Flashcards in Section One Art Elements Deck (115)
What is the difference between shape and form?
Shape is two dimensional and form is three dimensional
What do geometric forms convey?
A sense of order and stability
What do organic forms convey?
A sense of rhythm and movement
What is positive space?
The space occupied by objects, shapes and forms
What is negative space?
The space without objects, shapes and forms
How can artists create a sense of depth through use of the figures?
By putting an object higher on the picture makes the figure appear farther away
What is aerial perspective?
A technique that takes into account the ways that fog, smoke and airborne particles change the appearance of objects at a distance
What are the three primary colors?
Red, blue, yellow
What are the two variables that affect color?
The amount of reflected light and the purity of color
What does value refer to?
The lightness or darkness of a color
How are cool and warm colors determined?
By cultural context
What is local color?
The actual color of an object as seen in ordinary daylight
Wha is optical color?
The color that can be seen that is not the true color
What are two kinds of texture?
Actual and visual
What is an example of actual texture in art?
A collage, assemblage or mask
How are visual textures created?
Through the use of line patterns
What is composition?
The artist's organization of the elements of art
What is rhythm?
A principle associated with movement or pattern through repetition which causes eye movement on a piece
What is a motif?
A single element of a pattern
What is a pattern?
The repetition of certain elements or motifs
What is balance
The equal distribution of visual weight in a work of art
What is symmetrical balance?
When an artist repeats elements of a composition on both sides of the central axis
What is approximate symmetry?
When shapes or objects are slightly varied on both sides of the central axis
What is asymmetrical balance?
A visual balance that is achieved through the organization of unlike objects
What is a focal point?
Where the eye tends to rest
The art from what region of Africa is treated differently from the rest of Africa?
The art of Sub-Saharan Africa
When were the Namibian cave paintings painted?
In 23,000 BC
When did the Nok civilization emerge?
In 500 BC
The art of the Nok civilization had an impact on later cultural African groups such as the?
What did the European colonists view African art as?
Pagan symbols that should be destroyed rather than preserved
What British raid destroyed countless treasures at the palace of the Benin King?
The 1897 raid
What three island groups make up most of Oceana?
Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia
What Oceanic tribe's art relates to warfare?
The art of the Amat of Melanesia
Tattooing was sseen as an important way of expressing what in Polynesia?
What is the most basic of art elements?
What do artists use lines for?
To express ideas or feelings visuallly
What do straight horizontal lines suggest?
A feeling of peace and tranquility
What do jagged horizontal lines suggest?
A sense of activity
What are the two main types of sculptures?
Freestanding and relief
What is high relief and low relief?
High relief is when the sculpture projects boldly from the surface while in low relief the sculpture only projects a small amount
What is another name for low relief?
When were mathematical techniques for creating the illusion of space developed?
During the Renaissance
What is hue?
The name of the color
What are the secondary colors?
Orange, green and violet
Who developed the underlying concepts for the color wheel?
Sir Isaac Newton
Why do colors have relative color?
Because their intensity varies on the color placed next to it
Hoc can artists balance a piece like a fulcrum?
By placing heavier objects closer to the center and lighter objects farther away
When were the relationships of the various parts of the human face and body established?
By the Greeks during the Classical Period
How high was the human figure determined to be by the ancient Greeks?
7 and 1/2 heads high
What is proportion?
The size relationship among the parts of a composition
What is scale?
The dimensional relation of parts of a work to the entirety
Wheat is the most basic of art processing?
Artists use hatching and crosshatching for what?
To create the illusion of three-dimensionality
What is stippling?
When an artist creates different values by making a pattern of dots
What is printmaking?
A group of mechanically aided two-dimensional processes that permit the production of multiple original artworks
What is relief painting?
Where the artist cuts away parts from the surface of the plate
What is Intaglio printmaking?
Where lines are incised on a plate
What are two processes used in Intaglio printmaking?
Engraving and etching
What is lithography?
Where an image is drawn with a waxy pencil on a plate
What is screen painting?
Whee an image is adhered to a fabric that has been stretched onto a frame
During what revolution did printmaking become a medium for distributing images of social protest?
The Mexican Revolution
Paint is composed of what three materials?
Pigments, binders and solvents
What are frescoes usually used for?
Painting on walls and ceilings
What is Tempera?
A water based paint that had been used as the earliest paints
What are glazes?
Thin transparent or semi-transparent paints that can be applied over colors to alter the color slightly
What are encaustics?
Wax-based paintings that were used in Egyptian grave markers
What is Gouche?
A water based opaque paint that is of higher quality than tempera
Acrylic paints are different from oils how?
They don't need the application of several layers but they can't achieve some of the subtleties of the oil paints
What was the artists response to the development of photography?
To develop a higher degree of realism
Sculpture is created in what four ways?
Carving, modeling, casting and construction
What is carving?
A subtractive process in which some of the original material is removed
What is modeling?
An additive process in which materials are added to the base material
How is metal sculpture created?
From sheet metal or bent from wire
What artist created sculptures that uses moving parts?
What is environmental art known as?
What is mixed media?
When an artist uses several art media in his work
What two artists are known for works of mixed media?
Robert Rauschennberg and Joseph Cornell
What is performance art?
When the artist engages in performance sometimes involving the viewers in a piece's production
What is pottery?
A medium based upon the use of natural material
What tool has been used throughout the ages to make pottery?
The pottery wheel
What is architecture?
The art and science of designing and constructing buildings
What was an important architectural development?
The post and lintel construction
What were three key architectural developments?
The arch, the vault and the dome
What 1851 building was created out of mainly glass walls with a framework of slim iron rods?
The Crystal Palace
What color is undiluted ink?
When did color pastels become popular?
In the 1700's
What are objects, shapes and forms in an artwork also known as?
When white and black combine it creates a?
Continuim of grays
What are the most intense colors?
The primary colors
Warm colors appear to advance or recede to the viewer's eyes?
Cooler colors appear to advance or recede to the viewer?
What color is undiluted ink?
The addition of what to ink makes it transparent?
When did colored pastels become popular?
In the 1700's
What is the major drawback to using pastels?
They are very fragile
How can pastels be from smearing?
They are sprayed with a fixative
What is a buon fresco?
AA true fresco
What is a fresco secco?
When an artist applies paint to dry plaster
How do you create a fresco?
Apply pure powdered pigments with water and applies them to a wet plaster ground
When did oil paints become popular?
What does tempera use as a binder?
What were grave markers in ancient Egypt painted with?
What is the base for encaustic paints?
What is the base of Gouache?
Does gouache dry faster than watercolor?
What are the four basic ways sculpture is created?
Carving, modeling, casting, construction
Is carving subtractive or additive?
Is modeling additive or subtractive?
Who created mobiles from forms suspended by wire which can be moved by wind or air currents?
Who is credited with introducing the collage?
Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque
Who filled open boxes with a variety of objects visualizing symbolic and metaphoric statements?
Where and when was glass first made?
In the Middle East in the 3rd millennium
Who carved boxes and house boards with traditional designs?
Northwest Coast Indians
What is the Crystal Palace?
1851 palace for the world's fair in London held together of iron rods and glass walls