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Nutrition 1 Part 2 > Sodium > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sodium Deck (43):
1

approx 70% of the sodium in the body is located in the,____, 30% is located_____

extracellular fluid
bone crystals

2

primary source of dietary sodium is

added salt in the form of NaCl

3

~75% of dietary sodium is from

processed foods

4

____ % of sodium consumed is absorbed

95-100%

5

absorption of sodium occurs in what three pathways

Na/glucose cotransport system
Na/Cl co transport system
electrogenic Na absorption mechanism

6

Sodium is transported via the

Na/K ATPase pump

7

the Na/K ATPase pump pumps sodium out of the ____ accoss the basolateral membrane into the blood stream

enterocyte

8

functions of sodium

maintenance of membrane potential
maintenance of blood volume and blood pressure

9

sodium is the principle _______ cation

extracellular

10

potssium is the principle ______ cation

intracellular

11

the membrane potential is maintaine by

Na/K ATPase pump

12

tight control of cell membrane potential is critical for

nerve impulse transmission
muscle contraction
heart function

13

sodium is the primary determinant of _______ volume

extracellular

14

in the circulatory system, baroreceptors sense changes in blood pressure and send _____ or ______ signals to nervous system and endocrine glands to affect sodium regulation by the kidneys

excitatory or inhibitory

15

serum sodium levels in the blood are maintained by what hormones

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
atrial natriuretic hormone (ANP)

16

in response to a significant decrease in blood vlume or pressure, the kidneys release _____ into the circulation which produces angiotension I

renin

17

angiotensin I is from _____ in the liver

angiotensinogen

18

angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)

19

ACE is located

on the inner surface of blood vessels
lungs
liver
kidney

20

Angiotensin II stimulates the ______ of arteriols

constriction

21

Angiotensin II is a potent stimulator of

aldosterone synthesis

22

aldosterone is produced by the

adrenal glands

23

aldosterone is a steroid hormone that acts on the _____ to increase the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium

kidneys

24

a significant decrease in blood volume or pressure will stimulate the secretion of

ADH

25

ADH acts on the kidneys to do what

increase reabsorption of water

26

ANP is secreted by the ____

heart muscle cells

27

why is ANP secreted

in response to high blood volume

28

what does ANP do

increases the glomerular filtration rate

29

what happens when the glomerular filtration rate is increased

increasing the excretion of sodium and water

30

ANP inhibits the release of _____

renin

31

excess sodium is excreted by the kidneys under the control of ___

aldosterone

32

aldosterone is released from the

adrenal cortex

33

why is aldosterone released from the adrenal cortex

in response to low sodium or high potassium and promotes retention of sodium and excretion of potassium

34

hyponatremia may result from

inappropriate ADH secretion
severe/prolonged d/v
excessive/prolonged sweating
use of some diuretics and certain kidney dzs

35

Sx of hyponatremia

H/A
n/v
mm cramps
fatigue, weakness, fainting

36

complications of severe and rapidly developing hyponatremia include

cerebral edema
seizures
coma
brain damage
death

37

clinical indications for sodium supplementation

electrolyte replenishment

38

excessive intake os sodium chloride lead to an increase in _____fluid volume

extracellular

39

excessive sodium intake can cause

n/v/d
abd cramping

40

hypernatremia symptoms

dizzy
faining
low BP
oliguria

41

severe hypernatremia may result in

edema
hypertension
tachycardia
dyspnea
convulsions
coma
death

42

high ____ intake increases urinary sodium excretion and protects against the hypertensive effects of sodium

potassium

43

high sodium intake can increase urinary _____ excretion

calcium