Stimuli not attended to are processed too weakly to be brought to conscious awareness
Because not all information can be attended to, our mind chooses which stimuli is most important
What was the first comprehensive theory of attention?
Broadbent's Filter Theory of Attention. The filter selects the incoming messages that will be further processed based on the physical properties of the message
A task in which a person simultaneously hears two different auditory stimuli,with one stimulus presented to each ear
What experiment determined that "misery loves miserable company?"
Schachter's anxiety experiment
Factors that foster group cohesion
- Presence of an outside threat
- distinction between in-group and out-group
- social in physical environment that is conducive to people frequently meeting and interacting with each other
- similarity of members and interests or values
- democratic leader who values good group feelings and group members' input in decision-making
Tendency of a cohesive group to seek unanimity and suspend critical evaluation in making decsions
The degree to which the group agrees on the role of each member
The tendency of people in groups to hold extreme views and a group-produced enhancement of member's preexisting tendencies or a strengthening of the average inclination of group members.
Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension, and weakened restraints against forms of prohibited behaviors
Transmission of emotion through a crowd or group
What are the three classifications for group tasks?
- Combined contributions (additive or compensatory)
- comparing tasks based on best and worst members (disjunctive and conjunctive)
- task classification (intellective, criterion, judgmental, and maximizing)
What is an additive task?
The inputs of each of the group members are added together to create the group performance, and the expected performance of the group is the sum of the group members' individual input
What is a compensatory task?
The group input is combined, so that the performance of the individuals is averaged rather than added.
When the group's performance is determined by the best group member
When the groups' performance is determined by the ability of the poorest performing group member
Involves the ability of the group to make a decision or a judgment
The group can see that there is a clearly correct answer to the problem that is being posed.
There is no clearly correct answer to the problem that is posed
Involves performance that is measured by how rapidly the group works, or how much of a product they are able to make
Two defining task types
Divisible (work can be divided among individuals) and unitary (work cannot be divided)
People who are unaware of one another and do not interact with one another
The tendency for people to do worse on complex tasks when observed by others
Diffusion of responsibility
The tendency for people to assume that someone else will respond to a situation and take effect
Schachter's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Emotional reactions are based upon cognitive interpretations of arousal
We prefer to be right rather than happy
The idea that variability in behavior from one situation to another is far greater than had been recognized by many early theorists
The jigsaw technique. Children of defferent races brought together in cooperative groups. Each assigned a different portion of the lesson to learn and teach others. Promotes group learning and race relations.
Low vs. High achieving in cooperative learning situations
Low-achieving students derive maximum benefit; high-achieving students resist technique, complaining that the methods are not sufficiently challenging.
Founder of modern social psychology. Developed multiple techniques for understanding social processes, particularly social norms and social conflict. Autokinetic Effect experiment, and Robber's Cave. Realistic Conflict Theory (conflict over limited resources).