What are the two types of connective tissue found in the skeletal tissue?
What is the external surface of a long bone made up of?
Was is contained in the medullary cavity of a long bone?
Red bone marrow, produces red blood cells
What is the shaft of a long bone called, and what is it formed from?
The diaphysis, formed from primary ossification centre by endochondral ossification
What is at either ends of the long bone? How are they formed?
The epiphysis, formed from secondary ossification during endochondral ossification.
What is the main difference between the skeleton of a growing adolescent and an adult?
In the growing adolescent skeleton the diaphysis and epiphysis are not fused and gaps are present, the epiphyseal plates which allow growth and eventually fuse
What may be seen on the radiograph of an adult?
An epiphyseal line, from the fusion of growth plates
What is at the very end of the diaphysis, and what are they attached to?
the metaphysis, this are adjacent to the epiphyseal plate
Where is cartilage present?
in areas where more flexibility is required, for example the costal cartilages allow the ribs cage to move during respiration
What is the function of articular hyaline cartilage?
Articular hyaline cartilage covers the surfaces of bones and has a protective role to minimise friction on movement
What happens in arthritis?
Articular hyaline cartilage worn away
What two sections is the skeleton divided into?
The axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton
What is the axial skeleton made up of?
The skull Facial bones Cervical verterbrae Thoracic and Lumbar verterbra Hyoid bone
What is the appendicular skeleton made up of?
The limbs, including the pelvic and pectoral girdle
Give four functions of the skeleton
supports all soft tissues in the body
protects vital organs
mechanical base for movement and leverage at joints
stores salts and provides a continuous supply of blood cells from the red bone marrow
How are bones classified?
According to shape
Name five types of bones
Long bones Cuboidal bones Flat bones Irregular bones Sesamoid bones
Describe long bones and give an example
femur, long bones tend to have a long shaft with expanded ends (condyles)
Describe cuboidal bones and give an example
These are only found in the wrist and foot, they provide strength but display limited movement.
Carpal bones and Tarsal bones in wrist (8+7)
Describe flat bones and give an example
these are thin layers of cancellous bone sandwiched together by strong bone e.g. bones of the skull and the ribs
Describe irregular bones and give an example
bones of the face and the individual vertebrae
Describe sesamoid bones and give an example
bones which form within tendons
the patella which is the largest sesamoid bone in the body, it forms in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle. The patella helps to prevent tendons from wear and tear
What is a joint?
Where two or more bones meet or articulate
How are joints classified?
According to structure and movement (or lack thereof)
What are the three main types of joint?
Fibrous (synarthrosis) - virtually no movement
Cartilaginous - No/minimal movement
Synovial - range of movement
What are the three types of fibrous joint?
- Sutures found in skull. Limited movement to 20 years when they become fixed
- Gomphoses - Where teeth articulate with maxillae and mandible
- Syndemoses - Bones held together by an interosseous membrane, found between radius and ulna and tibia and fibia
Give two types of cartaliginous joints
Synchondroses - Primary cartilaginous joints, layer of cartilage between two bones with minimal movement
- Symphses - Secondary cartilaginous joints, occur on ends of bones covered with hyaline cartilage. Variable movement.
What is a synovial joint characterized by?
Presence of a synovial membrane
What are the two parts of a synovial membrane?
Fibrous capsule with supportive layer on outside which encloses joint.
Inner synovial membrane which secretes and absorbs synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint preventing friction.
What can the fibrous capsule of a synovial joint also be called?
Capsular ligaments, encloses joint and blends it with periosteum of the bone
What is present at the ends of bone?
thin layer of hyaline cartilage which becomes thinner and more brittle with increasing age
What is a intra articular disc composed of?
What are the seven ways of classifying synovial joints?
Can’t eat sad peoples ball sack
Hinge allows flexion and extension, this movement occurs in one plane only, such joints include the elbow and the interphalangeal joints of the digits
Condylar allows flexion extension and rotation
Ellipsoid allows flexion extension abduction adduction, this shows movement in 2 planes and such joints are wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints of the digits
Ball and socket such as the shoulder and hip
Plane or gliding joint where only slight shifting can occur such as in the tibiofibular joint
What are the eight movements produced by a synovial joint?
Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Internal rotation External rotation Circumduction Gliding