Goal of APA Ethics Code
welfare of individuals and groups with whom psychoogists work, and the education of APA members and public
deception in research
study has strong scientific value & non-deceptive alternatives are not available
Differential Validity (discrimination)
When 1 ethnicity scores differently than another ethnicity.
General Expectancy Theory
Vroom's Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE)
Motivation Theory, not Performance
Refers to expectancy of success on the task.
Employees decide on how likely it is that their efforts will result in desired achievement on task.
anticipation of rewards.
Employees consider the probability that rewards will follow thier accomplishment or performance
value the rewards have for employees.
employees deermine how much they value the offered rewards
Adam's Equity theory
Ratio of self-inputs/self outcomes versus other's inputs outcomes.
Based on SOCIAL COMPARISION theory.
We adjust our performance based on things appearing fair or unfair.
General Performance Model
Performance is a function of
(environmental variables & organizational support)
- capacity/ability (individual attributes)
- willingness/motivation (work effort)
Match between personality type & work environment
High congruence = longevity at the job.
Consistency = how closely related a person's 1st 2 code letters are on hexagon
= stability in work Hx
Distinctness of profile. Easiest to predict behavior of people with highly differentiated profiles
individual's view that work environment has a clear & stable system of goals & rewards
judge's rating of a subject is influenced by prior subject
Herzberg 2 factor theory
content = satisfaction - higher level needs motivators
context = dissatisfaction = lower level needs hygeine
administrative model of decision making vs
admin = satisficing
rational = all possile alternative solutions
House's Path-Goal Theory
Leadership = increase personal payoffs for subordinates & make paths to payoffs easier by clarifying and reducing roadblocks
Help employee to acheive goals
Combo of expert & referent power. Most common reaason subordinates comply with supervisor's requests
Super's theory of career develpment
- growth (14)
- exploratory (15-24)
- establishment (25-44)
- maintenance (45-64)
- decline or disengagment (65+)
8 life roles
Based on principle of reciprocal inhibition (2 incompatible responses cannot be experienced at the same time, but rahter that the stronger response will dominate or inhibit the weaker.
Specific Counterconditioning interventions
- systematic desensitization
- sensate focus
- assertiveness training
- aversive counterconditioning
Best Phobia treatment
exposure with response prevention
in escape paradigm
punishment is inevitable
putting a behavior under the control of only certain stimuli
autonmous Functions of the Ego
Hartmann - ego psychology
using perception, learning, memory, & locomotion
Beck's Cognitive Triad
- negative view of self as defective and inadequate
- tendency to experience world as negative, interprete events negative, and expect failure and punishment
- expectation of continued hardship or negative appraisal of future.
understanding subjective experiences
Reality Therapy founder
Characterized by emphasis on responsibility, clarification of values, and evaluation of behavior
Deliquent adolescents & prison inmates