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Flashcards in Section One Art Elements Deck (115):
0

What is the difference between shape and form?

Shape is two dimensional and form is three dimensional

1

What do geometric forms convey?

A sense of order and stability

2

What do organic forms convey?

A sense of rhythm and movement

3

What is positive space?

The space occupied by objects, shapes and forms

4

What is negative space?

The space without objects, shapes and forms

5

How can artists create a sense of depth through use of the figures?

By putting an object higher on the picture makes the figure appear farther away

6

What is aerial perspective?

A technique that takes into account the ways that fog, smoke and airborne particles change the appearance of objects at a distance

7

What are the three primary colors?

Red, blue, yellow

8

What are the two variables that affect color?

The amount of reflected light and the purity of color

9

What does value refer to?

The lightness or darkness of a color

10

How are cool and warm colors determined?

By cultural context

11

What is local color?

The actual color of an object as seen in ordinary daylight

12

Wha is optical color?

The color that can be seen that is not the true color

13

What are two kinds of texture?

Actual and visual

14

What is an example of actual texture in art?

A collage, assemblage or mask

15

How are visual textures created?

Through the use of line patterns

16

What is composition?

The artist's organization of the elements of art

17

What is rhythm?

A principle associated with movement or pattern through repetition which causes eye movement on a piece

18

What is a motif?

A single element of a pattern

19

What is a pattern?

The repetition of certain elements or motifs

20

What is balance

The equal distribution of visual weight in a work of art

21

What is symmetrical balance?

When an artist repeats elements of a composition on both sides of the central axis

22

What is approximate symmetry?

When shapes or objects are slightly varied on both sides of the central axis

23

What is asymmetrical balance?

A visual balance that is achieved through the organization of unlike objects

24

What is a focal point?

Where the eye tends to rest

25

The art from what region of Africa is treated differently from the rest of Africa?

The art of Sub-Saharan Africa

26

When were the Namibian cave paintings painted?

In 23,000 BC

27

When did the Nok civilization emerge?

In 500 BC

28

The art of the Nok civilization had an impact on later cultural African groups such as the?

Yoruba

29

What did the European colonists view African art as?

Pagan symbols that should be destroyed rather than preserved

30

What British raid destroyed countless treasures at the palace of the Benin King?

The 1897 raid

31

What three island groups make up most of Oceana?

Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia

32

What Oceanic tribe's art relates to warfare?

The art of the Amat of Melanesia

33

Tattooing was sseen as an important way of expressing what in Polynesia?

Social stature

34

What is the most basic of art elements?

The Line

35

What do artists use lines for?

To express ideas or feelings visuallly

36

What do straight horizontal lines suggest?

A feeling of peace and tranquility

37

What do jagged horizontal lines suggest?

A sense of activity

38

What are the two main types of sculptures?

Freestanding and relief

39

What is high relief and low relief?

High relief is when the sculpture projects boldly from the surface while in low relief the sculpture only projects a small amount

40

What is another name for low relief?

Bas relief

41

When were mathematical techniques for creating the illusion of space developed?

During the Renaissance

42

What is hue?

The name of the color

43

What are the secondary colors?

Orange, green and violet

44

Who developed the underlying concepts for the color wheel?

Sir Isaac Newton

45

Why do colors have relative color?

Because their intensity varies on the color placed next to it

46

Hoc can artists balance a piece like a fulcrum?

By placing heavier objects closer to the center and lighter objects farther away

47

When were the relationships of the various parts of the human face and body established?

By the Greeks during the Classical Period

48

How high was the human figure determined to be by the ancient Greeks?

7 and 1/2 heads high

49

What is proportion?

The size relationship among the parts of a composition

50

What is scale?

The dimensional relation of parts of a work to the entirety

51

Wheat is the most basic of art processing?

Drawing

52

Artists use hatching and crosshatching for what?

To create the illusion of three-dimensionality

53

What is stippling?

When an artist creates different values by making a pattern of dots

54

What is printmaking?

A group of mechanically aided two-dimensional processes that permit the production of multiple original artworks

55

What is relief painting?

Where the artist cuts away parts from the surface of the plate

56

What is Intaglio printmaking?

Where lines are incised on a plate

57

What are two processes used in Intaglio printmaking?

Engraving and etching

58

What is lithography?

Where an image is drawn with a waxy pencil on a plate

59

What is screen painting?

Whee an image is adhered to a fabric that has been stretched onto a frame

60

During what revolution did printmaking become a medium for distributing images of social protest?

The Mexican Revolution

61

Paint is composed of what three materials?

Pigments, binders and solvents

62

What are frescoes usually used for?

Painting on walls and ceilings

63

What is Tempera?

A water based paint that had been used as the earliest paints

64

What are glazes?

Thin transparent or semi-transparent paints that can be applied over colors to alter the color slightly

65

What are encaustics?

Wax-based paintings that were used in Egyptian grave markers

66

What is Gouche?

A water based opaque paint that is of higher quality than tempera

67

Acrylic paints are different from oils how?

They don't need the application of several layers but they can't achieve some of the subtleties of the oil paints

68

What was the artists response to the development of photography?

To develop a higher degree of realism

69

Sculpture is created in what four ways?

Carving, modeling, casting and construction

70

What is carving?

A subtractive process in which some of the original material is removed

71

What is modeling?

An additive process in which materials are added to the base material

72

How is metal sculpture created?

From sheet metal or bent from wire

73

What artist created sculptures that uses moving parts?

Alexander Clader

74

What is environmental art known as?

Earthworks

75

What is mixed media?

When an artist uses several art media in his work

76

What two artists are known for works of mixed media?

Robert Rauschennberg and Joseph Cornell

77

What is performance art?

When the artist engages in performance sometimes involving the viewers in a piece's production

78

What is pottery?

A medium based upon the use of natural material

79

What tool has been used throughout the ages to make pottery?

The pottery wheel

80

What is architecture?

The art and science of designing and constructing buildings

81

What was an important architectural development?

The post and lintel construction

82

What were three key architectural developments?

The arch, the vault and the dome

83

What 1851 building was created out of mainly glass walls with a framework of slim iron rods?

The Crystal Palace

84

What color is undiluted ink?

Opaque

85

When did color pastels become popular?

In the 1700's

86

What are objects, shapes and forms in an artwork also known as?

The figure

87

When white and black combine it creates a?

Continuim of grays

88

What are the most intense colors?

The primary colors

89

Warm colors appear to advance or recede to the viewer's eyes?

Advance

90

Cooler colors appear to advance or recede to the viewer?

Recede

91

What color is undiluted ink?

Opaque

92

The addition of what to ink makes it transparent?

Water

93

When did colored pastels become popular?

In the 1700's

94

What is the major drawback to using pastels?

They are very fragile

95

How can pastels be from smearing?

They are sprayed with a fixative

96

What is a buon fresco?

AA true fresco

97

What is a fresco secco?

When an artist applies paint to dry plaster

98

How do you create a fresco?

Apply pure powdered pigments with water and applies them to a wet plaster ground

99

When did oil paints become popular?

The 1400's

100

What does tempera use as a binder?

Egg

101

What were grave markers in ancient Egypt painted with?

Encuastics

102

What is the base for encaustic paints?

Wax

103

What is the base of Gouache?

Water

104

Does gouache dry faster than watercolor?

No

105

What are the four basic ways sculpture is created?

Carving, modeling, casting, construction

106

Is carving subtractive or additive?

Subtractive

107

Is modeling additive or subtractive?

Additive

108

Who created mobiles from forms suspended by wire which can be moved by wind or air currents?

Alexander Calder

109

Who is credited with introducing the collage?

Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque

110

Who filled open boxes with a variety of objects visualizing symbolic and metaphoric statements?

Joseph Cornell

111

Where and when was glass first made?

In the Middle East in the 3rd millennium

112

Who carved boxes and house boards with traditional designs?

Northwest Coast Indians

113

What is the Crystal Palace?

1851 palace for the world's fair in London held together of iron rods and glass walls

114

Who created buildings of cut stone in Spain in the late 1880's and early 1900's?

Antonio Gaudi