Flashcards in Section One Deck (422)
What is art history?
An academic discipline dedicated to the reconstruction of the social, cultural and economic contexts in which an object was created
What is the goal of Art History?
To understand the work of art and its meaning in its historical context, taking into consideration it's qualities, function, goals and intentions of artist and patron, social position and perspectives of the audiences
What disciplines is art history also related to?
Anthropology, history and sociology
Art history often overlaps...
Aesthetics and art criticism
What is aesthetics?
Philosophical inquiry into the nature or expression of beauty
What is art criticism?
Explanation of current art events to the general public via the press
In the past art historians limited thier focus to?
What does fine art include?
Paintings, prints, drawings, culture and architecture
What do art historians study today that was generally ignored in the past?
Crafts such as textiles, pottery and body art such as tattoos
Modern day art historians also include what in the category of art?
Mass-produced posters and advertisements, as well as design of ordinary objects
What differences influence the meaning of a work per person?
Social status, education, physical access to the work, religious background, race and gender
What are the two methods of art analysis?
Formal analysis and contextual analysis
What is formal analysis?
When it is assumed that the decisions that the artist makes about his work reveals something about the meaning. Requires excellent skills in observation. Also the object is the primary focus
What is contextual analysis?
When you look outside the work to determine its meaning. Focuses on social, cultural, religious and economic context in which the art is produced. Issues such as patronage, viewer access, physical location, cost and the relation of subject matter to other works
Archival sources include?
Letters between artist and Patron, documents relating to the commission and art criticism at the time of the works production
Who wrote Natural History?
Pliny the Elder
What was Natural History?
A book that analyzed historical and contemporary art
What did Giorgio Vasari write?
The Lives of the Artists
Who wrote The Lives of the Artists?
What is the Lives of the Artists?
A book that provides insights into the changing roles of artists in society during the Renaissance and the developing concept of artistic genius
Modern art was strongly influenced by what person?
Johann Joachim Winckelmann
What did Winckelmann shift to?
A rigorous study of stylistic development as related to historical context
Art history now includes viewpoints from?
Marxism, feminism and psychology
What is the oldest work of art studied?
The cave paintings in Chauvet Cave in southeastern France
When were the Chauvet Cave paintings discovered?
When were the Chauvet Cave paintings painted?
30,000 BC The Old Stone Age or Upper Paleolithic Period
What colors were used in the Chauvet Cave paintings?
Red ochre, black charcoal and minimal use of yellow
The Chauvet Cave paintings depict what animals?
Horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffaloes and mammoths
The later cave paintings 15,000 to 10,000 BC depict what animals?
Horses, bears, lions, bison, mammoths and outlines of human hands
The later cave paintings use what colors?
Red and yellow ochre as well as black charcoal
What is the name of the most famous nude female statues with exaggerated breasts, bellies and pubic areas?
Venus (woman) of Willendorf
What are the Venus of Willendorf's dimensions?
4 and 1/8 inches high
What is wrong with the Venus of Willendorf?
The facial features are undefined, the arms are barely visible and the feet are missing
When were the rock dwelling paintings in eastern Spain created?
7000 BC to 4000 BC Middle Stone Age or Mesolithic Period
What is the main difference between the rock paintings and the cave paintings?
The rock paintings show human figures, singly or in groups with an emphasis on dominating animals
What art form is most linked to the New Stone Age or Neolithic Period?
Rows or rings of rough hewn stones in Western Europe
The culture that created the stone rings were termed?
What is the most well known rock circle?
Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England
Describe how Stonehenge is formatted?
An outermost ring of sarson stones in a post and lintel construction, the next ring is comprised of bluestones encircling a horse-shoe shaped row of five lintel stopped sarson stones. Outside to the northeast is a vertical heel-stone that marks the point at which the sun rises on the midsummer solstice
Why are there so few examples of Mesopotamian Art?
Because there were few natural barriers to invasion and the Mesopotamian cultures used perishable materials in their art
When were the Sumerians creating sculptures and buildings in Mesopotamia?
When did Sargon of Akkad control Sumer?
What does Akkadian art emphasize?
The monarchy as depicted in free standing statues reliefs
When did Akkadian rule end?
What happened in 2100 BC?
Sumer took back power and began building ziggurats
Who was Hammurabi?
A Babylonian ruler who cemented power in 1792 BC and wrote his code of laws
What is the best known artwork from the Babylonian Period?
A stone stele with Hammurabi's code at the top and Hammurabi receiving inspiration for his code from the sun-god Shamash
Who dominated Mesopotamia in the north?
When were the Assyrians the most powerful?
900 to 600 BC
What are the most notable Assyrian artworks?
Relief carvings depicting battles, sieges, hunts and other important events
When were the Hanging Gardens of Babylon constructed?
During the Neo-Babylonian Period
What was the gateway to the temple of the ziggurat of Bel called?
Ishtar Gate which has aimal figures super imposed on a walled surface
What were the Persians notable for?
Architectural achievements including the Persepolis palace made out of stone, brick and wood
The Egyptian art is notable for?
The Sphinx, Giza pyramids, larger than life statues of the Pharaohs and the portrait head of Queen Nefertiti
Egyptian art uses what style?
Hierarchical which uses the statues of figures to determine their relative sizes in the art work
Describe the Palette of King Narmer?
A slab of stone depicting the King larger than all the other figures, holding the hair of a fallen enemy preparing for a death blow. Each figure is represented so that each body part is shown as clearly as possible
Why do we know a great deal about Egyptian art?
Because of excellent preservation techniques and the burial customs
What is the most famous tomb and why is it?
King Tutankhamen because his tomb wasn't broken into and robbed like most tombs
What is the most famous object from King Tut's tomb?
His burial mask
What three cultures flourished along the islands of the Aegean Sea, Crete and the Aegean Coast?
Cycladic, Minoan and Mycenaean
When was the Cycladic culture around?
3200 to 2000 BC
What figures are highly appealing to modern sensibilities?
Simplified, geometric nude female figures
What did the Cycladic's produce as well as the female sculptures?
Decorated pieces of pottery as well as marble bowls and jars
Where did the Minoan culture develop
On the island of Crete, centered around the city of Knossos
When did the Minoan's reach their peak of power?
Where did the legend of the Minotaur actually take place?
In the city of Knossos in the royal palace
What does the art of the Minoan culture depict?
Sea life and statues of a female snake goddess
What were the two major paintings forms that the Minoans painted?
Frescoes on palace walls and pottery designs
What were the Minoan architectural achievements?
Four major places, unfortified, light and organic in style
What do many historians believe happened to the Minoans?
That they were destroyed by the Myceneans
What did the Mycenaeans create?
Elaborate tombs, skilled relief sculptures and mastery of gold smithing
What was the difference between the Greek and Egyptian statues?
The Greek statues used the same frontal pose but were more dynamic and placed greater emphasis on depicting realistic human features
What materials did the Greeks use in scuplture?
Limestone and marble
What were the sculptures of the Early Classical Period characterized by?
Solemnity, strength and simplicity of form, often focusing on a figure the moment before or after an important action
The stiff frontal posture of the Archaic Period were abandoned during the Early Classical Period for?
More complex and life-like figures and positions
What was Contrapposto?
Counter positioning, a form where a standing figure has his weight on one for for a more relaxed pose
Greek sculpture set the standard for art during what movements?
Renaissance, Baroque and Necolassical
The Middle Classical Period is important due to the advances in?
Temples, such as the Parthenon which was destroyed by Persians and then rebuilt
Why did architecture decline in the Late Classical Period?
Because Athens was defeated during the Peloponnesian War
The Hellenistic Period saw a blending of what two styles?
Greek and Asian Minor styles
What works were notable from the Hellenistic Period?
Venus die Milo and the Lacoon Group
Etruscan art is seen as a transition between?
The ideals of the Greece to the pragmatic conerns of the Romans
Why are there no remaining Etruscan buildings?
Because they were built out of brick and wood
The only paintings from the Etruscan culture are?
Paintings on tombs that depict figures playing music and dancing during funeral celebrations painted in bright, flat colors
The Etruscan's were talented in?
The Roman sculptures and other artworks reflected the influence of what culture?
The discovery of what was a major contribution to architecture?
A modern day equivalent of concrete
The two buildings that can still be seen in Rome are?
The Colosseum and the Pantheon
What were Roman sculptures used in?
Funeral processions, the sculpture was the deceased family member, also on top of triumphal arches displaying Roman emperors or military victories. In each case the idealized portrait of the man was presented based on Roman ideals
What art form is best known from the Byzantine Empire?
The mosaic where small ceramic tiles or other material were set into a ground to make large murals
Mosaics are largely from what religion?
What Byzantine work is considered one of the greatest architectural achievements in history?
The Hagia Sophia
During the medieval era art was generally preserved by the...
During the Medieval Era books were confined to...
The books held in monasteries helped to do what?
Help facilitate the spread of artistic ideals between Northern and Southern Europe
Two notable examples of books were?
The Book of Kells and The Coronation Gospels
The art of the early Germanic peoples is notable for their?
Metalwork that was abstract, decorative and geometric often taking the form of small-scale portable jewelry or ornaments made of bronze, silver or gold and covered with patterns of jewels
What was the most important medium to the Vikings?
The blending of the artistic styles of the Vikings, Anglo-Saxons and Celtic Ireland formed a style called?
In later medieval art the architecture of what became the dominant art form?
The style of church architecture that uses a Roman arch is called?
What is one famous example of a Romanesque Church?
Saint-Sernin in Toulouse, France
A tunnel of arches is called a?
Because of the massive walls to support the heavy stone arches the buildings window and door openings were usually?
Kept small and decorated with cavings or relief sculpture
The Gothic Style was popular between?
The first half of the 12th century and into the 16the century
The use of pointed arches caused what in architecture?
The eye to be drawn upward and towards heaven
What was the purpose of the flying buttress?
To counterattack the downward and outward pressure of the arches
A classical example of a Gothic Cathedral is?
Chartres Cathedral in France
The artist most mentioned with the transition between Goth and Renaissance was?
A Florentine named Giotto di bondone who was known for his frescoes?
What was the key advance that was visible in Giotto's work was his use of?
The simple perspective by overlapping and modeling his figures in the round
Giotto was different from many Gothic works as he?
Gave his figures powerful gestures and emotional expressions
Who were major patrons of the arts during the Renaissance and why?
The wealthy families because the invention of paper money allowed vast private fortuens to be accumulated
Why did Greek and Roman works have such a tremendous impact on the Renaissance?
Because these works were readily accessible in Italy
Unlike with the Greeks where artists were considered artisans, the Renaissance artists were recognized as?
Who won the competition in Florence for the doors of the new baptistery?
Lorenzo Ghiberti who had the design of Isaac as Classical Greek figure being sacrificed. It was so popular he made a second set of doors that Michelangelo dubbed the Gates of Paridise
What were the Gates of Paradise?
The second set of doors the Lorenzo Ghiberti designed
Who received the second place award?
How did Brunelleschi complete the dome of the Florence cathedral?
By using a double-shelled dome design
Brunelleschi is credited with developing what perspective?
Linear or single vanishing point perspective
Who put the linear perspective into practice?
Masaccio who used both linear and arieal perspective in his frescoes
Who is considered the founder of modern sculpture?
What was the first free standing nude since antiquity?
A bronze David by Donatello
What was the name of the painting that established a vision of female beauty and was the first full length nude female since antiquity?
The Birth of Venus by Botticelli
What were the two models for the term Renaissance Man?
Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci was known as?
An architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, scientist and musician
What two paintings are so well known that they have become hallmarks of modern culture?
The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa
What does sfumato mean and what does it do?
It means smoke and it blends forms subtly into one another without any perceptible transitions
Who took a flawed piece of marble and turned into his version of David?
Michelangelo di Buonarotti
What were the three paintings that Michelangelo created for Pope Julius II'S tomb?
Moses, the Dying Slave and the Bound Slave
After Pope Julius II cancelled his tomb what did he commission Michelangelo to do?
Decorate the 700 square yard roof of the Sistine Chapel
Who was one of the most inluential painters of the High Renaissance?
What was the School of Athens?
A homage to the great Greek scientists and philosophers
What was the Sistine Madanna?
A painting of the Virgin Mar that has endured in religious paintings through the centuries
Who was credited with making innovations in the subject matter of landscapes?
What was the different about the Tempest?
Giorgione made the landscape the subject and painted that first
Who was well known for his paintings of his patrons and was recognized as the greatest colorists of the Renaissance artists?
Who was often linked with the artistic style known as Mannerism?
What are Mannerist works characterized by?
Distortion of certain elements such as scale and are often recognizable by use of acidic colors and twisted positioning of their subjects
What is chiaroscuro?
The dramatic contrasts of light and dark hat heightens the emotional impact of the subject
What was the impact of the Reformation on art?
A move away from the richly decorated churches and religious imagery
What did the Church do in response to the Reformation?
Launch the Counter Reformation
What was the Counter Reformation?
A re-emphasis on lavish decoration and art of a highly dramatic and emotional nature
Who was on e of the artists most closely associated with the Counter Reformation?
Dominikos Theotokopoulos a.k.a. El Greco
What was the difference in art in the North from South Europe?
The North's art was smaller and displayed a greater degree of realistic detail than the South
Why was the influence of classical antiquity much less prominent in the North than the South?
Because the North had less access to the classical works located in Italy
What are two ways that influences from the South spread to the North?
Through engravings and through trade between German and Venetian merchants
What two artist are considered the greatest artists of the Renaissance in Northern Europe?
Matthias Grunewald and Albrecht Drurer
What is Grunewald known for?
Religious scenes and his depiction of Christ's crucifixion as well the Isenheim Alterpiece, a work with nine panels on two sets of folding wings
What is considered Grunewald's greatest masterpiece?
The Isenheim Altarpiece
What did Albrecht Druerer aim to do?
Achieve a style that combined the naturalistic ideals favored by the North with the theoretical ideals from the Italians
Who created the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse?
What German artist is known as one of the Renaissance's greatest portraitists?
Hans Holbein the Younger
Who was the court painter of King Henry VIII and showed talent for presenting details and capturing the psychological character of his troops?
Hans Holbein the Younger
When was the Baroque Era?
Late 16th century to mid 18th century
What was the difference between the Renaissance and Baroque artworks?
Baroque artworks are less static and characterized by a greater sense of movement and energy
What were the most powerful rules of their time in the Baroque Era?
Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, Peter and Catherine the Great of Russia, and King Louis XIV of France
What has the word Baroque come to represent?
A richness of color and ornamentation that heightened the motion and energy of the work
What Italian painter was well known for his dramatic use of the contrast between light and dark which influenced other artists?
The extreme contrast between light and dark coined the term?
Why did several of Caravaggio's patrons reject his works?
Because he used naturalism in his paintings
What was the name of the main female Baroque artist?
Artemisia Gentileschi 1593-1652
What is Gentileshi known for?
Self portraits and paintings of Olde Testament women
Who was the most important Baroque artist?
Gianlorenzo Bernini 1598-1680
What was Bernini?
A painter, architect and draftsman
What was Bernini's most important masterpiece?
The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
Who established a huge workshop in Flanders and produced great works of color and energy?
Peter Paul Rubens 1577-1640
Who was recognized as one of the greatest draftsmen ever?
Rembrandt van Rijn
What was Rembrandt's best known work?
Night Watch, also known as The Sortie of Captain Banning Coq's Company of the Civic Guard
What was different in the structure of Rembrandt's Night Watch?
Rembrandt grouped the members in a way that showed more attention to others
Where is it argued that the Baroque Period reached its peak?
When was Versailles started?
What was at Versailles?
A stable, a greenhouse, zoo, a system of fountains and waterfalls and a grand canal for mock sea battles
What was the system for choosing and supporting artists called in France?
What was the Academy also known as?
Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture
What other court tried to emulate France?
The Spanish court of King Philip IV of Spain
Velazquez laid the foundations for the movement known as?
What was the Rococo style characterized by?
Gaiety, romance and the frivolity of life at the Court of Versaillles
What three artists are considered masters of the Rococo style?
Jean-Antoine Watteau, Francis Boucher, Honore Fragonard
Who was the leader of a new generation and the new genre of painting called fete galante?
What did the style of fete galante depict?
Members of the nobility in elegant contemporary dress enjoying leisure time in the countryside
Who was the favorite painter of King Louis XIV'S mistress Madame Pompdour?
What did Francis Boucher paint?
The characters of classical myth in scenes of courtly gallantry with an emphasis on nubile nudes
How did the Revolution of 1789 in France impact the art of the time?
Art intrest was revived on Ancient Greece and Rome
What style reflected a revival of interest in the art of classical Greece and Rome?
Whose work epitomized the work of Neoclassicism?
Jacques Louis David
Which painting by Jacques Louis David epitomized Republican virtues?
The Oath of the Horatti
Under what leader did Jacques Louis David create large propagandistic canvases?
Who was Jacques Louis David's pupil?
Jean Dominique Ingres
Who's sharp outlines, unemotional figures and careful geometric composition and rational order are hallmarks of the Neoclassical style?
Jean Dominique Ingres
Who was a proponent of Romanticism?
What are Romantic works characterized by?
Exotic or melodramatic elements awe inspiring natural wonders, highly imaginative and an emotional and dreamlike quality
What are Eugene Delacroix's works characterized by?
Exotic themes, foreign settings, violence involving animals and historical subject matter
What ideas were the realists inspired by?
The idea that the painting must illustrate all the features of its subjects including the negative ones
What artist most forcibly represented the Realist movement?
The wrok that showed a pair of ordinary workers repairing a road was known as?
Realism can be seen in the works of what two artists beside Courbet?
Honore Daumier and Jean Francois Millet
Who is considered the first Impressionist?
What work by Manet was rejected by the Salon?
Luncheon on the Grass
What was wrong with Luncheon on the Grass?
It showed a nude woman with clothed men
What was the source of the Impressionist movements name?
Claude Monet's painting Impression Sunrise
What technical advances helped the Impressionists?
Advances in portable mediums and brushes
What are two notable Impressionists?
Camille Pissarro and Alfred Sisley
How did Paul Cezanne suggest that a painting could be formed?
That it could be structured as a series of planes with clear foreground, middle ground and background and that each object could be reduced to the basic forms, cube, sphere or cone
The work of Georges Seurat placed an emphasis on?
Scientific rules of color by use of small dots of complementary colors in a technique called optical mixing
Vincent Van Gogh set about?
Capturing the bright lights of southern France
Van Gogh believed what about an artist's colors?
That they portray inner human emotions
The intense and jarring yellows, greens and reds of what work by Van Gogh illustrated his ideas about color?
What French artists beside Van Gogh showed a search for intense light and clear color in his work?
Paul Gauguin wen to what island in search for a more unschooled style?
Impressionists were impacted by art materials from what two parts of the world?
Africa and Japan
Where did the Pre-Raphaelites start?
The Pre-Raphaelites paved the way for what style?
Henri Matisse and other artists used such intense colors that they were given the term?
Fauves or wild beasts
What two artists started Cubism?
Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque
The Cubists were influenced by which type of art?
What was the name of the group of German artist?
Die Brucke or the bridge
Die Brucke included what German artists?
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Emil Nolde
What two Expressionist groups were in Germany?
Die Brucke and Die Blaue Reiter
What artists were in Die Blaue Reiter?
Vasily Kandinsky painted what?
Totally abstract pictures without any pictorial subject
Pioneers of total abstraction included?
Kazimir Malevich and Piet Mondrian
The American scene of art was widely ignored until what?
The Armory Show in 1913
What three artists and paintings shocked viewers at the Armory Show?
Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase, Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and Branscusi's The Kiss
What American movement occurred during the 1920's?
The Harlem Renaissance
What artists were inspired by the Harlem Renaissance?
Jacob Lawrence, Romare Bearden
What movement originated in Zurich out of disillusinoed artists and intellectuals?
The Dada movement
What artists was representative of Dada?
Marcel Duchamp created what two works?
LHOOQ and Fountain
The goal of the Dada movement was to do what?
Protests against everything in society and to lampoon and ridicule accepted values and norms
Duchamp created a new stle of art called what?
Picasso took up this ready make idea with what work?
The group of artists who were influenced by Sigmund Freud?
What artists were from the Surrealist movement?
Salvidor Dali, Rene Magritte and Joan Miro
What was the school of design in German that became a byword of modern design?
What Bauhaus artist left Germany and moved to the United States?
In the 1950's New York's art scene was dominated by what two critics?
Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenberg
The Abstract Expressionist followed what dictum?
Kandinsky's dictum that art could be free from the limitations of pictorial subject matter
What artists were apart of the Abstract Expressionist movement?
Wilem de Kooning, Lee Krasner, Franze Kilne and Jackson Pollock
What two categories did Abstract Expressionist fall into?
Action paintings with dramatic brushstrokes or color field paintings which featured broad areas of color
ho were two well-known color field artists?
Mark Rothko and Josef Albers
Jasper Johns created a series of works which feature what?
Common things such as flags, numbers, maps and letters
Robert Ruchenberg created sculptures called combines from what?
Cast off objects
Who created Bed and Monogram and what were they?
Robert Rauschenberg. Bed was his own bedclothes painted and Monogram was a series of found everyday items
What were three Pop Artists and what did they do?
Andy Worhal who mocked the art world with soup cans and the like; Roy Lichtenstein who adopted comic book imagery on the big scale and Robert Indiana who used stencils to create artistic messages
The Minimalist movement attempted to do what?
Reduce art to it bare essentials in form and monochromatic palettes
Who were three Minimalist artists?
Frank Stella, David Smith and Dan Flavin
Photorealism depicted the subject how?
In sharp detail
Who were two Photorealists?
Chuck Close and Duane Hanson
What partner team of Earthwork artists have wrapped monuments in fabric, surrounded islands in Florida?
Christo and Jeanne-Claude
What is Performance Art?
A combination of theatre and art in which the artists themselves become the work
Who are the Guerrilla Girls?
A New York all girls group that uses guerrilla style tactics to challenge an art world dominated by men
Postmodern works do what?
Return to earlier styles, periods and often question the morals and beliefs of society
Who suggested that one of the functions of art was decoration?
What is the most famous work of Chinese art?
The Great Wall of China
What is the monument to Emperor Qin?
A giant tomb complete with a full army of soldiers and their equipment
In 1949 how did art change in China?
It became a political device under the communist regime
During China's Tang Era artists produced?
Some of the greatest works of ceramic sculpture ever
Remains of painted wares in China have been found that date back to?
To the fourth millenium BC
How long is the Chinese Great Wall?
Two thousand miles long
Many dynasty rulers left behind tombs that became?
Great treasures of art
To which Chinese Emperor did the Terra cotta Army belong to?
The Chinese dynasties succeeding the Qin are notable for?
Bronze statues and ceremonial vessels
What religion introduced from where had a profound impact on Chinese culture?
Buddhism from India
What dynasty is referred to as China's Golden Age?
The Tang Dynasty
Chinese art places great value on what kind of drawings?
When was the People's Republic of China founded?
In the People's Republic of China art was used as?
A propaganda tool
How many different languages and dialects are spoken in India?
Indian art reflects the influence of what religion?
What Hindu god has multiple arms?
Indian art was influenced by what three cultures?
Hinduism, Buddhism and Greece
Hindu art caused what kind of style?
A lovely, lively and sinuous style
What did Japan do during the Impressionist movement in Europe?
Send artists to France
The artists who went to France used what kind of style when they went back to Japan?
Linear perspective and the color and subjects of Impressionists
What are the Japanese artists best known for?
What is the oldest example of cave paintings?
Cave paintings from Namibia
What is the Nok civilization known for?
Fantastically life-like sculptures of religious and political figures
What was the Benin Kingdom known for?
Cast bronze portrait head who showed the tremendous power of the Benin king
Why are there so few examples of African Art?
Due to the use of perishable materials, as the European colonization
What two African cultures were well-known for their impressive masks?
The Dan and the Bwa
What kind of Polynesian art form has been lost throughout the centuries?
What were the Amats known for in art?
Enormous carved wooden shields
What are some of the most valuable pieces of Islamic art?
Copies of the Qu'ran and containers for the sacred book
What are the art of the Americas known for?
The giant pyramids that rival the pyramids in Egypt
Why do medieval churches have high arched ceilings?
To draw the eye upward and toward heaven
What does formal analysis require excellent skills in?
Observation and description
What does art history emphasize with the assumption that the work of one generation of artists will have an impact on following generations?
What do art historians begin their analysis of a work with?
A close examination of the work of art
Modern art was strongly influenced by what movement?
18th century Enlightenment philosophy
Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries what did art history develop approaches to?
Approaches that placed an increasing emphasis on an understanding of the interrelationship between the formal qualities of a work of art and its context
What particular group of art historians have revised art history?
What group of people is traditional art history focused on?
White men wether as artists or as patrons
What two conditions have an impact on wether or not a work of art survived?
The environmental conditions and wether or not the object is made of enduring materials
What materials are considered enduring?
Stone, metal or fired clay
What are two examples of perishable materials?
Wood or fibers
What country's desert climate was particularly suited for preserving materials?
What is one reason that historians have focused so much on art history from the Western World?
Because of its good conditions for object survivable opposed to other regions
Why are civilizations in art history studied opposed to other's?
Because they are the civilizations whose art survived and has been discovered
Who created the cave paintings of Lascaux and Altamira?
Skilled artists working within an established tradition
Where are the most famous of the later cave paintings ( 15,000 to 10,000 BC)?
Lascaux and Altamira
What do scholars think the Venus of Wilendorf was used for?
Fertility figures both their exact method of use is unknown
In what cave is the only human figure painted in a cave from the Middle Stone Age painted?
In the Lascaux cave
What are the specifications of the Stonehenge rocks?
17 feet high and fifty tons in weight
What does Megalith mean?
What is sarson?
A form of sandstone
Why is the story of Mesopotamia one of conquest and destruction?
Because it lacked the natural barriers of deserts and mountains that protected Egypt
What was the central aspect of Sumerian life?
Where is the Code of Hammurabi displayed and preserved?
In the Louvre
What is one of the greatest architecture in which figures are superimposed on a walled surface?
The Ishtar Gate, which was the gaeway to the temple of Bel
Who conquered Egypt in 332 BC?
Alexander the Great
What dynasty's composed Egypt's Old Kingdom?
What is fractional representation?
A technique in which each part of the body is shown as clearly as possible and was used by the Egyptians in the Palette of King Narmer
When was King Tutenkhamen's tomb discovered?
What is the least ornate column?
What is the only column that does not have a base?
What is a Corinthian style of vase?
A vase in which figures are set against a floral ornamented background
What are Athenian style vases?
Vases that used black figures but are larger and more linear in scale then the Corinthian vases
What are red figure vases?
Vases that have red figures standing out against a black background
What style of columns were used during the Early Classical Period?
Slim, Doric columns
What were the bridges and aqueducts used for in Rome?
A paved road system
What was the result of the Romans paved road system?
Very effective communication and control
What is the best example of a Byzantine mosaic?
The great churches of Ravenna
Why was the art of the medieval era preserved in the Church?
Because it was a time of great strife and the only place that was safe was the church
What was the international language during the Medieval Period?
What were books from the Medieval Period copied on?
Vellum or parchment
What did the Vikings do with wood as an art form?
They created wood sculptures for their ships
What were Romanesque churches?
Stone vaulted buildings that often replaced earlier churches that had highly flammable roofs
What is a vault?
An arch-shaped structure that is used as a ceiling or as a support to a roof
What is a ribbed vault?
A framework of thin stone ribs, or arches built under the intersection of the vaulted sections of the ceiling
What family accumulated great wealth during the Renaissance?
The Medeci family
Who called Lorenzo Ghiberti's second set of door panels the Gates of Paradise?
What design by Michelangelo is still used today?
His design for the locks that control movements along canals from one level to another
What technique is used in Mona Lisa ?
When did Pope Julius II commission Michelangelo to design his tomb?
In what city was the competition for a statue made from marble held?
What did Michelangelo's David embody?
The spirit of Florence as a Republic
What was one of the greatest disappointments in Michelangelo's career?
When Pope Julius II cancelled his commission for his funeral for unknown reason
How long did it take Michelangelo to complete the Sistine Chapel?
What controversy emerged over the Sistine Chapel?
Wether it should have been cleaned or not
Who gave Raphael Sanzio several commission?
Pope Julius II
What did Sanzio and Michelangelo have in common?
THey were both commissioned by Pope Julius II
What city besides Rome and Florence saw a flowering of the arts during the Renaissance?
How is it said that Tintoretto achieved great drama in his works?
By making small models and manipulating them to he had created the most dramatic effect
What can the works of El Greco be seen as?
Transitional works bridging the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque Period
How many works by Grunewald have survived?
Just ten works
Who is the most famous artist of Reformation Germany?
Whose works set the standard for English painting up through the 19th century?
Hans Holbein the Younger
What movement influenced the Baroque art?
The Counter Reformation
What Enlightenment author protested the disparity of wealth between the nobles and the peasants?
Who showed the Virgin Mar and apostles as poor peasants rather than noble figures in classical garb?
How did Artemisia Gentileschi gain artistic experience?
By studying in her father's studio
When did Bernini receive recognition from the Pope?
When he was 17 years old
Describe Bernini's Ecxtasy of St. Teresa?
Set into the altar of the Cornaro Chapel the space includes a concealed stained glass window that bathed the figure of the saint in dramatic gold lighting as if she was on stage
Who had a background in theater during the Baroque Period?
Who pushed the use of marble to new limits by trying to make stone look like real fabric and even clouds?
Gianlorenzo Bernini 1598-1680
What caused a decline in Rembrandt's career and ultimately led to his death in poverty?
His decision to break with the tradition of giving paying patrons equal importance in a work of art
What two artistic things did Louis XIV create?
The Salon and the Acaemy
How did Diego Velazquez build his figures?
From patches of color rather than starting from a drawing
What type of government was installed in France after the revolution of 1789?
A democratic republic
Who initially created art for revolutionary mass rallies only to later pain propagandistic canvases for Napoleon Bonaparte?
Jacques Louis David 1748-1825
Who was Jean Dominique Ingres's rival?
What do Neoclassical works emphasize?
Line, order and a cool detachment
Who were Theodore Gericault 1791-1824 and William Blake 1757-1827?
Important Romantic artists
What movement was a response to Neoclassicism and Romanticism?
Who created the Stonebreakers?
Gustave Courbet 1819-77
In what salon was Luncheon on the Grass?
The Salon des Refusés
What Post-Impressionist was a successful stockbroker?
What did the die Brucke artists attempt to do with art?
Combine the brilliant arbitrary colors of the Fauvists and combined them with the intense feelings found in the work of the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch
Who created The Kiss?
What is the basic assumption of formal analysis?
That the artist makes decisions about the artwork that can reveal to us something about the meaning
When did art history arise as an academic discipline?
In the 1750's
The artists working on the Lascaux and Altamire cave paintings were...?
Skilled artists working within an established tradition
What was the Middle Stone Age also known as?
The Mesolithic Period
When did Earth's climate rise?
During the Middle Stone Age
What was the New Stone Age also known as?
The Neolithic Period
What are the dimensions of the stones used in Stonehenge?
17 feet high and 50 tons in weight
What was the culture that created the stone megaliths known as?
What was the problem with the Akkadian's trying to assimilate Sumerian culture?
They spoke a different language
How is the body shown in fractional representation?
The eye in frontal view, the torso in full frontal view, and the lower body, legs and feet in profile
Where does Nubia lie in relation to Egypt?
South of Egypt
When was teh Early Classical Period?
When was the Classical Period?
When was the Middle Classical Period?
When was the Late Classical Period?
400 to 323 BC
In what war was Athens defeated?
The Peloponnesian War
When was the Hellenstic Period?
331 to 323 BC
Etruscan's produced columns in the fashion of?
What two mediums did the Etruscans use for artifacts in their tombs?
Clay and bronze
When was the early medieval period?
375 to 1025 AD
When was the late medieval period?
What is a flying buttresses?
The use of additional bracing material and arches placed on the exterior of a building
When was the competition for the design of the Florence Cathedral?
In 1400 AD
What were artists considered by the Greek?
Where was Michelangelo's David designed to be placed?
High on the facade of the cathedral in Florence
What was the difference between Tintoretto and the Mannerists?
His use of color schemes
Tintoretto's later spiritual works are said to anticipate the?
When was the Mannerist style popular?
Where did El Greco work with Titian?
In 1576 El Greco left Italy for?
What style was much of the European art north of the Alps during the Renaissance?
What technique did Baroque painters make use of?
Who united all of France?
Neoclassicism was influenced by what philosophy?
Who developed the idea that the artist's colors should be intensified to portray inner human emotions and not imitate the world?
Vincent Van Gogh
Who left his job as a successful stockbroker and his family for art?
Who did Gauguin work with in southern France?
What invention called into question the very need to capture ordinary reality in art?
The invention of the camera
Why did the Cubists prefer African art of European art?
Because they imagined African Art to be more intuitive and closer to nature
Who arranged the New York Armory Show?
The Barnes Foundation
What two artists made ready-made works?
Duchamp and Picasso
What dictum did the Abstract Expressionists follow?
What was Kandinsky's dictum?
That art like music could be free from the limitations of pictorial subject matter
What offered a clear contrast to sfumato?
Who built a 24 mile long cloth fence in California?
Who surrounded eleven Florida islands with pink plastic?C
Who set up orange fabric gates on Central Park pathways?
Who was Christo's partner?
What does Jeanne-Claude do with Christo?
He handles the logistical details while Christo develops the ideas
Postmodernist art was a reaction to?
Modernist art obviously
Who is a leading Postmodernist in architecture?
Before Philip Johnson was a proponent of Postmodernism he was a leading modern architect of what style?
The International Style