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What is art history?

An academic discipline dedicated to the reconstruction of the social, cultural and economic contexts in which an object was created

1

What is the goal of Art History?

To understand the work of art and its meaning in its historical context, taking into consideration it's qualities, function, goals and intentions of artist and patron, social position and perspectives of the audiences

2

What disciplines is art history also related to?

Anthropology, history and sociology

3

Art history often overlaps...

Aesthetics and art criticism

4

What is aesthetics?

Philosophical inquiry into the nature or expression of beauty

5

What is art criticism?

Explanation of current art events to the general public via the press

6

In the past art historians limited thier focus to?

Fine art

7

What does fine art include?

Paintings, prints, drawings, culture and architecture

8

What do art historians study today that was generally ignored in the past?

Crafts such as textiles, pottery and body art such as tattoos

9

Modern day art historians also include what in the category of art?

Mass-produced posters and advertisements, as well as design of ordinary objects

10

What differences influence the meaning of a work per person?

Social status, education, physical access to the work, religious background, race and gender

11

What are the two methods of art analysis?

Formal analysis and contextual analysis

12

What is formal analysis?

When it is assumed that the decisions that the artist makes about his work reveals something about the meaning. Requires excellent skills in observation. Also the object is the primary focus

13

What is contextual analysis?

When you look outside the work to determine its meaning. Focuses on social, cultural, religious and economic context in which the art is produced. Issues such as patronage, viewer access, physical location, cost and the relation of subject matter to other works

14

Archival sources include?

Letters between artist and Patron, documents relating to the commission and art criticism at the time of the works production

15

Who wrote Natural History?

Pliny the Elder

16

What was Natural History?

A book that analyzed historical and contemporary art

17

What did Giorgio Vasari write?

The Lives of the Artists

18

Who wrote The Lives of the Artists?

Giorgio Vasari

19

What is the Lives of the Artists?

A book that provides insights into the changing roles of artists in society during the Renaissance and the developing concept of artistic genius

20

Modern art was strongly influenced by what person?

Johann Joachim Winckelmann

21

What did Winckelmann shift to?

A rigorous study of stylistic development as related to historical context

22

Art history now includes viewpoints from?

Marxism, feminism and psychology

23

What is the oldest work of art studied?

The cave paintings in Chauvet Cave in southeastern France

24

When were the Chauvet Cave paintings discovered?

1994

25

When were the Chauvet Cave paintings painted?

30,000 BC The Old Stone Age or Upper Paleolithic Period

26

What colors were used in the Chauvet Cave paintings?

Red ochre, black charcoal and minimal use of yellow

27

The Chauvet Cave paintings depict what animals?

Horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffaloes and mammoths

28

The later cave paintings 15,000 to 10,000 BC depict what animals?

Horses, bears, lions, bison, mammoths and outlines of human hands

29

The later cave paintings use what colors?

Red and yellow ochre as well as black charcoal

30

What is the name of the most famous nude female statues with exaggerated breasts, bellies and pubic areas?

Venus (woman) of Willendorf

31

What are the Venus of Willendorf's dimensions?

4 and 1/8 inches high

32

What is wrong with the Venus of Willendorf?

The facial features are undefined, the arms are barely visible and the feet are missing

33

When were the rock dwelling paintings in eastern Spain created?

7000 BC to 4000 BC Middle Stone Age or Mesolithic Period

34

What is the main difference between the rock paintings and the cave paintings?

The rock paintings show human figures, singly or in groups with an emphasis on dominating animals

35

What art form is most linked to the New Stone Age or Neolithic Period?

Rows or rings of rough hewn stones in Western Europe

36

The culture that created the stone rings were termed?

Mesolithic

37

What is the most well known rock circle?

Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England

38

Describe how Stonehenge is formatted?

An outermost ring of sarson stones in a post and lintel construction, the next ring is comprised of bluestones encircling a horse-shoe shaped row of five lintel stopped sarson stones. Outside to the northeast is a vertical heel-stone that marks the point at which the sun rises on the midsummer solstice

39

Why are there so few examples of Mesopotamian Art?

Because there were few natural barriers to invasion and the Mesopotamian cultures used perishable materials in their art

40

When were the Sumerians creating sculptures and buildings in Mesopotamia?

4000 BC

41

When did Sargon of Akkad control Sumer?

2333 BC

42

What does Akkadian art emphasize?

The monarchy as depicted in free standing statues reliefs

43

When did Akkadian rule end?

2150 BC

44

What happened in 2100 BC?

Sumer took back power and began building ziggurats

45

Who was Hammurabi?

A Babylonian ruler who cemented power in 1792 BC and wrote his code of laws

46

What is the best known artwork from the Babylonian Period?

A stone stele with Hammurabi's code at the top and Hammurabi receiving inspiration for his code from the sun-god Shamash

47

Who dominated Mesopotamia in the north?

The Assyrians

48

When were the Assyrians the most powerful?

900 to 600 BC

49

What are the most notable Assyrian artworks?

Relief carvings depicting battles, sieges, hunts and other important events

50

When were the Hanging Gardens of Babylon constructed?

During the Neo-Babylonian Period

51

What was the gateway to the temple of the ziggurat of Bel called?

Ishtar Gate which has aimal figures super imposed on a walled surface

52

What were the Persians notable for?

Architectural achievements including the Persepolis palace made out of stone, brick and wood

53

The Egyptian art is notable for?

The Sphinx, Giza pyramids, larger than life statues of the Pharaohs and the portrait head of Queen Nefertiti

54

Egyptian art uses what style?

Hierarchical which uses the statues of figures to determine their relative sizes in the art work

55

Describe the Palette of King Narmer?

A slab of stone depicting the King larger than all the other figures, holding the hair of a fallen enemy preparing for a death blow. Each figure is represented so that each body part is shown as clearly as possible

56

Why do we know a great deal about Egyptian art?

Because of excellent preservation techniques and the burial customs

57

What is the most famous tomb and why is it?

King Tutankhamen because his tomb wasn't broken into and robbed like most tombs

58

What is the most famous object from King Tut's tomb?

His burial mask

59

What three cultures flourished along the islands of the Aegean Sea, Crete and the Aegean Coast?

Cycladic, Minoan and Mycenaean

60

When was the Cycladic culture around?

3200 to 2000 BC

61

What figures are highly appealing to modern sensibilities?

Simplified, geometric nude female figures

62

What did the Cycladic's produce as well as the female sculptures?

Decorated pieces of pottery as well as marble bowls and jars

63

Where did the Minoan culture develop

On the island of Crete, centered around the city of Knossos

64

When did the Minoan's reach their peak of power?

200 BC

65

Where did the legend of the Minotaur actually take place?

In the city of Knossos in the royal palace

66

What does the art of the Minoan culture depict?

Sea life and statues of a female snake goddess

67

What were the two major paintings forms that the Minoans painted?

Frescoes on palace walls and pottery designs

68

What were the Minoan architectural achievements?

Four major places, unfortified, light and organic in style

69

What do many historians believe happened to the Minoans?

That they were destroyed by the Myceneans

70

What did the Mycenaeans create?

Elaborate tombs, skilled relief sculptures and mastery of gold smithing

71

What was the difference between the Greek and Egyptian statues?

The Greek statues used the same frontal pose but were more dynamic and placed greater emphasis on depicting realistic human features

72

What materials did the Greeks use in scuplture?

Limestone and marble

73

What were the sculptures of the Early Classical Period characterized by?

Solemnity, strength and simplicity of form, often focusing on a figure the moment before or after an important action

74

The stiff frontal posture of the Archaic Period were abandoned during the Early Classical Period for?

More complex and life-like figures and positions

75

What was Contrapposto?

Counter positioning, a form where a standing figure has his weight on one for for a more relaxed pose

76

Greek sculpture set the standard for art during what movements?

Renaissance, Baroque and Necolassical

77

The Middle Classical Period is important due to the advances in?

Temples, such as the Parthenon which was destroyed by Persians and then rebuilt

78

Why did architecture decline in the Late Classical Period?

Because Athens was defeated during the Peloponnesian War

79

The Hellenistic Period saw a blending of what two styles?

Greek and Asian Minor styles

80

What works were notable from the Hellenistic Period?

Venus die Milo and the Lacoon Group

81

Etruscan art is seen as a transition between?

The ideals of the Greece to the pragmatic conerns of the Romans

82

Why are there no remaining Etruscan buildings?

Because they were built out of brick and wood

83

The only paintings from the Etruscan culture are?

Paintings on tombs that depict figures playing music and dancing during funeral celebrations painted in bright, flat colors

84

The Etruscan's were talented in?

Bronze work

85

The Roman sculptures and other artworks reflected the influence of what culture?

The Greeks

86

The discovery of what was a major contribution to architecture?

A modern day equivalent of concrete

87

The two buildings that can still be seen in Rome are?

The Colosseum and the Pantheon

88

What were Roman sculptures used in?

Funeral processions, the sculpture was the deceased family member, also on top of triumphal arches displaying Roman emperors or military victories. In each case the idealized portrait of the man was presented based on Roman ideals

89

What art form is best known from the Byzantine Empire?

The mosaic where small ceramic tiles or other material were set into a ground to make large murals

90

Mosaics are largely from what religion?

Christian

91

What Byzantine work is considered one of the greatest architectural achievements in history?

The Hagia Sophia

92

During the medieval era art was generally preserved by the...

Church

93

During the Medieval Era books were confined to...

The monasteries

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The books held in monasteries helped to do what?

Help facilitate the spread of artistic ideals between Northern and Southern Europe

95

Two notable examples of books were?

The Book of Kells and The Coronation Gospels

96

The art of the early Germanic peoples is notable for their?

Metalwork that was abstract, decorative and geometric often taking the form of small-scale portable jewelry or ornaments made of bronze, silver or gold and covered with patterns of jewels

97

What was the most important medium to the Vikings?

Wood

98

The blending of the artistic styles of the Vikings, Anglo-Saxons and Celtic Ireland formed a style called?

Hiberno-Saxon

99

In later medieval art the architecture of what became the dominant art form?

Churches

100

The style of church architecture that uses a Roman arch is called?

Romanesque

101

What is one famous example of a Romanesque Church?

Saint-Sernin in Toulouse, France

102

A tunnel of arches is called a?

Barrel Cault

103

Because of the massive walls to support the heavy stone arches the buildings window and door openings were usually?

Kept small and decorated with cavings or relief sculpture

104

The Gothic Style was popular between?

The first half of the 12th century and into the 16the century

105

The use of pointed arches caused what in architecture?

The eye to be drawn upward and towards heaven

106

What was the purpose of the flying buttress?

To counterattack the downward and outward pressure of the arches

107

A classical example of a Gothic Cathedral is?

Chartres Cathedral in France

108

The artist most mentioned with the transition between Goth and Renaissance was?

A Florentine named Giotto di bondone who was known for his frescoes?

109

What was the key advance that was visible in Giotto's work was his use of?

The simple perspective by overlapping and modeling his figures in the round

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Giotto was different from many Gothic works as he?

Gave his figures powerful gestures and emotional expressions

111

Who were major patrons of the arts during the Renaissance and why?

The wealthy families because the invention of paper money allowed vast private fortuens to be accumulated

112

Why did Greek and Roman works have such a tremendous impact on the Renaissance?

Because these works were readily accessible in Italy

113

Unlike with the Greeks where artists were considered artisans, the Renaissance artists were recognized as?

Intellectual figures

114

Who won the competition in Florence for the doors of the new baptistery?

Lorenzo Ghiberti who had the design of Isaac as Classical Greek figure being sacrificed. It was so popular he made a second set of doors that Michelangelo dubbed the Gates of Paridise

115

What were the Gates of Paradise?

The second set of doors the Lorenzo Ghiberti designed

116

Who received the second place award?

Filippo Brunelleschi

117

How did Brunelleschi complete the dome of the Florence cathedral?

By using a double-shelled dome design

118

Brunelleschi is credited with developing what perspective?

Linear or single vanishing point perspective

119

Who put the linear perspective into practice?

Masaccio who used both linear and arieal perspective in his frescoes

120

Who is considered the founder of modern sculpture?

Donatello 1389-1466

121

What was the first free standing nude since antiquity?

A bronze David by Donatello

122

What was the name of the painting that established a vision of female beauty and was the first full length nude female since antiquity?

The Birth of Venus by Botticelli

123

What were the two models for the term Renaissance Man?

Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci

124

Leonardo da Vinci was known as?

An architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, scientist and musician

125

What two paintings are so well known that they have become hallmarks of modern culture?

The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa

126

What does sfumato mean and what does it do?

It means smoke and it blends forms subtly into one another without any perceptible transitions

127

Who took a flawed piece of marble and turned into his version of David?

Michelangelo di Buonarotti

128

What were the three paintings that Michelangelo created for Pope Julius II'S tomb?

Moses, the Dying Slave and the Bound Slave

129

After Pope Julius II cancelled his tomb what did he commission Michelangelo to do?

Decorate the 700 square yard roof of the Sistine Chapel

130

Who was one of the most inluential painters of the High Renaissance?

Raphael Sanzio

131

What was the School of Athens?

A homage to the great Greek scientists and philosophers

132

What was the Sistine Madanna?

A painting of the Virgin Mar that has endured in religious paintings through the centuries

133

Who was credited with making innovations in the subject matter of landscapes?

Giorgione

134

What was the different about the Tempest?

Giorgione made the landscape the subject and painted that first

135

Who was well known for his paintings of his patrons and was recognized as the greatest colorists of the Renaissance artists?

Titian Vecelli

136

Who was often linked with the artistic style known as Mannerism?

Tintoretto

137

What are Mannerist works characterized by?

Distortion of certain elements such as scale and are often recognizable by use of acidic colors and twisted positioning of their subjects

138

What is chiaroscuro?

The dramatic contrasts of light and dark hat heightens the emotional impact of the subject

139

What was the impact of the Reformation on art?

A move away from the richly decorated churches and religious imagery

140

What did the Church do in response to the Reformation?

Launch the Counter Reformation

141

What was the Counter Reformation?

A re-emphasis on lavish decoration and art of a highly dramatic and emotional nature

142

Who was on e of the artists most closely associated with the Counter Reformation?

Dominikos Theotokopoulos a.k.a. El Greco

143

What was the difference in art in the North from South Europe?

The North's art was smaller and displayed a greater degree of realistic detail than the South

144

Why was the influence of classical antiquity much less prominent in the North than the South?

Because the North had less access to the classical works located in Italy

145

What are two ways that influences from the South spread to the North?

Through engravings and through trade between German and Venetian merchants

146

What two artist are considered the greatest artists of the Renaissance in Northern Europe?

Matthias Grunewald and Albrecht Drurer

147

What is Grunewald known for?

Religious scenes and his depiction of Christ's crucifixion as well the Isenheim Alterpiece, a work with nine panels on two sets of folding wings

148

What is considered Grunewald's greatest masterpiece?

The Isenheim Altarpiece

149

What did Albrecht Druerer aim to do?

Achieve a style that combined the naturalistic ideals favored by the North with the theoretical ideals from the Italians

150

Who created the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse?

Albrecht Druerer

151

What German artist is known as one of the Renaissance's greatest portraitists?

Hans Holbein the Younger

152

Who was the court painter of King Henry VIII and showed talent for presenting details and capturing the psychological character of his troops?

Hans Holbein the Younger

153

When was the Baroque Era?

Late 16th century to mid 18th century

154

What was the difference between the Renaissance and Baroque artworks?

Baroque artworks are less static and characterized by a greater sense of movement and energy

155

What were the most powerful rules of their time in the Baroque Era?

Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, Peter and Catherine the Great of Russia, and King Louis XIV of France

156

What has the word Baroque come to represent?

A richness of color and ornamentation that heightened the motion and energy of the work

157

What Italian painter was well known for his dramatic use of the contrast between light and dark which influenced other artists?

Caravaggio 1571-1610

158

The extreme contrast between light and dark coined the term?

Caraveggesque

159

Why did several of Caravaggio's patrons reject his works?

Because he used naturalism in his paintings

160

What was the name of the main female Baroque artist?

Artemisia Gentileschi 1593-1652

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What is Gentileshi known for?

Self portraits and paintings of Olde Testament women

162

Who was the most important Baroque artist?

Gianlorenzo Bernini 1598-1680

163

What was Bernini?

A painter, architect and draftsman

164

What was Bernini's most important masterpiece?

The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa

165

Who established a huge workshop in Flanders and produced great works of color and energy?

Peter Paul Rubens 1577-1640

166

Who was recognized as one of the greatest draftsmen ever?

Rembrandt van Rijn

167

What was Rembrandt's best known work?

Night Watch, also known as The Sortie of Captain Banning Coq's Company of the Civic Guard

168

What was different in the structure of Rembrandt's Night Watch?

Rembrandt grouped the members in a way that showed more attention to others

169

Where is it argued that the Baroque Period reached its peak?

In France

170

When was Versailles started?

1669

171

What was at Versailles?

A stable, a greenhouse, zoo, a system of fountains and waterfalls and a grand canal for mock sea battles

172

What was the system for choosing and supporting artists called in France?

The Salon

173

What was the Academy also known as?

Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture

174

What other court tried to emulate France?

The Spanish court of King Philip IV of Spain

175

Velazquez laid the foundations for the movement known as?

Impressionism

176

What was the Rococo style characterized by?

Gaiety, romance and the frivolity of life at the Court of Versaillles

177

What three artists are considered masters of the Rococo style?

Jean-Antoine Watteau, Francis Boucher, Honore Fragonard

178

Who was the leader of a new generation and the new genre of painting called fete galante?

Jean-Antoine Watteau

179

What did the style of fete galante depict?

Members of the nobility in elegant contemporary dress enjoying leisure time in the countryside

180

Who was the favorite painter of King Louis XIV'S mistress Madame Pompdour?

Francis Boucher

181

What did Francis Boucher paint?

The characters of classical myth in scenes of courtly gallantry with an emphasis on nubile nudes

182

How did the Revolution of 1789 in France impact the art of the time?

Art intrest was revived on Ancient Greece and Rome

183

What style reflected a revival of interest in the art of classical Greece and Rome?

Neoclassicism

184

Whose work epitomized the work of Neoclassicism?

Jacques Louis David

185

Which painting by Jacques Louis David epitomized Republican virtues?

The Oath of the Horatti

186

Under what leader did Jacques Louis David create large propagandistic canvases?

Napoleon Bonaparte

187

Who was Jacques Louis David's pupil?

Jean Dominique Ingres

188

Who's sharp outlines, unemotional figures and careful geometric composition and rational order are hallmarks of the Neoclassical style?

Jean Dominique Ingres

189

Who was a proponent of Romanticism?

Eugene Delacroix

190

What are Romantic works characterized by?

Exotic or melodramatic elements awe inspiring natural wonders, highly imaginative and an emotional and dreamlike quality

191

What are Eugene Delacroix's works characterized by?

Exotic themes, foreign settings, violence involving animals and historical subject matter

192

What ideas were the realists inspired by?

The idea that the painting must illustrate all the features of its subjects including the negative ones

193

What artist most forcibly represented the Realist movement?

Gustave Courbet

194

The wrok that showed a pair of ordinary workers repairing a road was known as?

The Stonebreakers

195

Realism can be seen in the works of what two artists beside Courbet?

Honore Daumier and Jean Francois Millet

196

Who is considered the first Impressionist?

Eduard Manet

197

What work by Manet was rejected by the Salon?

Luncheon on the Grass

198

What was wrong with Luncheon on the Grass?

It showed a nude woman with clothed men

199

What was the source of the Impressionist movements name?

Claude Monet's painting Impression Sunrise

200

What technical advances helped the Impressionists?

Advances in portable mediums and brushes

201

What are two notable Impressionists?

Camille Pissarro and Alfred Sisley

202

How did Paul Cezanne suggest that a painting could be formed?

That it could be structured as a series of planes with clear foreground, middle ground and background and that each object could be reduced to the basic forms, cube, sphere or cone

203

The work of Georges Seurat placed an emphasis on?

Scientific rules of color by use of small dots of complementary colors in a technique called optical mixing

204

Vincent Van Gogh set about?

Capturing the bright lights of southern France

205

Van Gogh believed what about an artist's colors?

That they portray inner human emotions

206

The intense and jarring yellows, greens and reds of what work by Van Gogh illustrated his ideas about color?

Night Cafe

207

What French artists beside Van Gogh showed a search for intense light and clear color in his work?

Paul Gauguin

208

Paul Gauguin wen to what island in search for a more unschooled style?

Tahiti

209

Impressionists were impacted by art materials from what two parts of the world?

Africa and Japan

210

Where did the Pre-Raphaelites start?

In England

211

The Pre-Raphaelites paved the way for what style?

Art Nouveau

212

Henri Matisse and other artists used such intense colors that they were given the term?

Fauves or wild beasts

213

What two artists started Cubism?

Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque

214

The Cubists were influenced by which type of art?

African art

215

What was the name of the group of German artist?

Die Brucke or the bridge

216

Die Brucke included what German artists?

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Emil Nolde

217

What two Expressionist groups were in Germany?

Die Brucke and Die Blaue Reiter

218

What artists were in Die Blaue Reiter?

Vasil Kandinsky

219

Vasily Kandinsky painted what?

Totally abstract pictures without any pictorial subject

220

Pioneers of total abstraction included?

Kazimir Malevich and Piet Mondrian

221

The American scene of art was widely ignored until what?

The Armory Show in 1913

222

What three artists and paintings shocked viewers at the Armory Show?

Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase, Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon and Branscusi's The Kiss

223

What American movement occurred during the 1920's?

The Harlem Renaissance

224

What artists were inspired by the Harlem Renaissance?

Jacob Lawrence, Romare Bearden

225

What movement originated in Zurich out of disillusinoed artists and intellectuals?

The Dada movement

226

What artists was representative of Dada?

Marcel Duchamp

227

Marcel Duchamp created what two works?

LHOOQ and Fountain

228

The goal of the Dada movement was to do what?

Protests against everything in society and to lampoon and ridicule accepted values and norms

229

Duchamp created a new stle of art called what?

Ready makes

230

Picasso took up this ready make idea with what work?

Bull's Head

231

The group of artists who were influenced by Sigmund Freud?

The Surrealists

232

What artists were from the Surrealist movement?

Salvidor Dali, Rene Magritte and Joan Miro

233

What was the school of design in German that became a byword of modern design?

Bauhaus

234

What Bauhaus artist left Germany and moved to the United States?

Josef Albers

235

In the 1950's New York's art scene was dominated by what two critics?

Harold Rosenberg and Clement Greenberg

236

The Abstract Expressionist followed what dictum?

Kandinsky's dictum that art could be free from the limitations of pictorial subject matter

237

What artists were apart of the Abstract Expressionist movement?

Wilem de Kooning, Lee Krasner, Franze Kilne and Jackson Pollock

238

What two categories did Abstract Expressionist fall into?

Action paintings with dramatic brushstrokes or color field paintings which featured broad areas of color

239

ho were two well-known color field artists?

Mark Rothko and Josef Albers

240

Jasper Johns created a series of works which feature what?

Common things such as flags, numbers, maps and letters

241

Robert Ruchenberg created sculptures called combines from what?

Cast off objects

242

Who created Bed and Monogram and what were they?

Robert Rauschenberg. Bed was his own bedclothes painted and Monogram was a series of found everyday items

243

What were three Pop Artists and what did they do?

Andy Worhal who mocked the art world with soup cans and the like; Roy Lichtenstein who adopted comic book imagery on the big scale and Robert Indiana who used stencils to create artistic messages

244

The Minimalist movement attempted to do what?

Reduce art to it bare essentials in form and monochromatic palettes

245

Who were three Minimalist artists?

Frank Stella, David Smith and Dan Flavin

246

Photorealism depicted the subject how?

In sharp detail

247

Who were two Photorealists?

Chuck Close and Duane Hanson

248

What partner team of Earthwork artists have wrapped monuments in fabric, surrounded islands in Florida?

Christo and Jeanne-Claude

249

What is Performance Art?

A combination of theatre and art in which the artists themselves become the work

250

Who are the Guerrilla Girls?

A New York all girls group that uses guerrilla style tactics to challenge an art world dominated by men

251

Postmodern works do what?

Return to earlier styles, periods and often question the morals and beliefs of society

252

Who suggested that one of the functions of art was decoration?

Philip Johnson

253

What is the most famous work of Chinese art?

The Great Wall of China

254

What is the monument to Emperor Qin?

A giant tomb complete with a full army of soldiers and their equipment

255

In 1949 how did art change in China?

It became a political device under the communist regime

256

During China's Tang Era artists produced?

Some of the greatest works of ceramic sculpture ever

257

Remains of painted wares in China have been found that date back to?

To the fourth millenium BC

258

How long is the Chinese Great Wall?

Two thousand miles long

259

Many dynasty rulers left behind tombs that became?

Great treasures of art

260

To which Chinese Emperor did the Terra cotta Army belong to?

Emperor Qin

261

The Chinese dynasties succeeding the Qin are notable for?

Bronze statues and ceremonial vessels

262

What religion introduced from where had a profound impact on Chinese culture?

Buddhism from India

263

What dynasty is referred to as China's Golden Age?

The Tang Dynasty

264

Chinese art places great value on what kind of drawings?

Ink drawings

265

When was the People's Republic of China founded?

In 1949

266

In the People's Republic of China art was used as?

A propaganda tool

267

How many different languages and dialects are spoken in India?

1600

268

Indian art reflects the influence of what religion?

Hinduism

269

What Hindu god has multiple arms?

Shiva

270

Indian art was influenced by what three cultures?

Hinduism, Buddhism and Greece

271

Hindu art caused what kind of style?

A lovely, lively and sinuous style

272

What did Japan do during the Impressionist movement in Europe?

Send artists to France

273

The artists who went to France used what kind of style when they went back to Japan?

Linear perspective and the color and subjects of Impressionists

274

What are the Japanese artists best known for?

Their printmaking

275

What is the oldest example of cave paintings?

Cave paintings from Namibia

276

What is the Nok civilization known for?

Fantastically life-like sculptures of religious and political figures

277

What was the Benin Kingdom known for?

Cast bronze portrait head who showed the tremendous power of the Benin king

278

Why are there so few examples of African Art?

Due to the use of perishable materials, as the European colonization

279

What two African cultures were well-known for their impressive masks?

The Dan and the Bwa

280

What kind of Polynesian art form has been lost throughout the centuries?

Body tatooing

281

What were the Amats known for in art?

Enormous carved wooden shields

282

What are some of the most valuable pieces of Islamic art?

Copies of the Qu'ran and containers for the sacred book

283

What are the art of the Americas known for?

The giant pyramids that rival the pyramids in Egypt

284

Why do medieval churches have high arched ceilings?

To draw the eye upward and toward heaven

285

What does formal analysis require excellent skills in?

Observation and description

286

What does art history emphasize with the assumption that the work of one generation of artists will have an impact on following generations?

Chronological development

287

What do art historians begin their analysis of a work with?

A close examination of the work of art

288

Modern art was strongly influenced by what movement?

18th century Enlightenment philosophy

289

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries what did art history develop approaches to?

Approaches that placed an increasing emphasis on an understanding of the interrelationship between the formal qualities of a work of art and its context

290

What particular group of art historians have revised art history?

Female historians

291

What group of people is traditional art history focused on?

White men wether as artists or as patrons

292

What two conditions have an impact on wether or not a work of art survived?

The environmental conditions and wether or not the object is made of enduring materials

293

What materials are considered enduring?

Stone, metal or fired clay

294

What are two examples of perishable materials?

Wood or fibers

295

What country's desert climate was particularly suited for preserving materials?

Egypt

296

What is one reason that historians have focused so much on art history from the Western World?

Because of its good conditions for object survivable opposed to other regions

297

Why are civilizations in art history studied opposed to other's?

Because they are the civilizations whose art survived and has been discovered

298

Who created the cave paintings of Lascaux and Altamira?

Skilled artists working within an established tradition

299

Where are the most famous of the later cave paintings ( 15,000 to 10,000 BC)?

Lascaux and Altamira

300

What do scholars think the Venus of Wilendorf was used for?

Fertility figures both their exact method of use is unknown

301

In what cave is the only human figure painted in a cave from the Middle Stone Age painted?

In the Lascaux cave

302

What are the specifications of the Stonehenge rocks?

17 feet high and fifty tons in weight

303

What does Megalith mean?

Great stone

304

What is sarson?

A form of sandstone

305

Why is the story of Mesopotamia one of conquest and destruction?

Because it lacked the natural barriers of deserts and mountains that protected Egypt

306

What was the central aspect of Sumerian life?

Religion

307

Where is the Code of Hammurabi displayed and preserved?

In the Louvre

308

What is one of the greatest architecture in which figures are superimposed on a walled surface?

The Ishtar Gate, which was the gaeway to the temple of Bel

309

Who conquered Egypt in 332 BC?

Alexander the Great

310

What dynasty's composed Egypt's Old Kingdom?

Dynasties III-VI

311

What is fractional representation?

A technique in which each part of the body is shown as clearly as possible and was used by the Egyptians in the Palette of King Narmer

312

When was King Tutenkhamen's tomb discovered?

1922

313

What is the least ornate column?

The Tuscan

314

What is the only column that does not have a base?

Greek Doric

315

What is a Corinthian style of vase?

A vase in which figures are set against a floral ornamented background

316

What are Athenian style vases?

Vases that used black figures but are larger and more linear in scale then the Corinthian vases

317

What are red figure vases?

Vases that have red figures standing out against a black background

318

What style of columns were used during the Early Classical Period?

Slim, Doric columns

319

What were the bridges and aqueducts used for in Rome?

A paved road system

320

What was the result of the Romans paved road system?

Very effective communication and control

321

What is the best example of a Byzantine mosaic?

The great churches of Ravenna

322

Why was the art of the medieval era preserved in the Church?

Because it was a time of great strife and the only place that was safe was the church

323

What was the international language during the Medieval Period?

Latin

324

What were books from the Medieval Period copied on?

Vellum or parchment

325

What did the Vikings do with wood as an art form?

They created wood sculptures for their ships

326

What were Romanesque churches?

Stone vaulted buildings that often replaced earlier churches that had highly flammable roofs

327

What is a vault?

An arch-shaped structure that is used as a ceiling or as a support to a roof

328

What is a ribbed vault?

A framework of thin stone ribs, or arches built under the intersection of the vaulted sections of the ceiling

329

What family accumulated great wealth during the Renaissance?

The Medeci family

330

Who called Lorenzo Ghiberti's second set of door panels the Gates of Paradise?

Michelangelo

331

What design by Michelangelo is still used today?

His design for the locks that control movements along canals from one level to another

332

What technique is used in Mona Lisa ?

Sfumato

333

When did Pope Julius II commission Michelangelo to design his tomb?

In 1505

334

In what city was the competition for a statue made from marble held?

Florence, Italy

335

What did Michelangelo's David embody?

The spirit of Florence as a Republic

336

What was one of the greatest disappointments in Michelangelo's career?

When Pope Julius II cancelled his commission for his funeral for unknown reason

337

How long did it take Michelangelo to complete the Sistine Chapel?

Four years

338

What controversy emerged over the Sistine Chapel?

Wether it should have been cleaned or not

339

Who gave Raphael Sanzio several commission?

Pope Julius II

340

What did Sanzio and Michelangelo have in common?

THey were both commissioned by Pope Julius II

341

What city besides Rome and Florence saw a flowering of the arts during the Renaissance?

Venice

342

How is it said that Tintoretto achieved great drama in his works?

By making small models and manipulating them to he had created the most dramatic effect

343

What can the works of El Greco be seen as?

Transitional works bridging the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque Period

344

How many works by Grunewald have survived?

Just ten works

345

Who is the most famous artist of Reformation Germany?

Albrecht Durer

346

Whose works set the standard for English painting up through the 19th century?

Hans Holbein the Younger

347

What movement influenced the Baroque art?

The Counter Reformation

348

What Enlightenment author protested the disparity of wealth between the nobles and the peasants?

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

349

Who showed the Virgin Mar and apostles as poor peasants rather than noble figures in classical garb?

Caravaggio

350

How did Artemisia Gentileschi gain artistic experience?

By studying in her father's studio

351

When did Bernini receive recognition from the Pope?

When he was 17 years old

352

Describe Bernini's Ecxtasy of St. Teresa?

Set into the altar of the Cornaro Chapel the space includes a concealed stained glass window that bathed the figure of the saint in dramatic gold lighting as if she was on stage

353

Who had a background in theater during the Baroque Period?

Gianlorenzo Bernini

354

Who pushed the use of marble to new limits by trying to make stone look like real fabric and even clouds?

Gianlorenzo Bernini 1598-1680

355

What caused a decline in Rembrandt's career and ultimately led to his death in poverty?

His decision to break with the tradition of giving paying patrons equal importance in a work of art

356

What two artistic things did Louis XIV create?

The Salon and the Acaemy

357

How did Diego Velazquez build his figures?

From patches of color rather than starting from a drawing

358

What type of government was installed in France after the revolution of 1789?

A democratic republic

359

Who initially created art for revolutionary mass rallies only to later pain propagandistic canvases for Napoleon Bonaparte?

Jacques Louis David 1748-1825

360

Who was Jean Dominique Ingres's rival?

Eugene Delacroix

361

What do Neoclassical works emphasize?

Line, order and a cool detachment

362

Who were Theodore Gericault 1791-1824 and William Blake 1757-1827?

Important Romantic artists

363

What movement was a response to Neoclassicism and Romanticism?

Realism

364

Who created the Stonebreakers?

Gustave Courbet 1819-77

365

In what salon was Luncheon on the Grass?

The Salon des Refusés

366

What Post-Impressionist was a successful stockbroker?

Van Gogh

367

What did the die Brucke artists attempt to do with art?

Combine the brilliant arbitrary colors of the Fauvists and combined them with the intense feelings found in the work of the Norwegian artist Edvard Munch

368

Who created The Kiss?

Brancusi

369

What is the basic assumption of formal analysis?

That the artist makes decisions about the artwork that can reveal to us something about the meaning

370

When did art history arise as an academic discipline?

In the 1750's

371

The artists working on the Lascaux and Altamire cave paintings were...?

Skilled artists working within an established tradition

372

What was the Middle Stone Age also known as?

The Mesolithic Period

373

When did Earth's climate rise?

During the Middle Stone Age

374

What was the New Stone Age also known as?

The Neolithic Period

375

What are the dimensions of the stones used in Stonehenge?

17 feet high and 50 tons in weight

376

What was the culture that created the stone megaliths known as?

Megalithic

377

What was the problem with the Akkadian's trying to assimilate Sumerian culture?

They spoke a different language

378

How is the body shown in fractional representation?

The eye in frontal view, the torso in full frontal view, and the lower body, legs and feet in profile

379

Where does Nubia lie in relation to Egypt?

South of Egypt

380

When was teh Early Classical Period?

475-448 BC

381

When was the Classical Period?

475-323 BC

382

When was the Middle Classical Period?

448-400 BC

383

When was the Late Classical Period?

400 to 323 BC

384

In what war was Athens defeated?

The Peloponnesian War

385

When was the Hellenstic Period?

331 to 323 BC

386

Etruscan's produced columns in the fashion of?

The Greeks

387

What two mediums did the Etruscans use for artifacts in their tombs?

Clay and bronze

388

When was the early medieval period?

375 to 1025 AD

389

When was the late medieval period?

900-1500 AD

390

What is a flying buttresses?

The use of additional bracing material and arches placed on the exterior of a building

391

When was the competition for the design of the Florence Cathedral?

In 1400 AD

392

What were artists considered by the Greek?

Artisans

393

Where was Michelangelo's David designed to be placed?

High on the facade of the cathedral in Florence

394

What was the difference between Tintoretto and the Mannerists?

His use of color schemes

395

Tintoretto's later spiritual works are said to anticipate the?

Baroque Era

396

When was the Mannerist style popular?

1500's

397

Where did El Greco work with Titian?

In Venice

398

In 1576 El Greco left Italy for?

Toledo, Spain

399

What style was much of the European art north of the Alps during the Renaissance?

Gothic

400

What technique did Baroque painters make use of?

Chiaroscuro

401

Who united all of France?

Louis XIV

402

Neoclassicism was influenced by what philosophy?

Enlightenment

403

Who developed the idea that the artist's colors should be intensified to portray inner human emotions and not imitate the world?

Vincent Van Gogh

404

Who left his job as a successful stockbroker and his family for art?

Paul Gauguin

405

Who did Gauguin work with in southern France?

Van Gogh

406

What invention called into question the very need to capture ordinary reality in art?

The invention of the camera

407

Why did the Cubists prefer African art of European art?

Because they imagined African Art to be more intuitive and closer to nature

408

Who arranged the New York Armory Show?

The Barnes Foundation

409

What two artists made ready-made works?

Duchamp and Picasso

410

What dictum did the Abstract Expressionists follow?

Kandinksy's dictum

411

What was Kandinsky's dictum?

That art like music could be free from the limitations of pictorial subject matter

412

What offered a clear contrast to sfumato?

Photorealism

413

Who built a 24 mile long cloth fence in California?

Christo

414

Who surrounded eleven Florida islands with pink plastic?C

Christo

415

Who set up orange fabric gates on Central Park pathways?

Christo

416

Who was Christo's partner?

Jeanne-Claude

417

What does Jeanne-Claude do with Christo?

He handles the logistical details while Christo develops the ideas

418

Postmodernist art was a reaction to?

Modernist art obviously

419

Who is a leading Postmodernist in architecture?

Philip Johnson

420

Before Philip Johnson was a proponent of Postmodernism he was a leading modern architect of what style?

The International Style

421

What is the oldest example of Muslim art?

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem