Session 2 - The axilla Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 2 - The axilla Deck (21)
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1
Q

What is the structure in the image?

A

The axilla 

2
Q

What is A? 

What is the structure of this locale formed from?

What is the defining feature of this location? 

A

Apex of the axilla

Formed by lateral border of the first rib, superior border of scapula, and the posterior border of the clavicle

It is this opening that all structures pass through to enter the axilla.

3
Q

What is B? 

A

The base of the axilla

 

4
Q

What is C? 

What is it formed from?

A

The medial wall

The serratus anterior and the thoracic wall (ribs and intercostal muscles) 

5
Q

What is D? 

What is it formed from?

A

Anterior wall

Pectoralis major, underlying pectoralis minor and the subclavius muscles

6
Q

What is E? 

What  is it formed by?

A

The lateral wall

Intertubecular groove of the humerus

7
Q

What is F? 

What is it formed from?

A

Posterior wall

Subscapularis, teres major and latissimus dorsi

8
Q

What is A?

What are the three parts of this structure? 

A

The axillary artery

One medial to the pectoralis minor, one posterior to pectoralis minor, and one lateral to pectoralis minor.

The medial and posterior parts travel in the axilla.

9
Q

Describe the function of the axillary vein? 

A

 The main vein draining the upper limb, its two largest tributaries are the cephalic and basilic veins

 

10
Q

When does the axillary artery become the brachial artery?

A

At the lower margins of the teres major

11
Q

What is the axillary artery called before the lateral margin of the first rib?

A

The subclavian artery

12
Q

What is E? 

What is its function and origin? 

A

The long thoracic nerve 

Innervates the serratus anterior.

Roots C5, C6 and C7

13
Q

What is D?

Where does it originate from? 

A

The ulnar nerve 

C8 - T1

14
Q

What is C? 

What are its roots? 

A

The median nerve

C5 - T1

15
Q

What is B? 

Where are its roots?

A

The musculocutaneous nerve 

C5, C6 and C7 

16
Q

What are the two tendons found in the axilla? 

Where do they attach? 

A

Biceps Brachii and Corocobrachialis

tMove through the axilla, where they attach to the scapula

17
Q

What is the cluster of nerves in the axilla called?

A
18
Q

What causes thoracic outlet syndrome? 

A

The vessels and nerves of the axilla may become compressed and damaged by the clavicle as a result of repetive strain or trauma ( fractures clavicle) 

19
Q

What does thoracic outlet syndrome present as? 

A

Pain in the affected limb, (where the pain is depends on what nerves are affected), tingling, muscle weakness and discolouration

20
Q

What is the clinical relevance of axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer diagnosis? 

How can they be utilised in treatment? 

A

 75% of lymph from the breast drains into the axilla lymph nodes, so can be biopsied if breast cancer is suspected.

If breast cancer is confirmed, the axillary nodes may need to be removed to prevent the cancer spreading. This is known as axillary clearance

21
Q

What can axillary clearance result in?

A

Damage to long thoracic nerve and winged scapula