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Least Restrictive Environment

The idea that students with documented disabilities should be placed in programs with non-disabled students whenever possible


The Family Education Freedom Act

A bill initially introduced in the U.S. House of the Representatives in 1998. It would allow tax credits for educational expenses


Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

Guaranteed a high-quality eduction for all individuals, with a fair and equal opportunity to obtain an education


Hiskey-Nebraska Test

Non-linguistic IQ test that assesses cognitive abilities in children between ages 3 and 16, with the use of 12 nonverbal subtests. Designed for use with hearing-impaired children. 12 subtests (bead patterns, memory for color, picture identification, picture associations, paper folding, visual-attention span, block patterns, completion of drawings, memory for digest, puzzle blocks, picture analogies, and spatial reasoning.


Leiter International Performance Scale

Can be administered to children with receptive or expressive language problems, including hearing disorders.

  • reasoning
  • visualization
  • Attention
  • memory

Using no language


Columbia Mental Maturity Scale

Used with children with expressive language disorders and sensorimotor disorders.

 test of general reasoning ability for children ages 3:6 through 9:11, does not require verbal responses of fine motor skills and is useful for children with brain damage, mental retardation, speech impairments, hearing loss, or limited English proficiency.


Single-Task Tests

Seguin Foam Board, Porteus Mazes, and Kohs Block Design



Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; 1975. Ensures children with disabilities have access to free appropriate education in the least restrictive environment



Family Education Rights and Privacy Act is a federal law protecting the privacy of student educational records. AKA, the Buckley Admendment


Larry P. V. Riles

Lawsuit in San Francisco Federal Court regarding IQ testing to place minority children in special education classes. Judge Robert Peckham's ruling banned such testing.


Brain regions involved in ADHD

Frontal cortex and Basla Ganglia


Assessments for ADHD

  • BASC
  • CBC
  • WAIS-IV and WISC-IV (look for sub-test variability or SCAD profile
    symbol Search, Coding, Arithmetic, & Digit Span)
  • ADHD rating scales
  • Stroop


Sickness Impact Profile

Intended to measure every day activities in someone who is ill, to indicate changes in the person's behavior, due to sickness.

Based on decision theory, which seeks to provide an overall health or well-being index.


Health Risk Assessment

Test assessing current health, including lifestyle behaviors, biometrics, health status, and compliance with recommended preventive health screenings, chronic conditions, and future disease risk.


Nottingham Health Profile

A questionnaire intended for primary health care, to provide a brief indication of a patient's perceived emotional, social, and physical health problems


Autistic children will have their highest and lowest scores in which subtests of the WISC-IV?

Highest - Block Design; Lowest - Comprehension


Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Severe developmental regression following two years of normal development. One key issue is the potential for repetitive and stereotyped behavior patterns.


Glascow Coma Scale

15-item test used to predict outcome of traumatic brain injury. Grades consiousness in relation to eye-opening and motor and verbal responses. Scores range from 3-15. 15 in all three is normal, 3-8 indicate severe neurological disability/damage, and 3 indicates brain death.


AVPU Scale

Stands for

  • Alert
  • Verbal
  • Pain
  • Unresponsive 

Measures patient's level of alertness and responsiveness to vocal and painful stimuli to assess consciousness


Ranchos Los Amigos Coma Scale

Assess consciousness based on eight levels of responsiveness



A mental disorder associated with exaggerated and ambiguous symptomology.

Indicated in ct presentations of medical or legal content to the referred, discrepancy between objective findings and reported symptoms, compliance problems, and the presence of antisocial personality disorder.

Tests of Memory Malingering.


Compensation Neurosis

A collection of symptoms presented by a person who has the prospect of receiving financial compensation for an industrial injury, failed surgical operation, car accident, or the like, susceptible to being interpreted as a profit from the incident.


Factitious Disorders

Illnesses self-induced or falsified by the patient.


Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)

While changes in cognitive status in primarily assessed with the MMSE, changes in orientation to tame and place, altered states of consciousness, confusion and other aspects of delirium are best measured with the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)


Split-Attention Effect

The phenomenon by which the physical integration of verbal and pictorial information sources, compared to their physical separation, enhances learning


Ponzo Effect

The way the eyes judges distance and size based on an object's background.


Pulfrich Effect

Result of the way we perceive moving objects



Evaluation of nature, location, and extent of brain damage and related structural changes. Contains 7 neurological tests and 10 cognitive functioning tests. Individual tests are weighted and combined into Halstead Impairment Index. This is the most commonly used neuropsychological battery.



A neuropsychological battery that allows one to localize brain damage without the aid of fMRI.


Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration

Designed to assess visual-motor integration in children as young as 2, adolescents, and adults of all ages. Short form used for those aged 2-7.