position in the first stage of labor

The foa is upside down

11

There are how many stages of Parturition?

3

12

What is the term for the birthing process?

Parturition

13

During parturition describe the foals positions during each of the following events: when the strongest contractions occur, and when most of the straining stops

Strongest contractions occur when the head and shoulders are forced through the pelvic cavity

straining stops when hips clear the vagina

14

Which contagious disease is caused by bacteria isolated in the sinuses of the clitoral gland?

Contagious equine metritis

15

What is the term for the release of an egg cell?

Ovulation

16

Describe the term seasonally polyestrous

Animal having several estrous cycle's during a breeding season

17

Gonadotropin releasing hormone causes which hormone to be secreted by the pituitary gland?

FSH

18

Which hormone prepares the mares reproductive tract for mating and fertilization?

Estrogen

19

The fetuses urachus extends the fetal bladder to which part of the placenta?

Allantoic cavity

20

What muscles act to pull the stallions penis into the prepuce?

Retractor muscles

21

What is the term for the cheesy smegma and dead cells that fill the urethral sinus of the male?

Bean

22

What general type of muscles are used to move the ova through the uterus to the end of the uterine horn?

Smooth muscles

23

The ovarian artery arises directly from the aorta and divides into what two branches?

Ovarian and uterine branches

24

Define the term, postpartum.

Occurring after giving birth

25

What is the term for delivery of a dead foal 300 or more days after conception?

Stillbirth

26

What is the correct term for a characteristic that appears only when both members of a pair genes are the same and is the opposite of dominant?

Recessive

27

What is the automatic suckling when a finger or nipple is placed in a newborn foal's mouth?

Suckle reflex (suck reflex)

28

What is the period of rapid follicle growth in the estrous cycle just prior to "heat" or estrus?

Proestrus

29

What is the large, brown, irregularity shaped, rubbery mass found in the allantoic fluid and is passed with the foal at birth?

Hippomane

30

What term describes the ability to pass outstanding characteristics to offspring?

Prepotency

31

What is a sudden variation that is later passed on through inheritance and results from changes in a gene or genes?

Mutation

32

What is a scientific name for a mature sex cell?

Gamete

33

Describe what is meant by the phrase, "the mare threw a colt".

Mare gave birth to a male foal

34

A gene characteristic that produces only one kind of gamete is called?

Homozygous dominant

35

What is a commercial substance used in a place of a mare's milk to raise a foal?

Milk replacer

36

What term is given to a mare that cycles continuously throughout the breeding season in absence of conception?

Polyestrus

37

Name the 3 different glands located along the urethra of the male horse that produce fluids to nourish and preserve the sperm.

Prostate gland, coppers gland (bulbourethral gland) and seminal vesicles

38

What is another name for an Entire?

Stallion

39

What term describes the fertilization of the egg and the very beginning stage of growth of the embryo inside the mare called?

Conception

40

What is the dominant gene that determines whether a horse will be a trotter or pacer?

Trotting gene

41

What is an inflammation of a joint due to the presence of bacteria or related infective agents and is usually found in newborn foals?

Joint ill (naval ill)

42

What is a period of sexual inactivity in the mare where there is absence of observable heat due to season, pregnancy, or other physical and psychological causes?

Anestrus

43

What type of selection is based on a combination of the merits of the individual and the average merits of his ancestry?

Pedigree breeding

44

What is neonate?

Newborn foal

45

What is the genetic defect that causes premature death in the fetus or newborn foal with a genotype of WW and is associated with Paints and Pintos?

Lethal white

46

What is the leg restraint used on mares being bred to keep them from kicking and injuring the stallion?

Breeding hobbles

47

What is a relatively common condition in which urine drips from the stump of the naval and the flow increases when the foal strains to urinate?

Patent Urachus

48

What does the term hemospermia mean?

The presence of blood in the sperm

49

What is the single most common cause of female infertility where there is air present in the vagina that often leads to infections?

Pneumovagina (wind sucking)

50

What is the produce of a dam?

Offspring of a female horse

51

What is the term for delivery in which the fetus' rump or hind feet are presented first in the birth canal?

Breech birth

52

What is the colorless liquid surrounding the fetus that contains acids, salts, cells and mucus?

Amniotic fluid

53

What the hymen?

Fold of mucous membrane that partially or completely covers the opening of the vagina

54

What follicle stimulating hormone may be detected in a blood test after 45 days of pregnancy and is derived from pregnant mare's blood serum or urine?

PMSG (pregnant mares serum gonadotropin)

55

What is the term for a foal that is being raised without his dam?

Orphan foal

56

What is agalactia?

Inability of the mare to produce milk

57

What is an inherited genetic condition that rarely causes the death of a horse after birth, but can have such an effect on the horse that it can restrict either its potential use or reduce the length of its life?

Partial lethal

58

What is copulation?

Sexual intercourse

59

What is a putty like mass of s e.g. a that collects in the urethral diverticulum of the penis?

Bean

60

What is the term for when part of the entire placenta has not passed after parturition?

Retained placenta

61

What is a bacterial infection of a mammary gland; causes swelling, pain and infected milk?

Mastitis

62

What test is used to help determine the parents of any particular horse by examining the red blood cells?

Blood typing

63

What is breeding 2 related individuals usually at least 2 or 3 generations removed to intensify the inheritance from a particular ancestor?

Line breeding

64

What is an inflammation of the vagina marked by pain and a purulent discharge?

Vaginitis

65

What is the grand dam of a horse?

The grandmother of a horse

66

What term describes the result of crossing two different species such as a mule or hinny?

Hybrid

67

What is the term for neutering a male horse?

Castration

68

What is the lining of the uterus called?

Endometrium

69

What is the short period of the estrous cycle between metestrus and proestrus that lasts about 14-15 days?

Diestrus

70

The progeny of a stallion is known as what?

Get

71

What is the later stage of individual development within the uterus which follows the embryo stage?

Fetus

72

What is the breeding of closely related animals usually done to bring out specific desirable traits?

Inbreeding

73

What are the 2 stages of development of an individual within the uterus?

Embryo and fetus

74

What is the term for a mares inability to produce milk such as when a mare grazes on fescue pasture during pregnancy ?

Agalactia