Social Studies Tst Review: Chapter 1,2,3 Egypt Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social Studies Tst Review: Chapter 1,2,3 Egypt Deck (28):
1

nomarch

powerful leader who ruled a nome

2

nome

a single province composed of many villages in a local area

3

cuneiform

writing that used wedge-shaped symbols that the Egyptians used.

4

pyramids

huge stone monuments that were a major achievement in architecture in the Old Kingdom of Egypt

5

Hyksos

foreign invaders that were nomads from palestin that invaded the middle kingdom

6

shaduf

a primitive water pump

7

Inundation

the annual flooding of the Nile

8

mercenaries

soldiers of foreign nationalites that were hired to fight for the Pharoah that fought for money

9

During the Old Kingdom, what was the capital of Egypt and which king established it

King Menes established it at Memphis

10

What is the specialization of labor and why was it an important step in the development of civilization?

It is when people to use their special skills to do jobs. this allowed people to grow better crops and make better tools.

11

What was the main reason Egypt began to organize local governments into nomes and why

The population was growing and irrigation projects were expanding. Their needed to be people in charge of t irrigation projects and farmers and the Pharaoh could not do everything

12

What was unusual about the crown created by King Menes and what did the colors symbolize

He wore a white and red crown. The white was for Upper Egypt. The crown was cone shaped

13

During the Middle Kingdom, what was the capital of Egypt

Thebes replaced Memphis as the capital city

14

Write where Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt are located and why

They were both on the Nile River. Lower Egypt was on top of Upper Egypt on the map but Upper Egypt was on higher land and lower Egypt was on lower ground

15

During the Old Kingdom, what did these nations trade with Egypt
Byblos
Nubia
The Sinai

Byblos- cedar
Nubia- gold, ebony, ivory, panther skins, slaves and ostrich feathers
The Sinai- copper and turquoise

16

What are 4 reasons Egypt weakened at the end of the Old Kingdom and central government ended

1. Too much of the royal treasury (money) was being spent on the building/maintenance of the pyramids
2. Many of the upper class did not pay taxes- they found loopholes in the tax system
3. The population was growing too big
4. The new nomarchs did not depend on the pharaoh for their power

17

How did the Hyksos defeat the pharaoh's troops at the end of the Middle Kingdom

they had better military technology including horses that pulled a cart where 2 soldiers rode. One driving the horse and one shooting arrows

18

What are the 5 important contributions made by the Hyksos to the Egyptian way of life?

1. Introduced the upright loom- which improved the quality of woven linen
2. Imported musical instruments (lute, oboe, lyre)
3. Introduced the potter's wheel
4. Brought humpbacked cattle to plow the fields
5. Melted copper and tin to produce bronze

19

How werethe Egyptians finally able to defeat the Hyksos to begin the New kingdom

they made war chariots that were lighter and more maneuverable than those of the Hyksos

20

Why is King Menes important (3 reasons)

1. He united Upper and Lower Egypt
2. He founded the 1st Dynasty
3. He established Memphis as the capital city

21

Why is King Senwosnet important (4 reasons)

1. He made a channel through the rocks of the 1st cataract so war ships could sail into Nubia.
2. He conquered Nubia- so their gold belonged to Egypt
3. He built a fortified town of Buhen on the Nubian border- so he could control trade into Africa
4. He expanded Egypt upstream into the 3rd cataract

22

Why is Thutmose 1 important (2 reasons)

1. He conquered Syria (which was the 1st imperial power to rule western Asia)
2. First person buried in the Valley of the Kings

23

Why was Hatshepsut important (5 reasons)

1. She banished Thutmose 3 to a temple to study with priests
2. She was history's 1st great female ruler
3. She focused on trade
4. She used money to repair the damages done to temples on the Nile by the Hyksos
5. She directed the beautification of Thebes

24

Why was Thutmose 3 important (1 reason)

Egypt's greatest military commander

25

Why was Amonhotep 4 Important (1 reason)

He focused on art and culture- and territories started to rebel

26

Why was Ramses the Great Important (3 reasons)

1. He signed a peace treaty with the Hittites after he had defeated the Hittites
2. He erected more buildings and statues than any other pharoah
3. He ordered monuments to be covered with hieroglyphics to testify to his greatness

27

Why was Alexander the Great important (3 reasons)

1. He was the ruler of Greece who conquered Egypt
2. He respected Egypt art and culture
3. He also conquered the Persians

28

Who were the 4 important foreign civilizations that conquered ancient Egypt after the death of Ramses 3 and what is something important about each?

1. Persia- they ruled for 200 years. Egyptians hated them
2. Greece- led by Alexander the Great. He built the city of Alexandria in the Delta
3. Rome- they closed the temples and stripped the monuments and buildings
4. Moslems- the stamped out the last of the ancient Egyptian culture