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Flashcards in Special Problems In Children Deck (35)
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1

What's the most common lesion in neonates?

The Mongolian blue spot

(AKA Congenital dermal melanocytosis)

2

How do you treat a mongolian blue spot?

You don't.

They usually regress over time.

3

What is this called?

Naevus of Ota

It is over the 1st or 2nd branch of the trigeminal nerve.

4

At what age peaks does the Naevus of Ota form?

1st peak = <1 year old

2nd peak = puberty

5

What is this?

Naevus of Ito

 

(Involves the supraclavicular, scapular or deltoid region)

6

Does a naeuvs of ito or a naevus of Ota spontaneously resolve?

No

 

Q-Switched Ruby Lasers have been successfull in the past.

7

What is this and how do you treat it?

Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum

Affects 50% of neonates

Usually begins on the face

Resolves spontaenously over a week or two.

8

What is this

At what age does it start?

How do you treat it?

Infantile Acne

About 3 months

Topical BPO & Topical Erythromycin.

Can consider Topical Tretinoin or Adapelene.

 

9

What are the two types of vascular birthmarks?

Infantile Haemangiomas

Vascular Malformations

10

What is this?

Who does it occur in?

Does it spontaneously resolve?

  • Infantile Haemangioma (Strawberry naevus)
  • More common in girls and premature infants.
  • It usually involutes leaving a hypopigmented patch:
    • 30% by 3
    • 90% by 9

11

When should an infantile haemangioma be referred?

Refer if there is:

  • Ulceration
  • Recurrent bleeding
  • Large facial haemangiomas
  • Significant areas - perioral, periocular etc.

 

12

What is the treatment for infantile haemangiomas by the specialist?

  • Propranolol is first line. (2 to 3 times daily until the child is 12-15 months)

13

What is this?

A port wine stain

It is the most common type of vascular malformation.

14

In which condition do port wine stains occur and when should you refer?

Sturge-Weber Syndrome

10% of neonates with SWS will have a port wine stain.

Refer all port wine stains involving the opthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve due to risks of eye abnormalities.

15

Name the 6 common skin tumours in children.

  1. Naevus Sebaceous
  2. Becker's Naevus
  3. Epidermal Naevus
  4. Epidermal Naevus syndrome
  5. Pilomatricoma
  6. Juvenile Xanthogranuloma (JXG)

16

What is this?

A Naevus Sebaceous

10-15% become cancer (Usually BCC)

Excise when in teenage years if possible.

17

What is this and how is it treated?

Becker's Naevus

IPL and Lasers to reduce pigmentation.

18

What condition is this?

 

Epidermal Naevus Syndrome

19

What 2 other syndromes can Epidermal Naevus Syndrome be associated with?

  • CHILD syndrome (females, hemidysplasia, limb defects, ichthyosiform naevus)
  • Proteus syndrome (overgrowth of tissues in skin, fat, blood vessels, kidneys, lungs and other organs)

20

What is this?

Pilomatricoma

 

Benign bluish hard nodule of calcium deposits.

21

What is this?

Juvenile Xanthogranuloma (JXG)

 

Majority flatten in 3-5 year

 

22

What is this and in what condition is it seen?

Cafe au lait spot

Neurofibromatosis

23

What are these?

Angiofibromas of Tuberous Sclerosis

24

What is this?

Shagreen patch and an ash leaf macule

 

Both seen in Tuberous Sclerosis.

25

What is this?

Periungual Fibromas - seen in tuberous sclerosis

26

What is this and how do you treat it?

Tinea Capitis

  • 1st line Griseofulvin or oral terbinafine.
  • 1nd line Itraconazole.

1% of children will have residual scarring.

27

How do you treat scabies?

  • Permethrin ceam inlcuding face and scalpe
  • Leave for 8 hours.
  • Repeat after 1 week.
  • Treat all family members.

28

What is this?

Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome

Monomorphic papules on extensor surfaces.

Usually clears in 8 weeks.

Asociated with Hep B and other viral infections.

29

What is this and tell me about it?

Henoch Schonlein Purpura

  • IgA Vasculitis of the skin
  • 4-7 years old
  • Boys more than girls.
  • Associated with abdominal pain.

30

What is the most common complication of HSP?

Nephritis