Covered in this deck
- Scaphoid fractures
- Dislocation of lunate
- Colle’s Fracture
- Smith’s fracture
To be determined
- Types of investigations to determine joint injury
What is a common way to fracture scaphoid?
Falling on an outstretched hand
What is the main clinical sign of a scaphoid fracture?
Tenderness in anatomical snuffbox
Why does a scaphoid fracture need to be dealt with quickly?
Fracture can cut off blood supply to proximal part, causing it to undergo avascular necrosis
How can anterior dislocation of the lunate occur?
By falling on a dorsiflexed wrist
What happens in anterior lunate dislocation?
The lunate can be forced anteriorly, and compresses the carpal tunnel, causing carpal tunnel syndrome.
How does carpal tunnel syndrome manifest itself?
As pins and needles in the sensory distribution of the median nerve and weakness of thenar muscles
Why does anterior dislocation of lunate require immediate clinical attention?
Lunate can undergoe avascular necrosis
What is a colle’s fracture?
A fracture of the wrist caused by falling onto an outstretched hand, fracturing the radius and displacing distal radial fragment and hand posteriorly
What is the deformity in Colle’s fracture known as?
Dinner fork deformity
What is special about fractures to the radius and ulnar?
Due to ring structure, usually both damaged in trauma to forearm
What is moteggia’s fracture?
Usually caused by a force from behind the ulna Shaft of ulna is fractured and head of the radius dislocates anteriorly at the elbow
What is gleazzi’s fracture?
Fracture of the radius, ulna head dislocated at the distal radio-ulnar joint
Give a common elbow dislocation
Young child fals of a hand when elbow flexed.
Distal end of humerus is driven through the weakest part of the joint capsule, which is anterior side.
Ulna collateral ligament torn and ulnar nerve can be damaged
What is another name for tennis elbow?
What is the cause of epicondylitis?
Most of the flexor and extensor muscles in the forearm have a common tendonous origin.Sportspersons can develop an overuse strain of the common tendon – which results in pain and inflammation around the area of the affected epicondyle.
Where is pain in tennis elbow?
Lateral epicondyle from common extensor origin
Where is pain in golfers elbow?
Medial epicondyle from common flexor origin
How can a supracondylar fracture be caused?
Falling on a flexed elbow
What type of fracture is a supracondylar fracture?
Transverse, spanning two epicondyles
What is a complication of supracondylar fractures?
Volkmanns ischemic contracture and damage to medial, ulna or radial nerves
What occurs in “pulled elbow”?
Head of radius subluxates from annular ligament
What is the difference between subluxation and dislocation?
Dislocation complete loss of contact of joint surfaces
Subluxation partial dislocation of a joint, so bone ends misaligned but still in contact
What is Smith’s fracture?
Fall onto back of the hand - opposite of Colle’s fracture.
Give some methods of diagnosis of joint disorder
X Rays Stress views Arthrography (X ray with contrast) MRI CT
What is a sprain?
Damage to a ligament
What is dislocation?
Complete loss of continuity of the joint
Give two main pathological causes of joint disorder
What is osteoarthritis?
Clinical and pathological outcome of a range of disorders that results in structural and functional failure of synovial joints
What are the symptoms of osteoarthritis?
Pain Stiffness Deformity Loss of function Crepitus
What is rheumatoid arthritis?
Chronic systemic inflammatory disease, resulting in synovial hypertrophy and chronic synovial joint inflammation
What are the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis?
Stifness Pain on motion Limitation of motion Swelling Deformity