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Flashcards in Somesthesis & Proprioception Deck (100):
0

This is the SENSATION of PRESSURE, TOUCH, PAIN and TEMPERATURE.

Somesthesis

1

SENSATIONS from the SKIN are called ______________.

Cutaneous Somesthetic Sensations

2

SENSATIONS from the MUSCLES are called ________________.

Muscular Somesthetic Sensations

3

SENSATIONS from the ORGANS are called ________________.

Visceral Somesthetic Sensations

4

This is the theory that the SKIN is NOT UNIFORMLY SENSITIVE to all sorts of stimuli but HAS SPOTS that are VERY SENSITIVE surrounded by spots of RELATIVELY POOR SENSITIVITY.

Punctuate Sensitivity

5

True or False: the punctuate sensitivity phenomenon makes it impossible to determine fundamental qualities of cutaneous sensations.

FALSE,

The PUNCTATE SENSITIVITY phenomenon makes it POSSIBLE to determine fundamental QUALITIES of CUTANEOUS SENSATIONS.

6

What are the FIVE (5) PRIMARY SENSORY QUALITIES?

Warm
Cold
Pain
Touch
Pressure

7

What are the FIVE (5) SECONDARY SENSORY QUALITIES?

Vibration
Itch
Tickle
Wetness
Oiliness

8

Many SOMATIC RECEPTORS were DESCRIBED BY _______________, over ____ years ago.

Von Frey
100 years

9

What are the SIX (6) SOMATIC RECEPTORS?

Free Nerve Endings
Ruffini Corpuscles
Pacinian Corpuscles
Meissner's Corpuscles
Merkel's/ Tactile Disks
Basket Endings w/ Hairs

10

FREE NERVE ENDINGS subserve ___________ and __________.

Pain
Temperature

11

RUFFINI CORPUSCLES subserve __________ and __________.

Touch
Pressure

12

PACINIAN CORPUSCLES subserve ___________.

Pressure

13

MEISSNER'S CORPUSCLES subserve _____________.

SPECIFIC Light Touch

14

MERKEL'S TACTILE DISKS subserve ______________.

DIFFUSE Light Touch

15

BASKET ENDINGS w/ HAIRS subserve _____________.

DIFFUSE Light Touch

16

What are the THREE (3) LAYERS of the SKIN?

Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous Fat (Hypodermis)

*See Handout*

17

What TWO (2) SOMATIC RECEPTORS are found in the EPIDERMIS of the skin?

Merkel's Disks
Free Nerve Endings

18

What THREE (3) SOMATIC RECEPTORS are found in the DERMIS of the skin?

Meissner's Corpuscles
Ruffini Corpuscles
Basket Endings w/ Hairs

19

What SOMATIC RECEPTORS (1) are found in the SUBCUTANEOUS FAT LAYER (HYPODERMIS) of the skin?

Pacinian Corpuscles

20

SOMESTHETIC FIBERS are DIVIDED into how many groups?

Two

21

SOMESTHETIC FIBERS are divided into what TWO (2) GENERAL GROUPS?

A-Fibers
C-Fibers

22

What are the TWO (2) SUBCATEGORIES of A-FIBERS?

A-BETA
A-DELTA

23

These A-FIBERS subserve PRESSURE and SPECIFIC LIGHT TOUCH.

A-BETA Fibers

24

These A-FIBERS subserve TEMPERATURE and PAIN.

A-DELTA Fibers

25

C-FIBERS subserve ___________, ___________ and ___________.

Temperature
Pain
DIFFUSE Light Touch

26

___ FIBERS are MYELINATED and ___ FIBERS are UNMYELINATED.

A- MYELINATED
C- UNMYELINATED

27

True or False: thermal fibers can be connected to both warm and cold coded areas of the brain.

FALSE,

THERMAL FIBERS CANNOT be both warm and cold.

28

_________ FIBERS respond to temperatures BELOW PHYSIOLOGICAL 0.

A-DELTA

29

__________ FIBERS respond to temperatures ABOVE PHYSIOLOGICAL 0.

C-FIBERS

30

PHYSIOLOGICAL 0 is ___ degrees CELSIUS.

35

31

What are the TWO (2) PARADOXICAL SENSATIONS?

Paradoxical Cold
Paradoxical Warmth

32

PARADOXICAL COLD is between ___ and ___ DEGREES CELSIUS.

45 and 50

33

PARADOXICAL WARMTH is between ___ and ___ DEGREES CELSIUS.

25 and 30

34

PARADOXICAL COLD is a ________ FIBER set into EXCITATION by a _________ STIMULUS.

Cold Fiber
Hot Stimulus

35

PARADOXICAL WARMTH is a _________ FIBER set into EXCITATION by a __________ STIMULUS.

Warm Fiber
Cold Stimulus

36

What happens once a COLD STIMULUS is APPLIED to the SKIN, THEN REMOVED?

The COLD EXPERIENCE REMAINS for a time.

37

COLD RECEPTORS respond BETTER at ___ DEGREES CELSIUS than they do at ___ DEGREES CELSIUS.

25
15

38

What happens when SKIN is WARMING toward a NORMAL TEMPERATURE?

The number of IMPULSES in COLD FIBERS INCREASE.

39

True or False: the threshold for cold is less than that for warmth.

TRUE,

The THRESHOLD for COLD is LESS than that for warmth.

40

Are WARM SPOTS more or less STABLE than cold spots?

LESS STABLE and LESS REPEATABLE than cold spots.

Example: If cold and hot rods are placed on hands again, COLD will be IDENTICAL and WARM will be SLIGHTLY OFF.

41

Is ADAPTATION to a WARM STIMULUS typically greater or less/faster or slower than that of a cold stimulus?

Greater and Faster

42

True or False: pain receptors join with each other and serve overlapping areas of the skin.

FALSE,

PAIN RECEPTORS DO NOT join with each other BUT they DO SERVE OVERLAPPING AREAS of the skin.

43

True or False: if a needle is touched to any part of the skin it is likely to stimulate branches of one fiber.

FALSE,

if a needle is touched to any part of the skin it is likely to STIMULATE branches of MORE THAN ONE fiber.

44

How many kinds of PAIN EXPERIENCES are there?

2

45

What are the TWO (2) kinds of PAIN EXPERIENCES?

Prick
Dull

46

This PAIN EXPERIENCE is BRIGHT and relatively SHORT and well LOCALIZED.

Prick

47

This kind of PAIN EXPERIENCE is LONG LASTING and is NOT well LOCALIZED.

Dull

48

Prick Pain is subserves by ___ FIBERS.

A-DELTA Fibers

49

DULL PAIN is subserved by ___ FIBERS.

C-Fibers

50

Some CHEMICALS such as ____________, _____________ and ___________ may CAUSE PAIN when injected.

Histamine
Acetylcholine
Serotonin

51

Pain caused by HISTAMINE, ACH and 5-HT when injected may be a GENERAL EXCITATORY EFFECT on _______________.

Free Nerve Endings

52

This PHENOMENON is characterized by a patient RECEIVING SENSATIONS from a LIMB that has been AMPUTATED.

Phantom Limb Experience

53

True or False: children who sustain an amputation do not develop phantom limb experience.

TRUE,

CHILDREN who sustain an amputation DO NOT DEVELOP PHANTOM LIMB experience.

54

This occurs when PAIN SENSATIONS that ORIGINATE in ONE PART of the body are PERCEIVED as COMING FROM ANOTHER part of the body.

Referred Pain

55

VISCERAL PAIN is usually REFERRED to the SKIN or MUSCLE, this is known as ___________.

Angina Pectoris

56

In most cases SENSORY NEURONS from an area ORIGINATING the IMPULSES, AND those from the area of REFERRED PAIN ENTER the SAME _________ producing a _________.

Dorsal Spinal Root
Short Circuit

57

This type of HEADACHE is caused by CONSTANTLY CONTRACTED MUSCLES in the the HEAD or NECK.

Muscle Tension Headache

58

This type of HEADACHE involves ALTERATIONS in SEROTONIN-mediated functioning.

Migraines

59

During a MIGRAINE, blood VESSELS have a(an) __________ tone under normal conditions.

Intrinsic

60

What happens to the blood VESSELS in the CEREBRAL ARTERIES during a MIGRAINE?

They dialate

61

MIGRAINE pain may also STEM FROM the RELEASE OF _________ from the ________ NERVE which project to blood vessels.

Peptides
Trigeminal

*Peptides may alter pain thresholds*

62

These DRUGS act by RAISING the pain THRESHOLD.

Analgesics

63

MORPHINE and COCAINE WORK primarily ON ___ FIBERS.

C-Fibers

64

Name the TWO (2) TACTILE FIBERS.

A-BETA
C-Fibers

65

These RECEPTORS are found in JOINTS.

Pacinian Corpuscles

66

True or False: angle change occurs in joints and with each angle change, different receptors respond.

TRUE,

ANGLE CHANGE occurs IN JOINTS and WITH EACH angle CHANGE, DIFFERENT RECEPTORS RESPONDS.

67

The __________ SYSTEM exists within the INNER EAR.

Vestibular

68

The ______________ consists of THREE (3) SEMICIRCULAR CANALS.

Vestibular Apparatus

69

The THREE (3) SEMICIRCULAR CANALS connect to a SAC-LIKE STRUCTURE called a ___________.

Uticle

70

The UTILCLE connects to another LARGE SAC-LIKE STRUCTURE called a __________.

Saccule

71

SEMICIRCULAR CANALS are SITUATED in ___ DIFFERENT PLANES at RIGHT ANGLES to each other.

3

72

Each SEMICIRCULAR CANAL is FILLED WITH _____________.

Endolymph

73

Each SEMICIRCULAR CANAL ENLARGES at the BASE where it ATTACHES TO the __________.

Utricle

74

The ENLARGED portion of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS is called the _________ and contains ___________.

Ampulla
Receptor Hair Cells

75

The HAIR CELLS of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS are covered by a JELLY-LIKE mass called the __________.

Cupula

76

True or False: the semicircular canals are sensitive to rotation of the head.

TRUE

77

True or False: the fluid of the semicircular canals is continuous with that in the utricle and saccule.

TRUE

78

These are CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLES that LIE ON the GELATINOUS SUBSTANCE that covers the RECEPTOR HAIR CELLS within the UTRICLE and SACCULE.

Otoliths

79

The RECEPTOR CELLS in combination with the GELATINOUS COVERING that contains the OTOLITHS make up the _________.

Macula

80

FIBERS LEAVE the VESTIBULAR APPARATUS, TRAVELING in the VESTIBULAR COMPONENT of CRANIAL NERVE ___.

VIII (8)

81

Immediate DESTINATION of the KINESTHETIC NERVE FIBER PATHWAYS is the _____________ in the ___________.

Vestibular Nuclei
Medulla

82

____________ is made up of CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI III, IV and VI in the BRAIN STEM which MEDIATEs REFLEXES such as MOVEMENT of EYES to the LEFT when the HEAD MOVES RIGHT.

Ocularmotor Centers

83

The VOMITING CENTER is located in the __________.

Medulla

84

FIBERS LEAVE the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI and TRAVEL TO what FOUR (4) PLACES?

Ocularmotor Centers
Vomiting Center
Cerebellum
Reticular Formation
Spin Cord

85

What is the result of UNILATERAL damage to the VESTIBULAR APPARATUS?

Disorientation, distress, nausea and vomiting occur as a result of head movement.

86

What is the RESULT of BILATERAL damage to the VESTIBULAR APPARATUS?

Some loss in ability to stand upright when the eyes are closed.

87

True or False: there is significant evidence that links the vestibular system to motion sickness.

TRUE

88

_____________ SENSITIVITY subserves KINESTHESIS, PRESSURE and SPECIFIC LIGHT TOUCH.

Epictitic

89

____________ SENSITIVITY subserves PAIN, TEMPERATURE and DIFFUSE LIGHT TOUCH.

Protopathic

90

SOMESTHETIC and KINESTHETIC impulses from the FACE and HEAD enter brain directly over CRANIAL NERVES, ESPECIALLY cranial nerve ___.

V (5)

91

Upon approaching the brain, the ____________ NERVES is divided into THREE (3) main ROOTS which GO TO nuclei in the BRAIN

TRIGEMINAL (cranial nerve 5)

92

The ______________ NUCLEUS is LOCATED in the MEDULLA and RECEIVES IMPULSES of TEMPERATURE, PAIN and DIFFUSE LIGHT TOUCH.

Spinal

93

The ____________ NUCLEUS is LOCATED in the PONS and RECEIVES IMPULSES of PRESSURE and SPECIFIC LIGHT TOUCH.

Sensory Nucleus

94

The _____________ NUCLEUS is LOCATED in the MIDBRAIN and RECEIVES IMPULSES of KINESTHESIS.

Mesencephalic Nucleus

95

In regards to the HEAD and FACE, following synapses in respective nuclei, IMPULSES ASCEND to HIGHER BRAIN AREAS via the _______________.

Bulbothalamic Tract

96

The BULBOTHALAMIC TERMINATES a in the ________________.

Arcuate Nucleus

97

The ARCUATE NUCLEUS is LOCATED in the ______________ of the THALAMUS.

Posteroventral Nucleus (PVN)

98

From the ARCUATE NUCLEUS, IMPULSES ASCEND to areas _________ of BROADMAN'S CLASSIFICATION.

3-1-2

99

True or False: when all pathways reach the thalamus, there is no longer segregation according to function.

TRUE,

The POSTEROVENTRAL NUCLEUS is largely arranged on a TOPOLOGICAL basis.