Flashcards in Seizures Deck (22)
______ is a paroxysmal, uncontrolled lectrical discharge of neurons in the brain that interrupts normal function. ______ is a condition in which a person has spontaneous recurring seizures caused by chronic underlying condition.
The most common causes a seizure disorder during the first six months of life are severe birth ______, ______ defects involving CNS, infections, and inborn errors of _______.
Most common causes of seizure disorder between two and 20 years of age are birth injury, infection, ______ and ______ factors.
For individuals between 20 and 30 years of age, seizure disorder usually occurs as the result of structural ______, or ______ disease.
Lesions (such as trauma, brain tumors)
After 50 years of age, primary causes of seizure disorders are ______ lesions and ______ brain tumors.
Cerebrovascular lesions (stroke)
Seizures are divided into two major classes: ______ and ______. Several phases which include (1) ______ phase, with signs or activity that precede seizure (2) ______ phase, with a sensory warning (3) ______ phase, with full seizure (4) ______ phase, which is the period of recovery after the seizure
______ seizures involve both sides of the brain and are characterized by bilateral synchronous epileptic discharges in the brain from the onset of the seizure. In most cases the patient ______ consciousness.
The most common generalized seizure is the generalized ______ which is characterized by loss of consciousness and falling to the ground followed by stiffening of the body for 10 to 20 seconds (tonic) and subsequent jerking of the extremities for another 30 to 40 seconds
Tonic-Clonic (formerly known as grand mal)
Tonic phase (stiffening)
Clonic phase (jerking)
The ______ seizure usually occurs only in children and rarely continues beyond adolescence. Manifestation is a brief staring spell and possibly a brief loss of consciousness. Can often be precipitated by hyperventilation and flashing lights.
Absence (petit mal)
When untreated, the seizures can occur up to 100 times per day
An _______ absence seizure is characterized by staring spell that includes brief warnings, peculiar behavior during the seizure, or confusion after the seizure.
An ______ seizure involves either a tonic episode or a paroxysmal loss of muscle tone and begins suddenly with the person falling to the ground.
Atonic ("Drop Attack")
A ______ seizure involves a sudden onset of maintained increased tone. These patients often fall.
______ seizures begin with loss of consciousness and sudden loss of muscle tone, followed by them jerking that may or may not be symmetric.
Partial seizures are the other major class of seizures. They are further divided into (1) ______ partial seizures (2) ______ partial seizures
Simple (those with simple motor or sensory phenomena)
Complex (those with complex symptoms)
Simple partial seizures with elementary symptoms do not involve ______ ______ ______ and rarely last longer than 1 minute.
Loss of consciousness
Complex partial seizures can involve a variety of behavioral, emotional, affective, and cognitive functions. They usually last longer than one minute and are frequently followed by a period of ______ confusion. Distinct from simple partial seizures because they involve some ______.
Loss of Consciousness
The most common complex partial seizure involves lip smacking and ______ (repetitive movements that may not be appropriate). These are often called ______ seizures.
The patient may continue an activity that was initiated before the seizure but after the seizure does not remember the activity performed during the seizure.
______ seizures, also called pseudoseizures, resemble epileptic seizures that are actually psychiatric in origin. You they are a physical manifestation of a psychological disturbance.
______ ______ is a state of continuous seizure activity or a condition in which seizures recur in rapid succession without return to consciousness between seizures.
Status epilepticus (this is the most serious complication of epilepsy and is a neurologic emergency)
During status epilepticus the brain uses more ______ than can be supplied. Neurons become exhausted and cease to function. Permanent brain ______ may result.
______ seizures are a form of status epilepticus in which the sedated patient seizes but without external signs due to the sedating medication.