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Flashcards in Strategies and Tactics Deck (611):

Hazards in stripmalls:
Occupancies are often _____
Each occupancy presents _____
Almost every roof is _____ or ______
In the attic fire can run unchecked ______
Metal roof decks will allow fire spread by ___
Tar is used on metal + wood roof decks it is ___

Different hazards + fire behavior
Lightweight wood or metal roof - 1 truss fails multiple will fail

Combustible and can ignite


Strip malls or strip center construction

Long narrow one story buildings
Typically masonry walls
May or may not have fire walls
Front of building often have large _____ + ____, that may be secured at night by ______ or _______

Rear door are usually

Windows + glass doors

Roll gates and shutters

Standard single 32 to 36 swinging door


Overhaul in commercial building:
It may be necessary to request:
Because they undergo visual change to try to keep buildings looking new, ______ are created by renovations.

Materials not exposed to fire should be:

Outside contractors Ex. Forklifts, cranes

Voids + hidden spaces

Covered or removed


Ventilation in Commercial building

____ may be required
____ may be necessary
Fans can be used w/ horizontal vent but remember:
If you open skylights or vents, make sure:

Verticle Ventilation
a trench cut
May intensify or spread fire
It is as close to the body of fire as possible


Extinguishment in Commercial if fire already so large handlines are ineffective:
FF should use:
Make use of any:
Hand lines of _______ inches or more are needed
Do not attack the fire with:
Larger hose=

Heavy elevated streams, ground monitors, large handlines, deck guns
Built in fire protection systems
2 1/2
Less than the volume required
Less friction loss, more water at point of attack


When fire spreads from floor to floor as a result of fire coming out of a window and into the one above. Also may be called _____

Auto extension or autoexposure


Commercial Buildings
_____ and _____ is common in people today
They may not leave when alarm sounds.
Exposure protection should be ____ and ____
Exposure method on closely exposed buildings:
Hoseliness should be placed to support:
Large open areas make confinement tough heat and smoke and fire can spread by _____

Complacency and disregard
Internal and external (large structures)
Flow water using large hose lines or master streams on the exposed buildings
* Autoextension is possible by extension of fire through windows


Search and rescue in Commercial buildings:
People tend to leave:
Check rear exits because:
Evacuation should begin:
______ may be a option depending on:

The way they came in
They can be blocked by storage (look for victims)
Firebuilding , 2 adjacent buildings, work outward
Shelter in place
Depending on severity of the incident and number of evacuees


Commercial Buildings
High ceilings make it hard to assess true heat intensity ______ can occur with very little warning

Many occupants also build ______ for storage


a second floor
* collapse hazard
* Life hazard is typically reduced in the overnight hrs. however some stay running 24/7, also ,some apps on the floor above


Accountability must be established:
Preferably a RIC should be assigned:
Storage often blocks:
It is essential to have a :
FF's working without hoselines should use:

At every entrance and exit point
at every entrance
Means of egress in the rear of the strucuture
well thought out evac plan
a guide rope


Comm Building

It is best to begin preplanning when:

The building is under construction


Commercial occupancies can be broken down into 3 catgories

Mercantile - Retail business, supermarkets, dept store, drug store

Business - Courthouses, barbershops, doc office, they provide a service to the public

Industrial properties - Factory or a manufacturing location


ONCE ______ is accomplished in a MFD _____ operations can begin




Both ______ and _____ are indicated for garden apt's

Horizontal and vertical ventilation


Garden Apt

typically have balconies with large glass openings. Fire can ____
Balconies can store:
Usually TL's can't be used because

Extend rapidly through these opening to the upper floors and the cockloft

Hazardous materials

They can't reach the building


Generally constructed of wood
built during baby boomer generation
can be covered by siding or brick veneer
2 to 4 stories high
up to several hundred ft in length
present large fire loads
placement of entrances causes access problems

Garden apartments
(because they are surrounded by landscaping instead of concrete)


Brownstone MFD's
Brickwalls separate each building including:
When a pocket door is closed
if the fire is located on the first floor
the first line should be pulled to:

the cockloft area

it creates void for vertical extension

the second floor to protect the stairs from fire spread or a second line can be stretched to the first floor entrance to extinguish the fire. The latter method is preferred.
Pg 264


Brownstone MFD's

Built with a high stoop that leads:
Under the high stoop is the ______ entrance
Below that is the ________

Second floor parlor * main floor

first floor or basement



Built using non fire resistive materials
exterior is made of stone masonry, which is how it got its name
3 to 5 stories high
used to be occupied by a rich family
now every invidual room is rented out and tenants share kitchen and bathrooms
Can take up entire block

Brown stone
Multiple family dwellings


Row Frame MFD's
In a rapidly spreading cockloft fire:
Top floor fires are very dangerous
______ is critical
_____ is often necessary

Crews may have to operate a few buildings down to get ahead of the fire

Roof ventialtion

Trench cut


Row Frame MFD

Because of maneuverability _____ or ____ inch hoselines are recommended

Should also stretch lines to :

Any line stretched must be:

1 1/2 or 1 3/4

Top floor of fire building and top floors of adjoining structures

Long enough to cover the entire structure, front to rear


One of the greatest threats to FF safety in row frame MFD is :
It is prudent to begin roof ops ______
Preferred access to roof in a row frame is ____
FF operating on fire escapes should be aware that

* common cockloft*

underestimating the amount of manpower needed


Tower ladder (common attic space)

It can pull away from the building and collapse


General concern with row frame MFD's:

Timing is _______

Rapid fire spread / potential for collapse

* could very well dictate whether you lose one building or an entire block
* common cockloft


Constructed soley of wood .
Built side by side
arranged in a row
as many as 20 in a row
can be 5 stories high
1 or 2 apps per floor

Row frame multiple family dwelling

Fire resistive material are not used

* common cockloft


Fire resistive MFD's

Backup line should be stretched:

They could have _____ or _____ running vertcally through them

If there is a fire in there ______

_____ is not usually a consideration, but open the _____ just in case

At least 2 floor below fire floor in the same stairway as the first line

Incinerators or compactors

Put a line in the shaft first floor above burning material

Verticle ventilation
open the bulkhead


Exposure protection in fire restive MFD's should focus on ______

If flames are impinging on upper floors:

As engine Companies are hooking up attack lines, the ladder company should be ______

Adjoining apartments
* because of fire resistive construction

Get homeliness up there ASAP

Locating the fire apartment


Fire Resistive MFD

Before engine companies advance their lines the IC need to ensure:

All occupants have evacuated all floors above the fire and the attack stairway


Fire Resistive MFD

The floor above the fire floor generally does not become _______ in this type of construction, But it still must be searched.

One stairway should be ______

When using an elevator to get to the fire floor stop ________ ****

an exposure problem

Designated only for evacuation no FF ops

* stop at least 2 floors below


Fire resistive MFD

Water supply for standpipes can be ____ or __

There is NO justification to ______

A FF with a radio should stay ______

In all situations the standpipe system should be _____

It will take several FF to _____

City water main , gravity tank on roof

Hook up to a standpipe on the fire floor

At the valve wheel to control water pressure

Augmented by the FD

Advance a 2 1/2 down a hallway


Fire resistive MFD

ON an upper floor fire ______ can make extinguishment extremely difficult

Wind conditions

Where the windows have self vented fire will be funneled by the wind


Well constructed buildings fire usually contained to the apt on fire.

Fires in these buildings produce _____

An _____ interior attack is critical

At least one _____ should go to the hallway where the apt door has been left open

Fire resistive MFD

Great heat


2 1/2 hoseline


New Apt building

Overhauling must be done on all _____ with emphasis on _______

All floors above the original fire floor

the floor directly above the fire floor


New Apt Building

If the entire building needs to be vented, use ______

If contained to a bedroom in an apt. with light smoke in the hallway use

roof ventilation



New Apt Building

Preferred method for getting on a roof:

FF should go to the top floor and ____, If a fire in the cockloft is located _______. In an extensive cockloft fire _____ should take place. This is a ______. It should start _____ to ______ from the main vent hole.

Adjacent building

* Pull ceilings, roof, cutting op should begin immediately

A trench cut

* last resort

20 to 30 ft


When long hose lays are required to reach the fire look for a _______ in the stairway. One 50ft length of hose at the base of the stairs can usually reach ______ floors.

Apt should be _____ after a search has been completed

Well pg 255

5 floors

*any mark will work look at the dept SOG


Paths for fire to travel in newer apt buildings:

The use of _____ allows a path for fire to travel because ______ conducts heat.

Elevators, trash chutes, dumbwaiters

Steel I beams
can help it travel vertically or horizontally


New Apt buildings

3 types of stair layouts

Isolated - singles that serves a certain part of the building

Wing - Located on each wing, you cannot go from 1 wing to the other unless you're in the lobby

Transverse-located on each wing, you can cross to opposite wings on each floor
*best kind for FF


Newer apt building

An advantage from a FF standpoint:

Access to the basement is through:

Basement ceilings may have ______

Interior stairways are constructed with:

Interior apt walls are _____ at each ____

Apt doors are _______

No interior stairs leading to the basement

Exterior courtyards and alleys

fire resistive construction

Fire resistive materials and surrounded by the fire resistive walls

Firestopped, each floor

Fire resistive


Newer Apt building construction:

______,______,_____ than older buildings

Biggest structural difference:

Most buildings have 2 wing sections and a _____ that separates them

Higher, wider, deeper

* unprotected steel I beam
Vertical and horizontal support structures


Throat - Stairwells , elevators
wings - apartments


After a hose line is in position to attack, ______ can begin. For max ventilation from windows open them :
* premature ventilation could cause:

____ can be used in conjunction with horizontal ventilation in old apt buildings

Horizontal ventilation

Maximize the opening
Double hung : 2/3 from the top 1/3 from bottom the bottom allows fresh air to enter

Backdraft and expose FF to fire, heat and smoke



In older apt buildings:

______ can be used to ventilate stairwells.

Use ____ or ____ to get on the roof, don't use _____

After lifting a door to the roof bulkhead:


Adjacent buildings or TL's not interior stairwells

Check floor below for victims and then continue ventilation by removing skylights and vent covers


Older Apt Buildings:

Stretch hoseline via the _____ to the fire apt. to ensure protection of this vital stairway

For a basement fire: Its crucial to stretch the first hose line through the front door to the _____ to protect the interior hall for evacuees

interior stairway

Cellar stairs
* After occupants are out you can attempt to descend and extinguish


Getting the initial hose line between the buildings occupants and the fire may _____

Visible hazards like people hanging out windows or coming down fire escapes might indicate:

_____ of an older building is imparative

Save more lives than trying to perform multiple rescues

An even greater life hazard inside the building not visible from the street

* Because of construction fire and smoke can spread anywhere, cannot shelter in place


In older apt buildings FF should be particularly careful about ascending or descending the _____. They are usually old and the _____ are open without any fire resistant quality.

Susceptible to collapse under ____

Stairs to the basement


A FF weight


In older apt buildings

______ are used as a secondary means of egress, but may not be well maintained.

Interior stairways and landings are typically made of ____ and are very narrow

A _____ may be present and will contribute to fire spread

Fire escapes


Ex Light shaft


Older apt building construction

Fire resistive brick exterior with sold wood material for the interior

Betweej 4 to 6 stories high

Generally 2 to 4 apartments per floor


Multi family dwellings typically have unprotected vertical opening between floor and horizontal openings between apartments. So ____ is always indicated


Bedding and furnishing should still be removed from the building even in a multi story structure


PPV works very well in



Formula to determine correct water flow and correct sizehose

Fire ground fire flow
Pg 246


In multi fam dwell

The IC must consider the resources needed for total eva as compared to ______

Hose lines should confine the fire to a room, apartment or floor and also _____
to slow fire spread

Shelter in place

Protect stairwells and other means of egress

Close the door on fire room


Multiple Fam Dwellings

Searches should be performed ______ with _____ taken care of first

Priorities for a multiple floor search

Systematically - those in the worst danger

Fire floor, floor above fire, top floor, rest of building


FF working on upper floors require:

In a large building accountability officers should be placed _______

A RIC in a position to respond quickly
* maybe in the fire building but away from the fire area

At entrance points


Categories of Multiple family dwellings

Old apartment building
New """
Fire resistive
Row frame
Brown stone
Garden apartments


______ are occupancies that have 3 or more families

These buildings have ____ that present a safety hazard for FF

Multiple family dwelling

Complex layouts


Uses standard 2x4 studs exterior framing members (wall studs) extend vertically from the basement to the roof

Balloon frame construction


A good first tactic at a mobile home fire might be :

If a propane cylinder is outside the motor home:

Never attempt ____ at a MH fire.

Be aware of grow houses, they often tap into the high voltage electrical system to bypass the meter. Electrical system is always live up to ____

Quick fire knockdown from the exterior

Turn off and protect from heat

, Vertical ventilation

240 volts


____ times as many people die in mobile home fires proportionally than in 1 and 2 dwelling

For every 1000 fires that break out ___ victims

Will die in mobile homes, whereas fewer than ____ will die in 1 and 2 am dwelling

The main causes of this:

3 times

21 , 7

Rapid fire spread through mobile home contents and fewer safe exits


Manufactured homes are :

Transportable structures that are fixed to a chassis and designed to be towed

* used to be called "mobile homes"


Garages are like basements regarding _____

Garage _____ can be hazardous

They are usually made of _____, ______, or _____

2 kinds:

It is imperative that


overhead doors

wood, aluminum, light steel

Rolls on tracks, slides back against ceiling

They are braced open


3 types of garages in homes

One story - Truss connect with house w/ no fire spottiest an extension of the structure - kitchen or utility room

2 story - garage roof is separate and ties into the side of the house providing a fire stop

Under living quarters - ceiling is the floor for living quarters. Interior entry door goes into the basement


If there is no life safety concern with victims, the IC should:

Not create one with FF


Most IC's choose _____ to vent an attic fire.

Many officers don't consider _______ ventilation, but it can be useful.

If you can't go on a roof remove ______ to create an opening from the safety of a _____

Vertical ventilation


Attic vent from a ground ladder


In an attic fire if the fire has broken through the roof don't:

You can use a ______

Another method would be to use a _____

Lob water on it with a hand line from outside

Ladder pipe or TL

Piercing nozzle


As second means of egress in an attic fire:

A finished attic should be searched like:

Confining fire to an attic will ______

If you can't find the fire in a reasonable amount of time the IC should:

Attic fires must be fought from _______

Pull ceiling and insert attic ladders

A bedroom would

Not be difficult

Evacuate the building collapse is inevitable



The _______ element is the most hazardous condition encountered in an attic fire.

Finished attics usually have the same fire load as:

Hazards in an attic:

Roofs with fiberglass or asphalt shingle have:

Most unfinished attics don't have _______

unknown pg 230

The typical bedroom

Low sloping roofs, unstable floors, wires, lack of ingress and egress, extreme weight, potential for rapid collapse

Nails protruding into the attic

Flooring throughout


Windows will not vent a lot of smoke if :

A more useful method is :

If a fan is turned on premature in second story fire ______

Drapes and blinds are not removed

Open window first then start PPV

Heat and fire can be blown back down on crews


On second story fires the officer needs to consider the ______

The _____ may not be enough

length of the hose lay

150 ft


If a FF is going to make entry from a second story window, he should check _______. If it is determined that he needs to enter he should VES and immediately _______

Access may be possible from ______ to second floor areas

Directly under the sill

Shut the door to seal it from the hall

Porch roofs


FF biggest safety concern in upper floor fires is

The way into a building ______

If FF enter a second story via stairs then:

If FF enter second story via a ladder then:

Lack of egress

Is not always the best way out

A ladder should be placed to a window

A second ladder should be raised and the interior stairway should be protected


4 story houses could look like 2 story houses because of :

Its important for an IC to :

Sloping terrain (built on a hill)

Conduct a full exterior survey


______, _______ and ________ produce significant smoke and heat.

Smoke on a second story floor has no way to escape unless:

Mattress, box springs, furniture

A window fails


Excellent tool during overhaul:

Officer in charge of salvage should meet with _______

There has been an increase in suspicious _____

If above is suspected you should ______


The occupant

Kitchen fires

Bring engine companies back to the fire scene to explain damages


In most small structures _______ is not needed

If it is . Place the hole ______ on a multistory structure, if egress is a concern, it should be placed ______

Vertical ventilation

Over the fire

Over the stairs


On first floor fire the hose line should be used to :

A backup line provides protection for :

Contain the fire and allow search and rescue to begin *** There is always a potential for failure of the first hose line

First hose line crew and search and rescue crew


Critical element for FF safety on a first floor fire _____

On a first floor fire the ______ floor should be first for Search and rescue

a good size up

first floor pg 227


Second hazard on a first floor fire:

Key element for tactics in a first floor fire.

Complacency of FF's , FF feel "comfortable fighting this", Complacency can kill

Determining exact location of fire. IC should do a 360 and look for venting fire or concentration of smoke from windows eaves.


Biggest hazard encountered on a first floor fire ______

Potential speed of fire spread

Fam room, living room and kitchen are usually open to the entire house


Basement fires are very dangerous, however, the _______ floor should be searched first.

Basements may also be used as :

first floor

in law quarters, recreation rooms, studio apartments


_____ should be for rapid use if a mayday is sounded

Crews must maintain control of the _____ to present fire spread

Ground ladders



Confinement of a basement fire comes from:

Primary clue of a basement fire:

Locating the fire and making a quick attack

Smoke is not lifted when you open the front door for ventilation


After making sure there is enough hose to make it to the bottom of the basement stairs, the hose should be advanced ______ but _____. If poor ventilation , use a _____ nozzle.

Quickly but controlled

Smooth bore
* If it doesn't jeopardize interior crews, vent the exterior windows


In a basement fire, outside ______ could make conditions inside worse.

first vent hole

second vent hole


Over the top of the stairwell

2nd - 1st floor under a window about 1 foot away. Then remove window


In a basement fire where balloon frame is suspected

Overhaul should be started in ______

The attic


IC's first safety consideration at a basement fire should be:

Most basement windows:

The FF entering the basement

Are not large enough or low enough for a FF to escape without assistance
* some basements have no windows


Basement Fire Hazards:

Final destination for many unwanted items in a house go to the _____

Second hazard encountered in a basement fires _____


Most basements have only 1 entrance


Salvage in residential structures presents ______ and the _____ for FF

the greatest challenge

the greatest opportunity


It is best to move materials involved in the fire _____.

However the area of the origin should ______

Outside the structure

Remain undistributed
* For fire investigation


Ventilation is directed by ______

Overhaul is necessary especially in _______ construction

Location of the fire within the structure

Balloon frame construction


Use a ______ attack when fire has not reached the free burning stage

Once in free burning or flashover stage a ______ attack may be indicated




If an offensive attack hose lines should be placed _______

Hoselines must also be in a position to protect :

FF are often playing catch up when it comes to ______

On the unburned side. However, water can be applied from either side

Interior paths of egress and stairwells

Defensive attacks


The leading specific location where residential civilian fire fatalities are found:

_____% were trying to escape

_____% were sleeping

Bedrroms 55%




Certain areas in a house present a higher likelihood of finding a victim. Ex:

Paths of travel, Below windows, behind doors, hallways, bedrooms


______ are a component of the life safety concern



Commonly referred to as "routine" fires.

Unless the occupants of a home are accounted for a ____ must be started if in offensive mode

1 and 2 family dwellings

Primary search


Hoarding task forces may be staffed with _____, _____, _____.

____ and ____ also need to be considered a concern for 1 and 2 family dwellings

Building inspectors, animal control officers, and first responders

Grow houses and Meth labs


1 and 2 family dwelling are not subject to inspections so ____, _____, ____ and ____ may be stored there.

There is almost always _____ and ____ in the structure

Flammable liquids, gas, explosives and poisonous chemicals

Electric and water


In a home with modern furnishings flashover can occur in ______.

______ is another danger to FF in a 1 and 2 family dwelling

1/2 the time as in one with legacy materials ( not sure about this)



Normal contents of a house add to the ____

This may be increased during the _______

Fire load



New stone coated steel roofing is made from ____ gauge structural grade steel. These roofs have the highest strength rating.

Nearly _____ and Fire crew may not be able to _____



Ventilate the roof


____ shingles add to fire old and fire spread

_____ ventilation is the method of choice in residential structures

Wood shake

Positive pressure
* not vertical because of roof construction


_____ add weight and make it difficult to ventilate a roof

Tile roofs


_____ and ____ both create individual components that contain the fire to room and contents

Platform frame



IC at a fire involving a balloon frame structure should:

Extend a line to the fire floor and the attic.

The fire can also drop down these channels (burning embers)


The paths for least resistance in 1 and 2 family dwellings are:

Exteriors of houses made of _____, _____, and ______ will assist in spreading fire

Hallways and stairwells
* Close doors to confine*

Wood, vinyl, tar coverings

Brick concrete stucco and asbestos will not assist with fire spread


The strategic goal is to place hose streams in a position to prevent fire spread _____

If it appears the fire will not be contained to the structure of origin, work toward saving the ____

beyond the structure of origin

Block of origin


Difference between masonry (ordinary) home and wood frame homes lie in the ______

In masonry home walls are ____

Interior walls, floors and ceiling are ______

Very prevalent in southern states where hurricanes are prevalent
The construction methods used are _____ and ______

Load bearing walls

Cement, concrete block and masonry


Platform or post beam


2x4 inch wood member placed in the joist channel.

Fire stops


3 framing methods for wood frame construction

Post and Frame ( Plank and beam) - uses a few large wood members, rather than a lot of small wood frame members Ex. log cabins, great rooms

Balloon Frame - Uses 2x4 studs, framing members run from the foundation to the eave line. Prior to 1940 they did not include fire stops

Platform frame - Each floor is built as a box. Creates inherent fire stopping. * found in most contemporary construction standards
Ex. Split level, bi level and tri level homes


Most common construction types for 1 and 2 family dwellings:

Type V - Wood frame

Type 3 - masonry


Must have a working knowledge of building construction:

Understanding building construction is equivalent to _____

IC's, company officers and FF

Understanding Fire dynamics


Underwriter released a study identify gaps in current fire service knowledge

The gaps included:

Impact of : Door control, vent hole size, vent hole location, impact of flow paths between the hole and the fire, impact of modern fuel loads, exterior suppression with various flow paths configurations


50% of civilian fire fatalities occur in residential buildings between the hours of _____ and ___

This time period accounts for 49% of all fatal fires * Not just residential

Peak night hours are from ____ to _____

10 pm to 6 am

1a to 5a

Smoking was the leading cause of fatal residential building fires pg 213


In 2010 residential homes accounted for ___% of all structure fires and more than ____% in civilian fire deaths.

In the US, FD's respond to a residential structure fire every _____

Of their residential structure fires 1 and 2 family homes account for ____% of the fires and ____% of civilian fire deaths.



65 sec pg 213




In 2010 there were ____ fires
___ civilian fatalities
____ civilian injuries
$___ in property damage

There was a civilian death every ____ mins
and a civilian fire injury every _____





169 mins

30 mins


The most common structure fire response in the US

Most common construction style:

1 and 2 family dwellings

Wood frame and masonry


The act of keeping the fire in the area, room, or building of origin:



All FF's should understand:

Engines on board water tank is called:

A team of FF with apparatus assigned to perform a specific function in a designated response area:

Pumping principles

Booster tank



You can stretch a hose but ( don't know what goes here maybe up) ______

In well involved buildings keep the apparatus out of the ______

A ladder

Collapse zone


Engine location ______

Ladder location ______

Aerial location _______

Should allow room for aerial trucks to access the front of a structure

Allow ladder max versatility

Allow access to the best scrub area - area that can be reached with an aerial ladder once the apparatus is set up


The function that the company is to perform determines:

Where the apparatus should be placed


Salvage is usually a function of the :

Salvage begins _____ and ends ______

Treat valuables as if ________

_____ ______ _______ should be covered to protect the building and its contents

Ladder Co

Arrival on scene , when FD ops have ended

They were ur own

Door, windows, roof openings


Indiscriminate overhaul can cause unnecessary damage. But when its necessary no one should hesitate to overhaul.

If possible when overhauling ______

Overhaul must be performed by opening up walls and ceiling until _______

Pile all contents in the center of the room and put a tarp over them

Areas that have not been burned are found


Overhaul is broken down in 2 stages :
* Its performed to expose hidden pockets of fire and prevent reignition

Pre control - Unfavorable conditions - Intent is toward charmed areas back toward charred area to determine fire extent * Pulling ceiling, examining baseboards and shafts

Post control - More favorable conditions
Extremely meticulous. By a fresh company
* Overhaul is performed during the entire operation


Proper placement of ladders, lies with the :

Portable ladders should be placed or as many sides of the fire building and at as many windows as possible. At a minimum ______

Ladder Co.

1 ladder must be extended to each floor on which FF's are operating

* Tower ladders provide an excellent platform for ventilation, Search and rescue, and apply elevated streams


In double pane or thermal insulated windows:

By removing entire window your in essence:

Both panes must be removed

Creating another door


Depending on the amount of ventilation needed windows can either _______

Double hung windows should be :

Windows can be forced by:

Removed or opened

opened 2/3 from the top and 1/3 from the bottom

Fork end of the halogen under the bottom of the window and exerting downward pressure, popping the window lock.
* New window have depressible clips so you don't have to break the window


To force a padlock:

Saws, torches and hand tools

Duck bill with an axe

a pipe wrench across both shackles then twist to snap shackles Pg 203


Outward opening door are indicative of :

Commercial occupancies, elevators, and closets
* Adz end of the tool above or below the lock, force the tool down and out to pop the door


Inward opening door with a halligan:

If you attack hinges attack the ____ first

____ to ____ pumps of a rabbit tool will pop the door

Fork side 6 inches above or below lock, bevel side against the door angled slightly up or down. Strike with axe, push towards the door

Top hinge

4 to 6 pumps can also use hydraulic ram


____ and ____ make good area to conduct mock search drills

Fire house bunk rooms and offices


During search

Check ______
If 1 victim is found on a bed _____
If disoriented ______
Primary exit is ______
Plan your _______


Check for additional victims

Look out a window

The way you came in

Escape route


If door opens easily then stops _____

Don't let a door lock behind you _____ or ____

Confine fire by ______

Do not assume locked rooms are _____

Treat furniture as an _____

Search through piles of ______

Good chance a victim is behind it

Chock it or leave a FF there

Closing the door

Empty rooms

Extension of the wall, don't move it



Victims are commonly found:

Follow the walls as you search vent _______ unless ______

behind entrance doors or below windows

As you go

It will extend the fire


When forcing a door:

When entering a window:

tie a rope to it so you can shut it if fire blows out

Probe the floor to make sure its there and to feel for victims


When possible searchers should determines and work towards an ______

When searching for the seat of the fire, find it, use it as your start point and then work

alternate means of egress

back toward the door they entered


Searched are broke down into 2 stages

Primary - quick and thorough

Secondary - meticulous through search

* A different crew should perform the secondary

* Should include buildings exterior, shafts, basements, cellars


Several functions of a ladder co:

Along with proper placement of hoselines, there is no greater tool than a well developed ______

Search for life, fire and fire extension

Search plan


Potential drawback to PPV:

good possibility of pushing smoke and fire into uninvolved areas


Procedure for fog nozzle ventilations:

Stand 6 to 8 ft from a window direct a fog stream roughly the size of the opening, out the window


Natural ventilation: open existing openings a building

Mechanical ventilation: Using machines such as _______ to remove smoke from a building

* Using a fog nozzle is considered mechanical

Smoke ejectors, PPV fans, exhaust fans, HVAC, Fog streams

* fans are not the most efficient method
* time consuming, trip hazards


A ventilation opening has 2 purposes:

Exhaust for products of combustion ( from the top)

Inlet for fresh air ( from the bottom)


In multi story wind impacted fires the initial tactic may be to :

Deploy a thermal blanket from the floor above
or deploying a high rise nozzle from the floor below


The movement of heat and smoke from an area of high pressure to low pressure

Flow path
path of least resistance ( low pressure area)

* in a high rise the fire apartment and public hallway will be a path for fire , heat and smoke


Vent for fire:

Vent for life:

Facilitating engne co. advance in the area

To enter an IDLH atmosphere where there is a known or suspected victim
* pop window instead of breaking it, feel for heat before entering
* windows must be completely removed before entry


Horizontal ventilation is usually performed after:

If done prematurely it can cause:

Engine Co line is stretched charged and ready to begin fire attack

Rapid extension or auto extension


When roof condition is in doubt, such as _____ or ______ don't put FF's up there.

_____ roofs or ______ are determined, immediately evacuate the roof

Vacant building

Heavy fire conditions

Membrane roofs

Gypsum poured over gypsum slab
( White paste on a saw blade indicates wet gypsum)


After roof section is pulled out ______ must happen for the operation to be succesful

Top floor ceiling must be taken out

6 ft pike pole


A roof cut should be at least _____ x ______ and easy to pulls. Directly _______


over the fire

Don't make it too big you can't open it easily


When breaking skylights, the roof division should notify:

The FF operating below by radio

Only use power tails to cut roofs after opening up all existing openings


Once on the roof the first considerations should be ______

A way of getting off

Must always have a secondary means of egress


3 basic ways to get to a roof

Adjoining building (preffered)
Aerial or TL
Rear fire escape (least preferred, they don't always go to the roof)

* Interior stairs are to be avoided


Possible vertical roof openings:

Bulkheads , scuttles, skylights


In many situations _______ determines the outcome of a fire

* Must be done in conjunction with fire attack so that the steam produced has an exit path


Roles of the ladder Co. at a fire:

Forcible entry, S and R, Ventilation

Also includes: laddering the building , Overhaul and salvage ops, shutting of utilities


In the smoldering stage, after the fire has burned itself out, _____ needs to happen before entry by FD

Vertical ventilation


Take position at the _____ of the fire room

Fire burning in walls and ceilings can only be extinguished after being _____


Opened up


Never advance into fire apartment without ______

To get the layout , go into the apartment _____

Don't use the hose line on smoke unless ____

Operate hoseline in a ____ or ____ pattern

Charged hose line

Directly below fire apt

To cool a super heated ceiling to prevent flashover

Clockwise or Z


FF should regard every opening as a _____ opening

Opening doors and windows indiscriminately is ______


Irresponsible and dangerous


Prior to entering a building FF should:

Identify : construction type, occupancy, ned for rescue, type of fire ( vent or fuel controlled), need for ventilation


2 basic functions of Engine Co

Put a line into operation
Obtain adequate water supply


To confine fire

close a door
use and extinguisher


3 basic steps of fire suppression:

A vent controlled fire displays:

A fuel controlled fire is one that is :

Fully involved fires are examples of :

Locating, confining and extinguishing

High smoke volume and pressure

Growth is limited by supply of combustibles

Fuel controlled fires


1 3/4 line at 50 psi produces ____ gym

2 1/2 line at 50 psi produces _____ gym

Both using a smooth bore nozzle

180 gpm

320 gpm


In areas where hydrants are not available you will have to use _____ or ______

Drafting - static water location: lake, river , dry hydrant

Tender (tanker) shuttles - may carry 1000 to 8000 gallons can connect directly to the operating engine or dump water into a portable tank

TDR - Tender delivery Rate


3 types of lays for water supply:



Standard for automotive fire Apparatus NFPA 1901 requires _____ of an engine company

Min water tank of 300 gallons
Hose compartment of at least 30 cubic ft for 2 1/2 supply hose or greater and 2 compartments of at least 3.5 cft for 1 1/2 or larger attack hose

Min pump size of 750 gym


The basic building block of every FD

Engine company


Initial fire attack tactics are impacted by various factors:

Requirement for immediate rescue
Human and physical resources required
Water supply
Access to the subject or structure


Specialized extinguishing systems include:

Carbon dioxide
Halogenated agent
Dry chem
Wet Chem


Vertical piping in a sprinkler or standpipe system:



Standpipe connection should always be made on ______

Flake the hose to the floor ______

Floor below the fire

Floor above the fire


High rise kit should be capable of flowing _____ GPM
Kit should contain:

250 psi

Min of 100 ft of 1 3/4 or 2 inch
gated y or water thief
spanners, pipe wrench
* hand wheel for standpipe outlet
nozzle (smooth bore prefferrable)
Door wedges
Typical hand tools


Initial pressure to pump an FDC at :

A minimum of _____ should supply the sprinkler or standpipe system

1 FF must locate the main water control valve and make sure it is open

150 psi *could be increased to 175 to 200

Two 2 1/2 inch hose lines

The FF should not leave the main control walve


Each type of built in fire protection system, when activated, requires ______

Support from the FD


FDC's must be _____ connections

Standards mandate that there can be NO WAY of shutting off the supply between the FDC and where it enters the system



Standpipe systems are limited to ______ ft. per zone

No 2 zones are allowed to exceed _____ ft




Standpipes can be ____ or ____ and are broken down into _____ types

Wet or dry

4 types
wet - outlet opens, water flows
dry- no air pressure, must open a valve to get water into system
dry- filled w/ air under pressure
dry- no water supply, must be supplied by FD


FF should be aware of ____ when dealing with standpipes

They are commonly found on class 3 systems

Any systems above 150 psi should be marked

pressure reducing devices


Same flow requirements of a class 1 standpipe system

FF should always change out the systems _____

Class 3 standpipe system
Hoses and use their own


Must flow 100 gpm for 30 min. Min residential pressure of 65 psi at highest furthest outlet while flowing 100 gpm

class 2 standpipe system


Must be able to flow 500 gpm for 30 min must provide a minimal residual pressure of ___ psi to the highest furthest outlet while flowing 500 gpm

Class 1 standpipe

65 psi


Sprinkler systems and standpipe systems must have a water supply that is _____, _____. _____

Adequate volume
adequate pressure


Standpipe connections are basically an extension of a fire engines _____

3 classes:

Discharge outlet

1 Use by FD
2 Use by building occupants
3 used for both


Residential Sprinkler systems are becoming more popular.

They are not required to have a _____

It is imperative that the system be pumped at ____


Standard domestic pressure
* pipes can't handle higher pressure


Preaction and deluge are similar to:

Dry pipe Sprinkler system


All heads are open
No water stored in pipes
Alarm is activated when water begins to flow
All hands flow at once

Deluge Sprinkler System


Only fills with water once the separate additional alarm detection equipment is activated. Once filled with water, a head needs to be exposed to heat before it will flow water
* Use in locations where water damage must be prevented

Pre action Sprinkler system
* An alarm sounds prior to the activation of a sprinkler head


System that has no water past the check valve. The pipes are filled with air under pressure, When a head is activated the pressure escapes and water is able to pass the check valve. Used in building that has possibility of water freeing

Dry Pipe SS
* Takes longer to get water to the fire
Uses accelerators or exhausters to speed up the process


Constantly has water under pressure throughout the system

Wet Pipe SS


The _____ and ____ of a sprinkler system should be of upmost importance

utilization and support


When connecting to the FDC, ensure that you are getting a water supply from a source other than ______

The one supplying the buildings fire protection system


Three common types of main water control valves

Outside screw and yoke - Threaded stem is visible when valve is open

Post indicator valve - No visible stem. It has a window where you can read open or shut

Wall post indicator valve - the same as the PIV except it protrude horizontally from the structures wall


Valve that controls the flow of water from the domestic water supply system and / or on site fire pumps

It is an _____ valve

The valve is always operated manually and should always be chain locked in the _____ position

Main water control valve

Indicating valve



____% of fires in all sprinklered buildings ar either extinguished or held in check



4 types of sprinkler systems

Wet pipe
dry pipe


Banned from production after the clean air act of 1994



Carbon Dioxide (Co2) used on class ____ and ____ fires

extinguished by ______


B and C



Used to protect kitchens from grease fires

Water Chemical

Class K


Dry powders are applied by ____ and are used for _____

Shoveling the product on the burning material

Class D combustible metals


Common Dry Chemicals

Sodium Bicarbonate
Potassium Bicarb
Potassium Chloride
Monoammonium Phosphate
Barium sulfate
Ammonioum phospahte


Dry Chemical extinguishes class B and C fire by:

Class A fires by:

Interrupting the chemical chain reaction

Coating and smothering


Dry chemicals are generally used on ____ fires

* Very common in fire extinguishers and hood systems

ABC or BC extinguishers

Flammable Liquid fires

Ex Gasoline and grease


Produces high quality foam bubbles that are small and consistant

Compressed air foam system


Class A foam is primarily used on _____

Class A foam works by _____

Class A foam makes water ______

Low proportion rate ______%

*can be added to the booster tank


Breaking down the surface design of water allowing product to soak in




AFFF is a class _____ foam

Most departments use AFFF ATC or AR because:

Gold foam acts as an AFF ATC but can be used on polar solvents and hydrocarbons both at ____%


It is applicable to polar solvents and hydrocarbons at 3 , 6%



Foam applicator depends on:

Type of foam
Type of incident
Equip used for application


Foam should be proportioned at ____ % for polar solvents

and ____% for hydrocarbons

In line foam educators utilize the ____ system





Foam is created by using _____ to mix the ingredients ____ , ____ , and ____.

90% of foam is ______

Mechanical agitation (nozzles and foam makers)

Air , water and foam concentrate



Foam is commonly used for 2 types of hazardous material _____ and _____

Hydrocarbons and polar solvents


Foam can be applied to the base of a tank and allowed to float to the top to extinguish the fire

This is called _______

Subsurface injection


A simple friction loss formula:

FL = Q (Q+Q+1)


Fog nozzle _____psi

Master stream smooth bore ___ psi

Handline smooth bore _____ psi

For elevation calculate ____ psi per _____ of elevation.

_____psi per 10 ft floor




1/2 psi per foor

5 psi pg 155


Friction loss that cannot be overcome on the foreground must be overcome by _____

3 steps to determine pump discharge pressure

Pump dischage pressure

calculate the constants
Friction loss in the hose


Steps to reduce friction:

Reduce hose length
use larger hose
Reduce # of couplings and appliances
reduce kinks
change nozzle type and size


_____ , _____, and ______ all affect friction loss

size of hose
length of hose
type of nozzle


_____ shape fire streams

Fog - most widely used. Better cooling capabilities than any other nozzle . * They can be affected by wind. they may require 100 psi to be effective. New ones are 75 psi .They can disturb thermal layering if applied incorrectly

Smooth bore - creates solid stream of water. Does not disturb thermal layering. Better reach and penetration. Not as affected by wind

Broken stream nozzles - water is applied blindly


_____ typically does not require a large amount of water or pressure



The amount of water needed to extinguish a fire is known as :

3 formulas for this:

NFA formula

Iowa State university formula

Insurance services office formula

Flow requirement

None of these 3 formulas address the material in the building


Water extinguished fire in 3 ways:

Cools burning material

Smothers it

Sports the fuel from the heat


Engine use a _____ pump

3 states of water _____ _____ _____
states most important when talking about extinguishment?

At ____ degrees water begins to freeze

At _____ degrees it is converted into _____


solid, liquid, gas



at 212 it expands 1700 times its origanol volume


When a faucet is turn on, water flows because of the ______

Normal operating pressure


_____ is the most prevalent extinguishing agent for 3 reasons

It cannot be _______


Cheap, commonly available, efficient

Compressed * it takes the shape of its container


Common extinguishing agent for FF's

Dry chem
Dry powder


are identified by various codes standards, laws, and ordinances

Occupancy classifications


Occupancy classifications

Assembly, business, daycare, educational, factory/ industrial, hazardous, institutional, mercantile, residential, storage

Mixed - 2 occupancy classifications in the same building


The final phase for pre incident planning is to :

There is no set time for updating pre plan but _____ can be used as a guideline

Update the plan regularly

Once a year


Pre incident Plan

Sketch does not have to be to ______

Standard for pre incident plans NFPA _____




Building heating systems are often located in the :



Pre Fire Plan

______ are invaluable in determining construction features.

Basic info including :name of business, _______, ________.

The tour should begin in the ______

Blue prints

Owner / occupant contact info, Key holder information

*******Parking lot ******


Phases of pre incident planning:

* begins with a tour of building
* Any life safety hazards should be mitigated while on scene. Schedule a follow up fire inspection.

1 tour the bldg
2 create sketch
3 incorporate photos
4 complete drawing and docs
5 Put docs on truck
6 sharing and training
7 tour regularly
8 update plans


Pre incident planning should be completed by ______

* It is a systemic approach to learning the major components of a building

FF should be in a different building ______ they report to the fire house

Fire companies



Fire grows _______ and ________

Fire is a combustion process that can be _____

Upward and outward

Self sustaining reaction


At the very least the IC should obtain a view of _____ sides

Dark black smoke

Dirty brown smoke

Light smoke

Smoke looks different at night***



Oxygen starved fire

Class A fire


Smoke is produced by the incomplete combustion of _____. It contains _____ ______ and multiple _______.

Until smoke is controlled in a fire the fire will be difficult to ______ and _____


tar, water and gases

Locate and extinguish


An oxygen starved fire builds up ___- and ____

Fire does not have to smolder long to backdraft

______ must occur prior to FF entering the structure to prevent backdraft

Air must be drawn in for ______ for ignition to occur

Heat and pressure

Vertical ventilation

a few seconds

US navy simulates backdrafts


Premature horizontal ventilation can cause ?


Yellowish brown smoke
stained black windows
thick smoke "under pressure"


High ceiling can mask the amount of heat.

Indicators of impending flashover:

Room size
Unbearable heat
Rollover of finger like flames


In flashover temps can exceed ____ and _____ ft into the room is the _____
Mean death or critical thermal burns

* cool ceiling
* smoked banked and floor with escalating heat

1000 degrees F

5 ft point of no return


The point when all combustible in a room ignite ______

An early indicator of flashover ______

The heating process is caused by _____

Key to recognizing flashover is _______



Thermal radiation feedback

Smoke movement and fire growth


Direct flame impingement is sometimes considered a form of :



Heat transfer in a stationary medium: solid, liquid and gas

Most important physical properties for conduction: thermal conductivity, density, specific heat

* there is no heat conduction in a perfect vacuum


____ are of little use stopping radiant energy

Water Curtains
* you must apply water directly on the exposure


"Heat Waves"
can penetrate windows
Moves equally in all directions from fire
It is an ______ energy
It can move through water




On a high rise the greatest danger floors are the :

Fire floor
Floor above
Top floor


Method by which air currents transfer heat _______



In the _____ phase the fire produces significant heat and smoke.

The fire spreads ____ until it meet resistance and then spreads _____

As things in the room absorb heat they reach their ______

Then the room will _____

The room temp can be over ______ degrees F

Free burning

Vertically , Horizontally

Ignition temperature


1000 degrees F


Not all fires go through:

Distinct phases Pg 116


Growth of a fire depends on :

Type of fuel
physical property of fuel
Surface to mass ratio
arrangement of fuel
Adequate ventilation


4 stages of fire

Incipient - (ignition)

Free burning


Smoldering / Decay


Fire progress depends on

Fuel load

Combustibility of fuel

Intensity of heat produced


Aspects to consider when determining the stage of a fire growth:

Shape and color of the flames
Density and color of the smoke
Pressure behind the smoke movement


In a smoldering fire. A lot of gas is produced because of :

low oxygen levels


Smoke can ignite because of the buildup of ____

_____ is the most abundant gas produced at a fire

It is the cause of death in over ___% of the fatalities

When synthetic materials that contain nitrogen burn, they release _______

Carbon monoxide Pg114

Carbon Monoxide


Hydrogen Cyanide


Class A fires produces ____, ____, and _____

Class B fire produces _____

Plastic also produce ______ and _____

____ and ____ are the greatest cause of death fires

Carbon dioxide , Monoxide and water

Heavy black sooty smoke because of the carbon that remains unburned

Hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen chloride

Gases and toxic


Its important to know the _____ of fuels so that you can clean the right extinguishing agent



Process where an extinguishing agent converts the burning substance to a non combustible soap:

This process in a _____ reaction


* it absorbs thermal energy from its surroundings


Five classes of fire:

A - ordinary combustibles
B- Flammable petroleum products liquid, solid or gas
C- Electrically energized equipment
D- Combustible Metals
K- Combustible cooking fuels


When the _____ agent and the _____ agent combine and transfer their ______, they emit heat and light as an energy source. This source presents itself as ______.

Oxidizing and reducing




Developed in the 1950's by ______

Wanted to find out why _____ was such a effective extinguishing agent

The triangle was joined by a fourth component called ______

In the fire process, known as ______

Walter Haessler

ammonium phosphate

Uninhibited chain reaction

Flamin combustion


Heat and light released in an energy form is called :

1 part of the triangle is removed?

Water ______

Fire or flame

Fire goes out

Absorbs heat


For fire to occur the fuel must be:

Fuel is most likely comprised of carbon and hydrogen atoms that can be _____

Breathing air in the atmosphere is __-% the rest is most _____ which is _____

Combustible or flammable material



Nitrogen , Inert


Fuel for fire can come in 3 forms



Fire is a chemical process in which heat, fuel, and oxygen come together in an _____

Fire produces an _____ reaction

Uninhibited chain reaction

releasing heat, light , smoke, and products of incomplete combustion


Knowing what a fire is, how it grows and spreads and what it takes to stop its progress.

Is critical for any IC

Thats all the info


IC's should know their enemy whether it be a ____, ____ or _____

Hazardous chemical release
Building collapse


Because of their physical and chemical properties fires usually:

Behave in the same manner. So certain behaviors can be expected IE: Fire spread


The meaning of words in communications is based on :

Prior understanding and knowledge


The NFA came up with a 6 step communication model:

1 - sender formulates an idea he wants to convey
2- the sender sends the message
3- the message is transferred through a medium Ex: orally, visually
4 - the receiver receives the message
5- the receiver interprets the message
6 receiver confirms receipt by providing feedback


Through the size up process, the incident priorities are applied to :

a specific situation


Size up triangle




Enviroment - includes construction features of the fire building or the terrain where the fire occurs ex. weather, fire load, height, area, building occupancy

Resources - The number of personnel, type of equipment, and need for specialized equipment

Conditions / situation
what is on fire?
Where is it going?
What harm has it/ could it cause?


A red placard with a R indicates

lightweight truss roof


First priority of any incidents

Maximizing life safety


In some cases a ____ attack can precede a ____ attack

Defensive, Offensive

Ex: Extinguish high rise fire with elevated streams and then a offensive attack to check upper floors for extension


The operational mode can and often will change.

Safety is relative to :

Risk vs. gain


Property conservation is also called:

Salvage and Overhaul
Loss control


***Broad general statements of what we are expected to accomplish

Strategic goals


The generally accepted fire fighting goals include:

Three commonly known systems for these objectives are : REVAS, REEVAS, RECEOVS

Exposure protection


Eight goals for the HazMat Op's

spill control
leak control
fire control
recovery and termination


6 strategic goals of EMS:

Gaining access


For the purpose of this text 9 goals must be considered at every fire incident to ensure incident priorities are satisfied:

FF safety
Search and rescue
Exposure protection


____ help to determine the strategic goals that need to be implemented or that can be implented

Size up factors


Strategic goals are desired to meet the incident priorities ______ are more specific functions designed to meet strategic goals

Tactical objectives
Strategic goal is ventilation
Tactical objective is vertical ventilation
Tactical method is a trench cut


Tactical methods are the processes employed at the task level

The objective is the measurable result whereas the methods are _______

The task employed to meet the objective

* There is often more than one tactical objective for each goal, and there is often more than 1 tactical method for each objection


Strategic goal : Search and rescue

Tactical Objective: Primary search of first floor

Tactical method : Assign ladder 1 to search first floor

thats the info


The incident determines the complexity of the ______

Action Plan

* It is developed after the size up should be done on every incident


When developing the action plan the IC must consider not only goals and objectives but also:

Department SOG


Action plan must be communicated to all personnel. The can be accomplished by:

Face to face
Aides or runners
Written plan


THe ____ model implies that a fireground commander in almost 9 of 10 cases, does not make a decision based on a selection of choices, but rather based on previous experience.

Recognition Primed Decision Making (RPD)
* implies FF should have a mix of experience and education
* A model of how people make quick, effective, decisions when faced with complex decisions


RPD process is being phased out by the NFA

The ____ theory is concerned with identifying the best alternative to take and assumes the decision maker is full rational, informed, and able to compute the info at hand. It embodies a descriptive decision theory framework.

Naturalistic Decision making
* People make decision based on experience


The _____ theory is that the IC will use info based on sight, sound and odor to assist in identifying what is occurring:

Naturalistic decision making


The _____ model is used when the IC is confronted with a situation they have not experienced in the past.

There id s 4 step process for this model.

Classical decision making model

Aim - what the IC wants to accomplish

Factors - Anything that affects decision making

Courses- courses of action to take

Plan - Action plan


NFPA ____ standard on types of building construction:

5 types:

NFPA 220

Type 1 - Fire resistive
Type 2 - Non combustible
Type 3 - Ordinary
Type4 - Heavy Timber
Type 5- Wood frame


In newer cities most buildings fall within type ____ to ____ construction

3 to 1


-All mains structural components are wooden
-Surface to mass ration is the main point to remember in the performance of wood as a structural member
-Mass is the key component in the Fire performance of wood larger the beam, heavier the load, the longer it can burn
- 2nd important thing is how the wood frame is connected together
* Nearly all structural supports will burn

type 5
Wood frame


Common from the 1800's the end of WW 2
_wood stud framing system where studs run continuously the full height of the building
* All walls door openings and windows are stacked vertically

Balloon frame


_____ Frame
The wood stud framing system is set on a foundation or slab and built to story height
- Wall studs are connected to a single board called a _____ plate
* referred to as a Western Framing

Platform frame
Sill plate
* still being used
* offset window and doors


The most common type of new frame construction is use today ______

Platform frame


Framing system using post (vertical members) and beams ( horizontal members) to create a load bearing frame

Best example ______

Post and beam



Uses much larger beams than post and beams framing. Uses boards laminated together to make large beams. The floors are thick tongue and groove planks

Plank and beam
* Large residential structures
commercial buildings


- Very controversial type of construction
- Entire structure is tied together in a unified frame
- Can be used for building up to *3* stories
- each part of the system is dependent upon the rest
- Constructed of ______
- Creates the potential for a large are of ___
- A number of triangles put together at the desired span and height

Truss Frame
Held together by .05 inch gusset plate


Add fire conditions to a truss construction system and ______

Catastrophic failure is likely


Collapse of 1 bowstring truss could ____
Don't put anyone ____,____,____. The roof under heavy fire involvement
Bowstring trusses can span an area of ____ to _____ and be spaced ____ ft on center

Bring down multiple trusses

On top, underneath, at the sidewalls

50 to 100 ft

20 ft


The biggest concern for the performance of wood is the condition of the _____

connection methods

* The weak link in any construction method is how structural members are connected


Gang nailers, staple plates, metals tooth plates connectors

All names for ______

gusset plates


Wood can be treated to resist _____ , ____ , and _____.
Treat wood with phosphates can _______

moisture, insects, fire

Causes it to become brittle can collapse under the weight of 1 person walking on the roof


Size does matter when talking about wood

The more mass the larger the load


- Referred to as Mill Construction
- Large wood columns are greater than ___ x ___ inches and this construction can be used in buildings up to ____ stories tall.
- Sections of wood more than ____ inches thick can have more fire resistance than exposed steel
- Exterior wall are made of _____
- Walls and ceiling are typically _____ and lack any real fire protection
- Difficult for FF's because of the ____ and ___ of the structures interior

Type 4 Heavy Timber

8x8 in
8 stories
6 in
size and openess


Construction type found in older factory towns, old barns, and storage building

Wood loses its strength by losing its _____

Type 4 Heavy timber



Masonry load bearing walls and wood joist floors and a wood roof

Type 3

_ Walls brick or concrete 6 to 30in thick
- in multi story the walls are thicker at the bottom
- Typically 1 to 3 stories tall, have been built to 10 stories
- Floor and roof joist have a 30 degree cut on them call a fire cut joist. This save exterior walls from collapsing
- Load bearing walls run a long the longest part of the building


In older buildings you may see a star, letter S, a channel, a circle, or a decorative device on the exterior.
This device is called a _____


Used to spread the load between 2 or more structural members


Type 3 buildings are structurally sound and will generally stand up to the effects of a :

Type 3 wall will ____ before collapse another warning sign is ______

Room and contents fire


Fire pushing through cracks in the walls


Constructed of building materials that will not add to fire development

However the materials can suffer from the affects of fire

When walking on a flat roof walk _____

type 2 non combustible

along the side next to the wall


Built with structural components that will not burn and that will resist the effects of fire for a long period of time.

Began with the invention of steel
Have the most inherent fire safety factors

Type 1 fire resistive


feel used as structural material will elongate and can fail during fires.

Rule of thumb for the expansion of steel is :

____ inch for every _____ feet at approx _____ degrees F

1 inch

10 ft

800 degrees F


Triangle is inherently ____
-Any load applied to a truss ______ the system, as long as each member maintains structural stability.
-Top and bottom of the truss are called _____
-Inside members are called ______
-Bowstring is easy to identify because of its ______
-In bowling alleys, skating rinks, other large buildings





curved to chord


Most common truss for roof construction:

Trusses are placed close together ____ to ___ inches on center

Hurricane clips or ties are nailed to both _____ and ______

Peaked roof truss

16 to 24 inches

truss and load bearing walls


The ____ is used for both roofs and floors

Area where electrical wiring, HVAC and other utilities are placed

Parallel truss chords

Interstitial space


The truss is designed to comply the min amount of building material to ______

Engineered to be less _____

Sounding a truss roof with a tool is ____

Wood carries its load by ______

Carry designed load


Not safe - the truss will fail before the decking so sounding is useless

Mass - When a truss burns it loses its mass and its structural stability


Unprotected steel trusses lose strength at _____ degrees F and fail around _____ degrees F




Types of wood frame buildings

Post and beam
Plank and beam
Truss frame


_____ and ______ have helped the industry span larger open distances with load bearing ability at a lower cost

Laminated beam and engineered I beam


Gusset plate is considered a ____



In the 1980's federal officials transition IMS into a national program called
5 subdivisions

National Interagency Incident Management System

1 - ICS
2- Training
3 - Qualifications ad certification system
4 - Publications management
5- Support technologies


The management structure that all agencies should be utilizing _____

It has replaced NIIMS

It is required in order to receive ______

NFPA ____ mandate the use of NIMS

GW Bush called on the ____ to develop a National IMS

DHS released NIMS in ______


Grant money 1561


Secretary of Homeland Security

* It integrates effective practices in emergency response into a comprehensive National Framework for incident management


ICS 100



NIMS was designed for, and mandates a ____

Unified command

*It encourages the predesignation of command post locations, staging locations, heli spots, task forces ect.


The 5 major functional areas of the NIMS model are designed to :

The IC is responsible for all 5 functions until he delegates them out. From this point the area are broken down into ____ and each is headed by a ____ _____

Ensure a manageable span of control


Sections chief
* They repot directly to the IC


Operaions is responsible for :

Planning is responsible for :

Management of all tactical objectives and activities Ex. Medical Branch

Development of the IAP
Disseminating the plan
Collects and evaluate tactical informantion


Logistics responsibilities :

Finance / Admin responsibilites:

Non operational Medical services for incident responders
Support needs facilities, transportation, supplies fuel, food, sleeping quarters

Analyzing cost, tracking the time and equipment of personnel. Procuring food


Established when the manageable span of control of the number of divisions / groups is exceeded

* run by a branch manager


Established by geographical area. Ex. third floor of a structure may be termed _____ 3



Established and named by a specific function Ex. Search ________



A combo of 5 unlike resources:

Task force


Combo of 5 like resources

strike team


Through unified command all members must agree on :

Incident priorities
Overall strategy


_____ Spellout the standard course of action that should be taken and expected on every incident



Units shall clear the station within _____ seconds from 0700 to 2000 and _____ seconds from 2300 to 0700

Incoming unit should not contact command to _______



request assignment


Second alarm or greater units will go to _____ and notify ______

Level 2 staging

Staging officer


1st arriving engine placement:

1st arriving truck placement:

3rd engine _______

Front of the fire structure ( Slightly to the side)

Front of structure

RIT team

Pg 63


Staging should be set up at least _____ ft of the function area

600 ft
All units on the same side of the street if possible


SOG's should cover :

all aspects that may be encountered in an incident response


Rep's from all levels of an organization should assist in the development of :



Fire command utilized 3 basic levels:

* was great for day to day incidents, but difficult to expand for large, unusual, multi agency responses

Strategic - role of IC
Tactical - role of sector officer
Task - company level

Ex. roof or rehab sector


Fire Ground command system became popular in the ____
Developed by ____ and the book _____ authored by _____

Phoenix FD
Fire command
Alan Brunacini


Every incident requires an ______ for small incidents the plan need not be written

Situations for which written action plans are required:

Incident action plan
_ Resources from multiple agencies in use
- Several jurisdictions involved
- Incident will require changes in shifts of personal / equipment


IMS's organizational structure develops in a ____ fashion.

The staff will build from the _______


Top down


IMS's components must include:

Command staff
finance /admin


The IMS's structure should describe:

Interagency coordination
command structure
framing and qualification


Purpose of command staff:

Provide structure, coordination and the integration or risk management, which increases health and safety.


The IC should:

Announce who is taking command and the location of the command post.

- Remain fairly stationary away from background noise. Use a vest or specific colored light to identify himself.

* IC has to rely on info being transmitted to him


Since 2001 there has been a National effort for agencies to adopt the ______



Standard on Emergency Services Incident Management System:

NFPA 1561


Designed to provide the framework to manage incidents with a strong command presence.

Command procedures


Span of Control:

_____ to ____ people
____ is the rule of thumb
Span of control is _____ varaible

3 to 7



All IMS have 1 thing in common _____.

Command or incident management is :

1 person in command

The art of directing and controlling the personnel and equipment assigned to the incident


Most important reason for using IMS:

Provides flexibility and give responsibility to select individuals, creating accountability and improving safety


IMS must be used on all incidents involving _______

More than a single unit


PAR reports can be :

Visual or Verbal



The relationship between FF safety and strategy tactics can be treated to _____

Incident Priorities


Purpose of the National Fire Fighter Life safety Summit:

Work toward accomplishing the FF life safety inactivities


HR should be monitored for ____ secs.

If rate above _____ temp should be taken

If temp above ____ all PPE is removed

Temp below ____ and HR above _____ rehab time should be increased

30 seconds


100.6 degrees F

100 degrees , 110


Mandatory Rehab Intails:

Rehab should be less than ____ mins

Rehab should not be in the _____

____ and ____ may inhibit boys ability to sweat and cool

2 air bottles or 45 mins of work

10 mins

Air condition

Antihistamines and Diuretics


Critical factor in heat injury prevention ______

During heat stress you should consume ____

50/50 mix of water and activity beverage and should be secured at _____

Avoid _____ and ____ beverages

Maintenance of water and electrolytes

at least 1 quart per hr

40 degrees F

Caffienated and carbonated

* Food should not be used in lieu of hydration


Upon entering rehab crews should :

Remove Coats
Wash Hands
Begin hydration

* Cannot leave without authorization of Rehab officer




Water, ice, activity beverage

High energy bars, crackers, granola

Thermometers, transport units

Status board, passports

Awnings, fans, barricade tape

* identify single Ingress / egress point


Rehab should be located close or adjacent to _____

Initial rehab where the incident will be concluded within a ___ to ___ hr period

Long term rehab - ( requires the assistance of eternal resources) incident expected to take longer than ___ to ___ hrs to complete

SCBA air refill station

6 to 8 hr

More than 6 to 8 hr
pg 41


Rehab Scope

Applied to emergency op's of extended duration. Strenuous physical activity or exposure to extreme heat or cold

* IC can determine that a informal rehab will suffice


Rehabs purpose

Ensure physical and mental condition does not deteriorate to the point it affects the safety of the individual, crew, or integrity of the Op.


The sector / group provides rest, nourishment, comfort and medical assessment



Basic plan for rehab should include:

Establishment of Rehab with the IMS
Rest and recovery
Medical evaluation
Accountability while in rehab


It takes ____ FF to rescue one downed FF

1 in _____ RIC members will get into some type of trouble

A 3000 psi bottle contains ____ of air ( plus or minus ____ %)






Phoenix RIC study showed

Rapid intervention is _____

Took RIC ____ to get to a ready state

_____ until time of entry

____ to make contact with down FF

___ average time inside building

Total rescue time of _____

Not Rapid

2.5 mins

3.03 mins

5.82 mins

12.33 mins

21 mins

Pg 38


It's a good idea to auto dispatch ___ to all ___


All working fires


RIC's defines _____

* Must be on standby in full PPE
Must not be assigned any task that would render them unavailable
What do they respond to?

Rapid Intervention crews

Lost FF, trapped FF, injured FF

Helps meet the requirements of OSHA's 2 in 2 out rule

* Should have direct comms with IC or operations


Accountability system requires
PAR's definition _____
PAR benchmarks :

* E81 Par 4

Personnel Accountability Reports

- a fix time (defined by SOG's)
- After primary search
- After fire under control
- Switch in strategies modes
- Significant event Ex. collapse, flashover, backdraft
- Any report of a missing FF


At a large incident _____ may determine points of entry, ensures comm's with accountability officers, provide overall coordination of accountability

division / group


_____ responsible for accountability of an area of the incident from a specific entry point.

______ responsible for putting the accountability function into the IMS

Accountability officer



____ responsible for ensuring name tags are in the proper location on apparatus

_____ responsible for knowing the location of each person assigned to them and for staying within their assigned work areas.

____ responsible for accountability within the work area

Individual responders


Group Officers


____ are a strict requirement, necessitating participation by everyone at all levels at all incidents

Locally adopted accountability procedures


Accountability systems must:

Account for exact location provide for expansion to exact scene needs.

Be adaptable to the IMS in use

Assure all individuals are checked in and out of the system

Provide for visual recognition of participation

Provide for points of entry into the hazard zone


New wireless accountability systems can:

Monitor air usage and track personnel


____ will occur by using several layers of supervisions in various geographical or functional areas.

Each ___ or ___ leader is responsible for his/her operating crews.


Group or division

An accountability officer should be assigned on large scale incidents. On smaller ones the IC or SO can handle it


____ inspections of PPE are recommended

This can performed by a ____ or ____

PPE should be inspected by the user _____ and ________

Monthly, station officer or shift commander

The begging of each shift and other every use

* same with PASS device


The expected components of FF PPE include:

SOG's should be in place defining the use of PPE

Approved helmet w/ eye protection
Flame resistant hood
Turnout / bunker coat
_____ pants
FF Gloves
FF boots
PASS device


A discussion on PPE for response to fires can be broken down into 3 subject areas:

Design and purchasing
Care and maintenance


Varied responsibilities of the SO include:
- Form a strategy
- Analyze fire and smoke conditions
- Ensure crew intactness
-Ensure IMS is in place
-Maintain accountability system
- Ensure proper levels of PPE
- Assess building or vehicle structure status
- Establish collapse zone
- Oversee rehab setup
- Assess physical condition of personnel
- Ensure proper scene lighting

- communicate unsafe location
- Ensure means of egress
- Develop risk assessment
- Ensure RIT crews are ready
- Secure utilities
- Ensure traffic is controlled


A SO's evaluation of a scene should include:

- A prediction of what could or will happen
- 360 of structure
- Pre incident plan review
- Talk to occupants / Owner about hazards

* SO's should assess the op from a safety point of view and relay finding to the IC


In some cases the SO serves in name only. This is a BAD idea.

The SO must have additional knowledge an be experienced with the type of fire incident at hand.

The SO must have ____ other duties.


*depending on the size and type of the organization, the SO may be a dedicated position within the safety division, or a first line supervisor


Common incident scene concepts are :

Assigning a safety officer
FF have proper PPE
Accountability system
RIT team


To avoid liability one must perform to the same level that another reasonable person with the same training and experience would perform.

Standard of Care
* SOC is a very dynamic concept
* Concept is : Everyone has certain expectations when it comes to performance


NFPA 1500 - Occupant safety and health
1561 - IMS
1584 - Rehab
1521 - Safety Officer Quals
1021 - FO Quals
1403 - Live fire training
1404- Respirators

All info


Air cascade systems must meet _____

Air quality requirements


Hazardous waste operations and Emergency response is OSHA # _____



Who is responsible to maintain SCBA?



Life safety Code is NFPA ____

NFPA has no _____


enforcement authority or power


____ Do not have the weight of law unless they are adopted as law by an authority having jurisdiction



Promulgated at some level of government by a government agency and have the force of law



In 1998 Congress funded ____ to conduct investigation on LODD's

The 3 goals are :


1 - Better define the magnitude and characteristic of LODD's among FF's
2- Develop recommendations for prevention
3- Disseminate prevention strategies


There are approx ____ FF in the US _____ paid and _____ volunteer.

On average _____ die each year
pg 29

1.2 million


1 million



Organizations that publish an annual report on FF injuries and death:



IC can run a safe fire ground op if they understand:

- Fire behaviors
- Implementation of IMS
- Understand historical causes of fire ground death and injuries


Risk assessment philosophy at the emergency scene

3 points

- Take great risk to save a lot

- Little risk to save a little

_ No risk to save what is already lost


A major development in FF safety was the development of the _____

200 people met to discuss prevention of FF _______

The goal was to reduce fatality rates by ____% in ____ yrs , and ____ % by 2014

16 FF life safety initiatives

line of duty deaths

25% in 5 yrs

50 % by 2014


OSHA requires 2 FF available outside the structure for rescue for every 2 FF inside performing fire attack

2 in 2 out rule


Just less than half of FF injuries occur on the fire ground.

About ___ of FF deaths occur on the fire ground

The major impact on fire ground safety came from NFPA ____


Occupational health and safety program


NFPA 1404 -

NFPA 1561 -

Standard of live fire training

Standard of emergency services Incident management system


Agency under FEMA and the Dept of Homeland Security that directs and produces fire programs, research, and education

United states Fire administration


Kevlar -


Inner clothing

Outer clothing


Personal Alert Devices sound after ____ to ____ of losing stationary

20 to 30 seconds


It is unheard of today to fight a fire in :

Latest fire resistance materials like ___ and ___

New thermal protection ____ reducing overheating

FF Safety strap ____ into gear

Helmets are ____ ____ materials

Mandated ___ ____ are worn in IDLH atmosphere

Helmet and rubber coar

Nomex and kevlar



Lightweight and composite

Breathing apparatus


Changes in building materials and building construction have ____ fire hazards

Such as the flammable materials now found in homes.


Terrorism has created changed in response and op's policies


_____ will impact the ability to meet the strategies. The Fire department must consider this when deploying tactics.

Staffing levels


Ultimate decision makers on what type of fire dept a community will support :

Regardless of resources available, start goals and objectives on the fire ground


Do not change

* However tactics and tactical methods will change drastically


Most efficient way to move water in early history ___

Large extensive fires are called ____

Bucket Brigade



General statement on what needs to be accomplished. Designed to meet incident priorities

More specific functions designed to meet the strategic goals __

The method used to meet the tactic __

Strategy - ventilation

Tactic - Vertical ventilation

Tactical method - PPV at front door


Organized the first fire fire company in philadelphia in 1736 to save lives and reduce property loss

Ben Franklin
* Tech advances, increased research, increased education, and focused on safety and improved standards have had a major impact on the fire service

* Especially in the last 30 yrs


The ____ has been a catalyst for higher education in the fire service.

It is funded by the _____

Was the result of _____

2001 GW Bush established the _____

NFA was created in ____ and was the outcome of the document _____

National Fire Academy

Fed Gov

Sept 11 2001

Office of Homeland Security


America Burning - a report made to the president of the US


____ will probably be in every structure that a FF responds to

Every FF must understand strategied and tactics _____


Regardless of rank


When a forest fire is moving towards occupied homes:

Wild land Urban Interface


Proper strategies and tactics can be better deployed if the FF knows the :

Of the structure in his zone

Construction types

Building material used

Architectural designs

General engineering principles


Construction type where no fire stop were located between the floors or attic spaces.

They now require fire stops but many older models are still inhabited

Ballon Frame


New residential roofs have had a bad impact because of the ____ of the roof



Light Wood trusses have drastically changed FF tactics

___ must be located and put out quickly or there is a real threat of roof collapse

Attic fires


In trusses the 2 x4's are held together by ___

Trusses are lined up ____ to ____ inched apart to create the skeleton of the roof

Under heat, gusset plates ____

gusset plates

16 to 24 inches

Pull out from the wood and fail
* lightweight joodtrusses fail faster than older traditional techniques


____ lose their integrity quickly under fire conditions

____ ____ roofs are now most common.

Made up by 2x4 lumber in a triangle formation. This is called ____ and _____

Wooden bowstrings truss roofs

Lightweight wood truss roofs

Chord and web (very strong)


FF's should not fight fires for longer than the time it takes to use ____

____ min bottles without rehab

Average work time for a 30 min bottle ____

Dont rely on FF to tell you they need rehab

2 30 mins

12 min and 50 seconds


Home in the 20's and 30's were furnished with:

The structures were built with mostly ____

Now homes are furnished with ____ causing____

Wood , leather,cotton, and wool


Plastic foams and synthetics

Burns much hotter, reaches flashover faster, creates toxic fumes and dense smoke


Furniture now is made of many materials causing ____ and causing the fire to ____

Toxic fumes

Fire burns much hotter


492 people died in the ____ fire of ____.

Flammable decorations, inadequate exits and overcrowding was to blame.

It influenced the ___ edition of ____

Boston , Mass 1942

1942 Building exit code

* These changes effect strategy


__% of FF deaths are due to ___

There is still no mandatory fitness program

Standard for FF fitness NFPA __





____ Investigates every FF death in the US

Must secure the FF's ___ after death
Before hackensack the term ___ _____ was not nationally known

National Institute of Occupational Safety and health


Bowstring truss


After high rise fire that killed 3 FF code was changed to require ____

Approx ___ FF still die each year

The NFA is located in ____

Sprinklers in all high rise office buildings in philadelphia


Emmitsburg Maryland


FF must assume that not all ____ will be available as written in the code.

____ can be deadly

___ allow for only detection and notification of fires



Alarm systems


____ to augment or provide water to sprinkler and standpipe systems must be considered early in the incident

In some buildings both systems are supplied by the same ____

Apparatus Placement



High rise pack consist of:

150 ft hose

reducer or gated wye

Spanner wrench


____ and ___ have had a major impact on tactics

Sprinkler systems, standpipes , alarm systems, exit requirements are all examples

___ are important allies of FD's

___ allow FF to carry less hose, less fatigue

Codes and standards

Sprinkler systems



NFA is providing higher education such as the ____ program.

FF have education opportunities from basic skills to ___ and ___ degree programs

Executive Fire Officer Program

Masters and doctorate


Works to enhance the ability of FR and Emergency services and allied professionals to deal more efficiently with fire related emergencies

National Fire Academy


At building with multiple entry points the ____ at each entry point will serve as the initial accountability point for that entrance.

First arriving company at each potential entry point

* However an accountability officer should be assigned ASAP


For the single family house fire the ____ will serve as the initial accountability officer

The ____ will establish command, but that officer will transfer command to ____

The first arriving engine driver

First arriving Engine officer will assume command, The BC upon his arrival


Contradiction ****************

Peer defusing : a trained person from the same discipline talks to emergency responders AFTER a critical incident

Pg 434

Peer Defusing:

Occurs at the scene. An informal discussion between the peers who experienced the event together

Pg 431


A process for managing the short term and long term effects of critical incident stress reactions:

A critical review of the incident after it occurs:

Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)

Post incident analysis


4 types of CISM:

* Should take into account other agencies that were involved in the incident

Peer defusing : occurs at the scene

On site defusing : responder is pulled from ops and sent to rehab to be mentally evaluated

After demobilization : In a neutral area session last from 30 to 60 min

Formal debriefing: After the incident , sometimes several days led by a CISM team of specially trained staff.

2 rules : All members involved should try to attend, peer counselor needs to have had proper training


Informal PIA can also occur:

Delaying company level PIA can:

If its late at night hold the PIA for :

at the scene

Give members tim to develop defensive behaviors or mount attacks , compromising constructiveness

10 to 15 min
Address it the next morning or the start of the next shift


Post incident analysis (PIA) are sometimes called:

They should focus on:

The purpose should be to:

They are relevant to :

The fire service has seen an overall reduction in the :

Critical review- * because the word critique carries a negative connotation, PIA is preferred

* ROPE* Resource, Operational effectiveness, Personnel, Equipments

Reinforcing appropriate strategies, discovering innapropriate strategies

All FD personnel, not just chiefs and crews that were on the incident

Number of serious fires
* So a PIA is a good way to discuss strategies and fill the gap



Once released , crews should return to quarters and ____.

Showering allows them to :

____ should be on the lookout for signs of stress within crews. Report it to ____

When the apparatus and crew are clean and ready for the next alarm , the officer should sit them down and have an informal discussion with them about the incident.

Replenish supplies

Devon from the elements of incomplete combustion

Fire officers and FF's, notify their supervisors

This is the first step in the post incident analysis



The mindset of _____ the fire must be forsaken to make way for logical thinking about personnel care and conservation.

When exposed to bodily fluids crews must decon _____


As much as possible before entering the apparatus
* or any other typeof containment



Many organizations operate using _____ approach. * Not logical

_____must be considered in the demobilization plan

When FD's use ____ crews can leave their trucks and equipment on scene and return to the station on the relief crews apparatus

First in, last out approach

FF fatigue

Standardized apparatus


The process of returning personnel, apparatus and equipment after an emergency has been terminated .

Agencies should require personnel to ____ before leaving the scene.

Incident termination requires an :

Demobilization - * whether the incident is large or small termination must be planned sequence of actions.

Pass through rehab for a Medical check out

Organized plan for demobilization * the importance of demobilization is ignored in many incident action plans


Historical Structures

IC's should work closely with _____ and ____ during salvage and overhaul

As with any fire, the best means of protection is _____ ***

_____ can prevent the need for forcible entry

Curators and staff


Addition of key box


Electrical substations

Fire can occur because of :

____ and ____ are the only activities that can be performed until power is shut down

Once power is off , crews will be confronted with a ____ fire

Mechanical failure, Lightning, Over heating from energy demands

EVAC and exposure protection

Flammable liquid fire
(Mineral Oil)


Bulk storage facilities

Don't enter diked area unless to :

On pressurized tanks, crews should NOT be placed:

___ is paramount at bulk storage facilities

On pressurized tanks, water should be applied to:

On non pressurized tanks, water should be applied to:

Save a life

In line with the ends of the tanks

Protection of exposed tanks

The vapor space

To the sides, below the liquid line


Bulk storage facilities

Hazards associated with bulk storage:

Pressurized tanks hold:

Bulk tanks are required to have:

When water sinks to the bottom of a tank it does little to extinguish the fire, but it adds to the volume in the tank and product spills out :

product , tank type, construction and physical layout of the tank

Gases that are liquefied or stored in bulk under pressure

Built in safety features
Ex. deluge gun water or foam systems
Tanks must also be diked for Runoff




Evacuation of the planes passengers will occur:

Once life safety and extinguishment are over, the aircraft should be left _____

Little if any ____ should be done

Before FD arrives

Intact for fed investigators.
For overhaul- only as much is needed should be performed




3 types of lines that FF must be protected from in aircraft fires:

Search and rescue:

Access may be gained by cutting through the ____ or ____, but the easiest access is through the planes ____.

Be cautious opening a planes door because doing so may cause:

hydraulic lines, oxygen lines, fuel lines

with the area around the crash site

fuselage or windows


The emergency chute to deploy


Color code for aircraft tubing:
Blue and yellow




Compressed gas

breathing air

fire protection


____ on an aircraft may still operate after a crash and continue to emit radiation

Rotary wing aircraft can carry ____ to ____ people. Fuel carried on board can range from ____ to ____ gallons

Main rotor blades can span as much as ____ ft. And dip as low as ____ ft during start up and shut down

The ____ may not be seen when its spinning

Radar units
* won't emit if they are shut down

1 to 50
20 to 700 gallons

60 ft, 4 ft

tail rotor


Larger aircraft have a ____ system for the controls

Aircrafts use an _____ to supply power when the aircraft engines are down

Military aircraft use ____ to dislodge ejection seats

Hydraulic * may carry pressures of up to 5,000 psi

APU ( auxiliary power unit) it runs off the planes fuel supply

Explosive devices
* there is also the possibility of ammunition on board


Fuel for reciprocating engine:

Fuel for jet engines and turbo prop engines:

Fuel for military aircraft with jet engines:

High octane aviation gasoline or avgas, it is very flammable

Bot use a commercial high grade kerosene fuel. Known as Jet A. It has a higher flash point than avgas, but a lower ignition temperature.


Several common hazards for fixed wing aircraft:

Aircraft engines can be 1 of 3 different types:

Large amount of fuel , hydraulic fluid, and in some cases oxygen equipment

Reciprocating, jet propulsion, turbo prop


One extinguishment method for train fires is to remove the ____ side of the fire triangle .

The fire is allowed to:

___ should be inspected for signs of horizontal fire spread when dealing with train fires.

fuel side

Interior partitions


Non passenger trains usually travel with a minimum crew of ____ to ___ people

The crew should be in the _____

Priority areas should be developed depending on ____ and ____

Some of the largest evacuations in history have been as a result of :

2 to 4

Lead locomotive

Time of the incident
Proximity to the fire

Rail incidents



If the tank care shell cannot be cooled at the ___ , FD should withdraw and EVAC everyone.

If the rail locomotive is powered by electricity ____ or ____ will be present

the point of flame impingement

Overhead wires or a third rail



If flames are impinging on a pressurized railcar containing LPG and sufficient water supply cannot be established, _____

It is essential that all other rail traffic:

Evacuation may be the only valid strategy

Be stopped
* FD dispatchers will have the phone # for train dispatchers



Several 1 ton containers of chlorine are commonly transported on a flat car, called a _____

Multi unit tankcar



- Car with a capacity from a few hundred gallons to 30,000 gallons of product

- May have 1 or more compartments

Tank cars


8 classifications of railcars:

* passenger trains may carry several hundred people Pg 405


boxcars - a box with wheels, may have refirdgerator systems

Flat cars - no wall enclosures or tops

intermodal equipment

Gondola cars - Flat bottom and walls

Hopper cars

Passenger cars

tank cars



- Work horse of the train
- can be diesel electric or electric
- Diesel elcetric is basically a generator on wheels
- The diesel electrics biggest hazard is the electricity created by the diesel engine
- Full electric carry a current between 25,000 to 50,000 volts




- Basically flat cars with containers placed on them

* Allow cargo to be transferred rapidly between different modes of transportation without having to off load the product

inter modal equipment



- Cars that have fixed sides and ends
- floor is sloped to a hinged door
- transport dry bulk materials Ex fertilizer and grains

Hopper cars



- Cars designed to carry people or perform functions for passengers
Ex luggage storage or dining

Passenger cars



If at sea, the only option for evacuation is :

If in part, an evac option may be to:

Exposed boats may be:

To confine the fire ____, ____, and ____

Ventilation tactical objectives involve:

Overhaul will be necessary where:

Life boats

Evacuate the port, or area around the ship

Moved away from the danger area

Close bulkhead doors, place homeliness to protect avenues of vert and horizontal fire spread, control the ventilation system

Removing or opening hatch covers and turning ventilators away from the wind

In the fire area and the adjacent areas


Comparison of building Vs. Ship terms:

Structure term
Wall =
Floors =
windows =



plartforms or decks





Shipboard strategic goals and objectives

FF safety should start with asking the question:

___ should be used to provide exit paths at ship fires

Tactical objectives for search and rescue on a ship should focus on :

Are the crews trained and equipped to handle the situation

** Life lines**

Dividing the ship into sections and having crews search assigned areas


Hazards encountered on shipboard fires:

When water is applied to a ship fire, the water:

Passenger ships can carry _____ of fuel

The ships pre fire plan is called ****

Included in the plan is the :

It is required to be stowed:

Stays on the ship, creating stability problems

hundreds of thousands of gallons pg 402

*** Fire command plan***
Layout, location of FF equipment, plans for each deck dimensions, locations of comm systems

In a marked location outside the deck house. Signs directing FF to the FLP are required.


Cargo ships may carry up to ____ passengers as well as Hazmats

In shipboard fires FF may endure intense heat and smoke, because they:

____ creates a maze that would be difficult for a unfamiliar person to navigate in a shipboard fire.


often must enter from the top of the fire and descend down



Never extinguish a gas fire unless:

Overhaul should be handled by :

the gas supply can be immediately shut off when the fire is out Pg 401

Hazmat team * salvage as well


Exposure protection may be implemented where there is no fire. Example ____

Responders trained to the ____ level can deploy defensive actions at a has mat response

Tactical objectives for confinement at a hazmat include : ____ , _____ and ____ pg 400

Haz mat operation level technician requires ___ hrs of training

an originated leak of flammable gas, like LPG, its heavier than air and may be directed away from exposures using hose streams

Defensive actions

Damming, diking and retention
* can be done by ops level responders

8 hrs
pg 395


Sheltering in place is an acceptable option at a hazmat incident.

Shut down vent systems that could bring in outside air

Any openings to the outside should be closed

whats the duration of the release?
How many evacuees
Where will they go?
Number of available resources

* studies have shown that sheltering in place is generally safer than evacuation


Haz Mats

FF safety can be accomplished at Haz Mat incidents often by doing _____ or by ____

Hazmat incidents are ____, ___ should be an early consideration

Nothing or by taking defensive actions only

Long lasting



3 risks levels for Rescue at a Hazmat incident :

* Those who have the best chance for survival should be rescued first

Low - Hazards are known and not expected to increase

Calculated - Same as low, except that hazards may increase

Unacceptable - No chance for success


Non flammable gasses: Lower Flammable limit of no higher than ___% and a Flammable range of greater than ___%

The weight of air is equal to ____



Equal to 1
FF should understand the eight of different gases compared to air


Detonate :


to explode with sudden violence

To burn rapidly
( can be considered "low explosive")


An area where under developed land with vegetative fuels mixes with human made structures

A wildland engine:

Wildland urban interface

Brush truck



The key in fighting interface fires is to :

When prioritizing exposures you are essentially performing?

There are no ____ and ___ rules as to which structure should be protected

The ___ and ___ of a structure can be considered safety zones

A structure may not be defensible if it is less than ____ the ____ from the edge of the clear space

Use your resources to accomplish the most good

Structural triage

hard and fast

Leeward side And interior

Twice the flame length

* The decision to protect an exposure will depend on the fuel load and intensity of the fire


WFF tactics

2 main concerns:

___ it , ____ it, and ____ it

Start extinguishment at :

Conditions that would make you reassess your decision to protect or withdraw from a structure

1 FF safety , 2 providing for the greatest good

Find , contain, extinguish

Most active flank, move towards head

Building construction , spot fire spreading, roof is well involved, large unprotected windows, above ground fuel tanks, house is on a slope


In WF ___ is a big concern

You should lower ___ on adjustable nozzles and lower ____ on a automatic nozzle

Overhaul in WFF is called ____ and is just as important as in structural FF.

The ____ should be overhauled. Crews should saturate a an area that extends ___ ft beyond the burned area.

water supply



Mop up

Entire perimeter

50 ft
* Salvage is usually not much of a concern in WFF



___ is a difficult component to remove during WFF

Removing ___ is likely impossible

You can dig a line to remove:

Safest method of extinguishment:

You should begin by working up the ___

From within the burned area, then work towards the _____



Fuel and the preheating of surrounding vegetation

Attack from the burned area and work outward

Flanks and head
* The head of a WF is the fastest growing and fastest moving



3 main ways to contain a WFF:

Other ways to confine WFF:

Surround it with personnel who have constructed fire lines or
Create a perimeter and have FF there ready to extinguish or
Combo of both

Dozers, aircraft, natural boundaries, artificial boundaries, extinguishment, backfiring ahead of a moving fire



The most important issue regarding evacuation is :

Regarding exposure protection, ____ is the key

Class A foam is used 2 ways in WFF:

CASF's have proven to be more effective than water alone (Define CASF)

Confining a wild land fire means:

When to order it

Knowing which exposures to protect and how to protect them

In conjunction with water to penetrate ordinary combustible and make extinguishment more effective or, it is applied to unburned materials

Compressed air foam systems

Keeping it contained to a designated area
* typically requires spreading resources throughout the area


Strategic goals of Wildland fires:

- Many of the goals in wild land fires:

- FF safety begins with:

- FF should be outfitted with wild land FF gear including:

- ___ is not a major component of WFF

- ___ is an instance where it may be required

- EVAC effort are:

- Who gives the order to EVAC?

are also applicable to structural FF

Each individual

Long sleeve shirt (tucked in) pants ( both having fire retardant material) work boots, helmet and eye protection

Search and rescue

Homeowners who refused to evacuate

A huge undertaking. Time consuming and personnel intensive

FD and other agencies as well
EVAC is conducted as a joint effort among public safety agencies


10 firefighting orders for Wildland FF
1 keep informed on weather conditions
2 know what the fire is doing at all times
3 base all actions on current and expect fire bahavior
4 plan escape routes for everyone
5 place a lookout in danger areas
6 be alert, calm, think clearly, act decisively

7 Maintain communication with everyone involved
8 Give c;ear instructions
9 maintain control of your crew at all times
10 Fight fire aggressively, but provide for safety first

* Containment could be containing the fire to an area of several hundred feet or a few thousand acres


Ground cover fires

- Primarily involve fuels at the lowest level
- involves light types of fuel, such as grasses
- fastest growing type, but produces the lead heat
- Typically can be reached with regular wild land apparatus, and usually only span a few hundred feet to several acres

Most often occur in farmlands and urban suburban areas


Strip center

If FF observe a truss section failing:

Covered walkways are:

They are either ____ or supported by ____

Cantilever walkways are attached :

With walkways roof may fall ______

Evacuate immediately

Purely decorative, no structural support

Cantilevered, supported by posts and pillars

to the main building structure, its basically an extension of the main roof

or tip outward , much like a seesaw


Strip mall

Typically there are no void spaces between ____ and _____

Fire in the covered walkways typically:

They are typically bolted_______

Covered walkways and main structure

Can burn with out necessarily affecting the main structure

to the wall of the main structure
* collapse is likely at the connection points


Strip mall tactics

IC should not wait for a event to happen:

If crews are not making significant progress:

and then react (be proactive not reactive)

Consider pulling crews out of the building



Once fire floor determined the ___ and ___

Should be closed, while ____ should be opened to prevent air from transferring the supply and return shafts

Next step is to the fire area, so fresh air is supplied to building occupants while pressurizing these zones at the same time

outside air supply dampers and mixing dampers

Exhaust dampers

Supply fans
* All FF's must have a genera; understanding of HVAC systems


Devices that prevent or allow air to enter the HVAC system

Rule of thumb upon arrival to a HR is to verify the ____ while determining the mode of ____


Fire floor and location

The mode of all the HVAC zones


One of the most critical aspects of fighting modern HR fires is :

Old building don't have HVAC systems:

HVAC system has 3 components:

gaining handle on air movement throughout the building (HVAC system)

They have AC systems that only serve 1 floor HVAC systems serve multiple floors

Processing equipment
supply equipment
return equipment


Building fire pumps should be able to deliver ____ psi at _____ with a relief valve limiting the pressure to ____ psi above that which is required


highest floor outlet



With fire pumps it is essential that the ____ and ____ gauges be checked.

And that the ____ is closed. As much as ___% of pump capacity could be lost if it is open.

Of one pump is substantially lower pressure than the other :

Should be a phone in the pump room directly connecting to:

inlet and discharge

bypass valve

50 %

the lever should be moved to a higher setting

The buildings command post


All HR's should be required to have:

Many times the fire pumps start _____, in some cases either the _____ or a ____ will start them.

Pump room is usually located in :

If a FF starts the pump he should:

Auxiliary Fire pumps * they increase the pressure in the standpipe system


building engineer of a FF

Basement, subbasement or utility room

Remain there to ensure proper pressures and make sure they don't get shut off


If the building has a adequate fire pump supplying the sprinklers, the IC should have the first supply line supply the ____ siamese.

Always supply the standpipe system before:

Where did the fire stop at Meridian 1 Philly:


FF's work off of it, even with a wet , pressurized system

the first floor that was equipped with sprinklers


In many cases areas ____ are mandated in HR's.

Only absolute method of determining if a standpipe is present:

Good rule of thumb for responding pumper to HR:

Must supply the system with ____ and ____

May have to move engines away from the building to :

The siamese connection should be ____ or ____


preincident plan

position at a working hydrant located near a siamese

adequate pressure and several lines

protect his from falling debris

Color coded or have a sign indicating its use
Standpipe, sprinkler or combo
* consider having a min of 2 pumpers simultaneously supplying 2 siamese connections fire ops


The key tactical consideration in HR fires is that FD's are completely reliant on the buildings systems to assist in extinguishment. These systems include:

The systems are varied and complex, the FD must master their use in order to be succesful

Standpipes , sprinklers, HVAC, Elevators, Fire command station

Communications systems
Fire pumps


Common construction type of many HR's elevators stairs and support systems are located in the center of the building

In new buildings windows are:

Only way to vent them is to:

FD needs to control and utilize _____

Central (or center) core construction

Fixed and inoperable

Break them whiteness glass into the street

* If used improperly can cause death or injury of civilians and FF's


*** _____ are the most challenging fires in the fire service

Old HR construction:

New HR construction:


High Rise fires

Much heavier, concrete or masonry walls, concrete floor, windows that could be opened from the inside ,lack of central AC or plenums. Compartmentation

Sleek steel and glass. HVAC systems , large open office spaces, lacking compartmentation, plenums are also used for building electrical and communication equipment

A ductwork component of an HVAC system that provides an avenue for air flow and returns air to the system


High Rises ( HR)

Defined as :

First HR fires occurred over 100 yrs ago (1882)


The battles are fought from _____

with very little help from _____

Any building in which the highest floor is beyond reach of the available ladders

Heavy emphasis is placed on using the buildings systems Ex: elevators, speakers, standpipes, fire pumps

Within the structures, ground ladders and outside streams


An occupancy used for the gathering of 50 or more people for deliberation, worship, entertainment, eating, drinking, amusement, awaiting transportation , or used as a special amusement building. Regardless of occupant load.

Place of assembly


At stadium and arenas

Control of the fire alarm panel allows fire personnel to provide messages and directions over in house intercom systems and allows them to manage:

Elevators, lights and other systems


Night clubs Pg 319

Windows, doors, stairways and shafts should all be opened. ____ is the primary cause of death in these structures. Occupants chances of survival depend on _____

Vertical ventilation will likely be _____

PPV will work once ____


The crews ability to reduce smoke conditions


Once fire is located and hose lines are in place


Night Clubs Pg 319

All initial resources may be assigned to :

____ dictate the actions of the first responding units

Even if fire is knocked down quickly:

_____ must follow any rescue efforts

Search and rescue

Pre incident plans

Loss of life is usually significant

Larger hand lines


Nightclubs pg 318

Todays nightclubs can be completely:

Hazard associated with nightclubs:

Popular venues can be ______

Some of the occupancies have _____ shows

In many cases, devastation to human life will happen _____. Rescue is focused on:

Non combustible

Alcohol consumption, Loud music, low lights, smoky environment


Before arrival

Those in greatest peril



Vent strategies _____ depending on the design of the structure.

It is very difficult to vent an arena without the aid of an ___ system because arenas have _____

very drastically


Very high ceiling


Another hazard presented during arena event is :

The biggest concern with an area is :

____numbers of rescuers are needed even for small fires

As occupants are evacuating, search efforts should include:

The best possible way to confine a fire is to :

Alcohol consumption

Size and configuration of the building

A large number

Locating and confining the fire

* activate an adequate sprinkler system and augment it with efforts from the FD*


People have a tendency to perceive large stadiums as ____ and not as structures

Pro sports arenas are similar to ____, with attached fields and stadium seating

____ may prove to be taxing and difficult

Outdoor arenas

High rise buildings

Incident stabilization



Most modern arenas can be considered:

There is no set standard on :

Te only constant when designing arenas is ____ can seat ____ to ____ ( Neyland stadium in Knoxville Tennessee)

Architectural and engineering marvels

How an arena can be designed


A few hundred to 96,000


Exhibit Halls

Cutting holes in exhibit hall roofs has ____, and may not be :

Much of what will burn in an exhibit hall are:

For overhaul, utilize the building :

For salvage, depending on the damage have the :

Many Limitations
May not be the most effective use of personnel

The exhibits themselves

Equipment Ex. Forklifts , motorized carts

The owners and vendors come in to salvage what they can may be the option


Exhibit halls

Initial Search and rescue op's focus on:

Realistically, there is no way to :

Search team should use a rope as a _____

In some cases, exhibit hall employees have as much training in fire response as:

They can use interior standpipes to confine fire in its early stages but FD should _____

Removal of victims found in and around exit doors

Determine a head count of evacuees


An industrial fire brigade does

stretch FD hose not theirs


Exhibit halls

Most occupants will only be familiar with one way in and one way out so ____ is the key

FF's must assume that not everyone ____

IC must divide the fire into _____

Fire preventions

Will evacuate
* start primary search ASAP

Manageable areas and establish appropriate collapse zones


Exhibit Hallas

After massive fires destroyed McCormick place in _____ in Jan 1967. Fire and building codes for exhibit halls were changed most new have ____ or ____ or both.

The fire was fought with ____ FF and _________ apparatus


Fire alarm and fire suppression

500 FF's

94 apparatus



Typically have ____ that are difficult to _____.


Steep roofs


The fewer items handled the better



Elevated streams have the versatility to attack through ____ or reach ____

If elevated streams are in use from above and below ____ is no longer a consideration

Windows or reaching the highest points of the structure

Salvaging stained glass windows



Crew may position the apparatus for an ____-

While remaining capable of employing _____
in case the operation becomes defensive

It is not wrong for the first alarm companies to set up for offensive and the _____ prepare for defensive operations

offensive attack

master streams

2nd alarm companies
* Preferable to use large lines



Early total collapse of _____ is a concern

Obtain info from ____ regarding areas of potential victims

At the first sign of instability:

Collapse zones should be set with considerations for ______


Evacuating occupants

IC should evacuate all FF's and establish collapse zones




Its important to preplan these facilities and add them to the :

People can be found in POW's:

_____ line may not be enough GPM to over come the BTU's generated

Departments target hazard list
as they may require more than the average first alarm response

Any hour of the day

1 3/4

British Thermal Units


Places of worship (POW)

Construction features are numerous and vary greatly among structures

Old POW's that have undergone renovations result in :

Mixed building construction styles and materials



Quick and effective ____ must be established early in the fire.

_____ plays a critical role in ventilation operations


Pre incident planning


POA Fires

Most practical way to get a line to the fire:

May be divided into :

FF may be able to control the movement of air using the :

What happened at the MGM fire?

Have the ____ meet with command at designated locations


Different zones

HVAC system

HVAC system removed the smoke from the fire area and vented it away from the involved portion of the building causing confusion

Facilities maintenance personnel



____ and ____ the fire quickly greatly reduces life safety hazards

_____ or ____ may know the location of the fire

Dont ____ until the fire is located

Using the ___ is key to extinguishing POA fires

Once the fire is located the goal is to :

Locating and confining

Building managers and evacuating occupants

Commit hoselines * use TIC to find

Built in fire protection system

Confine it to the room or area of origin
* initially close the door


Assembly structure occupants will likely have been :

Rescue operations may include:

Overcome by smoke and fire before the first due companies arrive

Opening as many doors as possible and removing people


Most modern POA are designed to

During Search and rescue assignment should be broken down

May choose to evacuate or :

FF's should take control of :

Above -- does two things:

____ can be used for occupants and FF forces

Enhance occupant evacuation


Move people to a safe area within the fire building

Elevators: allow us to move freely prevent occupants from using them as an escape route ( could lead them to the fire floor)

Public address system


POA Fires

FD could direct the response of apparatus:

FD must pre establish tac objectives such as :

____ is a big FF safety issue in POA

A RIC at ______ should be established

Along service roads to avoid traffic

Staging areas, mandatory meeting points, water supplies, sprinkler and standpipe assignments, triage areas, LZ, clear route in and out for medical units

Personnel accountability
Large complex floor plans can cause FF's to become lost

Every entry point ** FOR FF**
IC must quickly realize the resources need to protect working companies already committed


Strategy goals for responding to POA (places of assembly)

Fire may depend on _____ and _____

It is very important for companies to know the _____ of the facility

** Major concern for fires involving POA's is the ______

Time of day and activity involved

Schedule of activities

The apparatus's ability to access the fire buildings driveways and parking areas


3 well known public assembly fires:

Bradford City Stadium England May 11, 1985
Killed 56 injured 265

Coconut Grove Bost Mass 1942

Happy Land Social Club Bronx NY March 25 1990
killed 87

* Also Beverly Hills supper club and station night club


Assembly occupancies are designed to hold:

___ found in places of assembly

is a significant life safety concern, as well as the patrons lack of experience and familiarity with the building

Some of the worst fires in ____ have occurred in places of assembly

Large numbers of people, often in large, open areas

Population density

US history
(mass casualties)


To constitute a structure as an assembly occupancy ______ must be set.

NFPA 101:

Above uses a min occupancy load of ____ with the understanding that population densities may be as little as _____. If the occupancy has the same designated use, but has a load of fewer than _____ people it falls under a different category, such as a _____.

A minimum number of occupants

Life safety code

50 , 5 sq ft or less per person

50 , business


NFPA defines Assembly occupancies as :

They can be broken down into several categories:

any place where a large number of people congregate for entertainment , worship, meetings, or for awaiting transportation

Places of worship , exhibit halls, arenas, night club


Types of commercial building structures:

4 types

strip malls

Large commercial buildings - Supermarkets , dept stores

2 or 3 story commercial occupancies

Stand alone commercial occupancies


____ are essentially a combo of strip malls and large commercial structures

____ is a horizontal extension that is supported only on 1 side

2 or 3 story commercial structures



Stand Alone Commercial structure

Rarely have any _____

Use quick aggressive attack with hoselines capable of at least _____ gpm's

Drop ceiling can hide fire _____ can happen when a portion of the ceiling is opened

You can vent the entire structure in just a few minutes using ______

Built in fire protection

125 gpm




Stand Alone commercial

Often have ____ on roof

An overhang or covered walkway that is _____

____ that may conceal fire or other hazards

Evacuation of building is necessary but ____



Drop ceilings

Not difficult


Stand Alone Comm

____ construction using _____

New building may use ____, _____, or _____ although wood is still common

Commonly the attic is _____

Many will use ____ for the roofs structural support

Most roofs are ____

The buildings are small so the exterior walls serve as _______

Simple, Wood

Concrete , brick , steel

Open throughout the structure



Load bearing walls


Stand Alone Comm

- relatively uncomplicated

- Convenience stores, bars, pubs

- Additionally ____ are becoming popular stand alones

Manufactured occupancies ( Single or double wide trailer)

Ex : Typically used for offices like on a construction site


2 or 3 story commercial buildings

Vertical ventilation should be used :

Horizontal can be used on :

Over the stairwells

On the fire floor
PPV may be beneficial


Evacuation of a 2 or 3 story commercial structure is generally ____ than it is for large commercial buildings because:

The best way to prevent Autoexposure?

Easier, most occupants work there or frequent it often and know the exits

Train hose streams on the exterior of the structure above where the fire fire is venting and attempting to spread vertically


2 and 3 story Commercial structure Hazards

Many older buildings utilize:

A steel roof is generally covered with a :

They are also being covered with:

For the most part, these buildings don't have :

Bowstring Truss

Metal Skin
Top with rigid insulation, tar and gravel

A stretched rubber membrane (Like a bike tire)
*makes roof feel spongy like its failing
*gums up blades when cutting

Attached covered walkways


2 or 3 story commercial buildings

Roofs are typically _____

Floor is made of _____

Old buildings used ____ or ____ for support columns

New buildings use ____, ____, or _____



Wood or cast iron

Steel , wood, and concrete


Large Comm buiding Salvage

In large commercial buildings salvage operations run _____ with incident stabilization and may begin as soon as ______


Life safety is addressed


Large commercial building Ventilation

_____ should be used most of the time.

Positive and negative pressure are :

If you use PPV:

Vertical ventilation

Often ineffective
*high ceilings, too many openings

Multiple fans in the opening
Fans within the structure
Exit should be high and remote


Large Commercial Buildings

Initial engine company maybe faced with :

The first line should be placed:

Great care must be used to avoid:

Blocked roads and entrances by fleeing customers

Between the fire and means of egress

Avoid opposing streams


Large Commercial Structures

The size of these structures often require:

Large spans were impossible to create using:

A chemical change in wood resulting from the action of heat:

First step in search and rescue:

Pillars or posts to support the roof
* often I beams enclosed in concrete

Heavy timber construction
* typically 8x8 in could be bigger or smaller

Pyrolizing or charring
* actually acts as an insulator

Meet with the owner or manager


Large Commercial Building

____ can expose metal rebar in a concrete wall, weakening it.

These building have few, if any _____ and typically have _____ that allow fire spread.

Spalling ***
Falling chunks could injure FF's

Fire stopping walls

Poke - throughs


Large commercial Building

____ add to the weight of the roof.

When venting a roof, do not cut ______

HVAC units

Steel cables in roof
* under a lot of tension
will rip through the concrete
destroying everything in it path


Large Commercial Buildings

In older structures the roof assembly was usually:

Which is constructed from:

Another roof hazard are ____ especially if made from ______

A bowstring truss


Parapets, styrofoam ( = toxic smoke)


Large Commercial Buildings

Main materials used to make load bearing walls:

Older structures used ____ or ____ for exterior walls

New structures are using ______

Steel is the _____ of these buildings

Wood is rarely used to :

Concrete, steel or a combo

Concrete block or brick

Large concrete slabs

* also used in floors walls and roofs

Construct roofs in these structures


Large commercial structures

Most obvious construction feature:

____ over the past few decades, has enabled builders to create large open spaces with little to no _____ needed between the bearing walls

Steel can be extruded to jus about:

Large open spaces

Steel, roof supports

Any length and thickness desired and multiple steel member can be joined together to span a large space


The layout and construction of a strip mall creates:

Salvage should begin:

a seemingly endless number of void spaces

In the early stages of the incident
Ex. not breaking windows that don't need to be broken


In a strip malls fire usually a _____ will need to be performed to quell the fire.

Fire attack should be made from the :

For PPV openings.....

* Only other way to apply PPV is to pressurize the adjoining occupancies to help slow smoke spread

Trench cut

Unburned side

The opening for the cit point should be at least 1 1/2 times bigger than the opening used to pressurize the structure

Which way is the wind blowing?
Will the exit point affect any exposures?


When an exposure is threatened in a strip mall fire, the first efforts in controlling the fire must be :

If the fire is already overhauled and extinguishment attempts are having no effect:

Protect the adjacent exposures first

Back out and move to the next adjacent exposure


Brush Fires

- Mid level vegetation
- Occur in somewhat remote areas but it us often possible to access them with brush trucks
- Not as hot as forest fires
- Tend to occur more closely to wild land interface areas
- **Primary hazard in forest and brush fires is the WEATHER** wind speed/direction, temp, humidity,expected weather changes
- The next hazard is fire spread

- no such thin as a "routine" wild land fire
- Falling tress can be a hazard
- Aircraft is not used as regularly as first fires
- Crown fires don't usually happen , but they can
- Utilizing an accountability system is crucial
- FF fatigue
- Typically do not last as long as forest fires but can last from several days or weeks


Forest Fires

- Often in remote areas, heavily wooded
- High level of vegetation fires
- Rarely pose significant threat to civilians or structures
- Burn slowly, much hotter than the other two types
- FF's must be made aware of weather changes ex. lightning / wind speed/ direction
-Crown fire: when fire rapidly spreads across tree tops

- a crown fire may reverse direction
- the fire will defy gravity, move up slopes
- can spread from flying brands like embers ( could fall behind FF starting a fire that block escape route)
-Timber may fall
- Snags, broke branches caught up in tree that haven't fallen yet
-Water from aircraft, could cause trees to fall
- can span several thousand acres
- Fatigue is a major factor


3 types of wild land fires:

Forest fires

Brush fire

Ground cover fire


FD's must convince residents in wild land area to:

Clear away dead twigs leaving limbs for a radius of 30 to 50 ft

Keep roof gutters clean

Remove tree limbs within 15 ft of the ground

Remove dead limbs over roofs and vegetation within 15 ft of a chimney or stovepipe

Remove vegetation off of walls

Mow grass regularly , clear a 10 ft area around LP tanks

Store flammable liquids away from the base of the structure

Stack fire wood 100 ft away, create a defensible area


Wildland fires are affected by _____ and _____

Rate of fire spread
* its dynamic and complex
it affected by the types of fuel burning
the slope at which its burning and weather

Fire intensity
*describes how hot a fire is burning


The number of Wildland fires are continously :

People living in the areas want to maintain a ____ looking house. They often use ____ and _____ which ignite easily.

Wildland fires are most often started by :

Fires in these area often go:

On the rise


Wood siding and shingle roofs


Unnoticed for some time


Any large truck such as a box truck , usually used for commercial application.

Any large commercial truck that pulls a trailer. Sometimes call a ____

Smart airbags might not deploy if :

Heavy duty truck

Semitrailer or tractor trailer
18 wheeler

a small passenger is seated pg 369


Public transportation buses:

School buses:

All windows in modern buses are :

Engine located in the rear of the bus, doors in the front ( in most cases)

Engine and main door entrance in the front emergency exists in the rear

Designed to be an emergency exit


Biggest difference between fires in large commercial trucks and buses is :

Hazards on a bus:

If a fire starts in a bus, most capable people:

The potential for an MCI

-Storage of human waste in commercial buses
-Emergency escape windows that close with violent force
- Multiple large battery banks
-Potential alternative fuel sources
- Large fires

Self rescue and exit the bus


Heavy construction equipment hazards:

-Large fires ( may explode)
-Large amounts of hydraulic fluid ( some times over 100 gallons)
-Higher positioning of occupants
- May fall over under heavy fire conditions
Ex. cranes


Heavy construction equipment:

Front end loaders
back hoes



Tables convert to

Sleep quarters can be

If a crew enters an RV fire they should have a

If you arrive to an occupied RV fire and it is contained to the engine compartment

What is the best tactic?


Above the drivers compartment

A RIC standing by even though its just an RV

Extinguishment prior to search


RV fires

Hazard unique to an RV

They can be located

If the relief valve opens

Another unique hazard to RV's

RV gray water is

Black water is

LPG tanks

Anywhere and can vary in size

Tank is in need of immediate cooling

Anhydrous ammonia (refrigeration system)

Water that is held after use Ex washing dishes ,laundry

Human waste from bathroom


RVs are basically

Class A motor home

Class C motor home

Passenger bus conversions are typically used by

Van campers are also known as:

Buildings on wheels

Large RV's with a modular body frame

Much like class A's except they have a truck or van chassis and a cab with a modular camping unit attached to the frame


Class B motor homes


Large commercial vehicle

Hot metal will steam _____, FF often mistake steam for ____

In many cases a truck is a persons _____

long after extinguishment, Smoke



The minimum response for a large truck fire should be :

After consulting the driver, you have the option to ____ or a tractor trailer fire

In large truck fires a back up line should always be stretched for ____ and ___ reasons

When venting a trailer, you do have the option to

a min of 2 engines and an IC

Separate the cab and trailer

Safety and extinguishment

Cut vent holes in the top and sides


___ should be familiar with placards and container shapes

Strategic goals for a large commercial truck fire will depend on

In large commercial trucks, engine compartments can be located _____ or _____

Company officers and IC

Vehicle size and type
threatened exposures

Front of the truck or under the cab


A typical hard found in large commercial trucks and semi trucks

When working under these trucks be aware of

Saddle tanks are usually carry diesel, some gasoline. Some sizes range from____ and ____

inaccessibility of the cab

Suspension systems
* cribbing must be in place first Pg 357

25 to 100 gallons each


Any large commercial truck that either pulls a trailer or has a cargo box on the same frame can be _____

These fires are different than passenger vehicle fires and must be treated accordingly

Semi trailer or heavy duty truck
* cargo is too large for personal use


Vehicle Fires

Under fire conditions the front windshield will usually ___ and the side windows will ____.

Usually a ____ on side windows will break them.

If possible, salvage the ____ and ____ from the car



Strategical stream
cold water on hot glass

Vehicle registration and proof if insurance


Vehicle Fires

For small engine compartment fires ___

may be effective. But ____ usually the use of an _____ handling or greater is sufficient. Avoid using ____.

Dry Chemical extinguisher

It has no cooling properties

1.5 inch

booster lines


Vehicle Fires

The safest approach to search and rescue is to

Be prepared to ____ during search and rescue

If you have a pt you may have to _____

When human trafficking, people have been found:

In parking lots FF's can:

Perform it simultaneously with extinguishment

Cut seat belts

Suspend FF operations until resources arrive

Sewn into seats

Move endangered cars aways from the fire


General tactic are applied to all vehicle fire.

First order of business:

Dont hesitate to:

Hose line should be parked:

Engine should be parked:

Initially operate lines from ____ until vehicle is cooled. Then approach at a ____ degree angle. To the front or rear, not straight on.

Once conditions permit ______

Protect FF by blocking traffic

Block 2 lanes

Off the curb side of the engine

Uphill upwind when possible

A safe distance

45 degree angle

Chock the wheels


E 85 fuel is highly flammable and :

There are over ____ E85 vehicle on the road.

Before approaching a vehicle fire

Heavier than air ****
Must use alcohol resistant foam

6 million

It is critical to ascertain whether it has any hazmats inside


Hybrid vehicle dont "start", they turn on when:

____ vehicles emissions are essentially water, expect this type to be common place in the future

Tribrid vehicle are in development they use:

when the driver moves the key fob within range. Range varies drastically depending on the manufacture

Hydrogen fuel cell

a 3rd component solar panel

Development of fully solar powered vehicle is also underway


CNG and LPG vehicle are used mostly for:

The only way to know if vehicle operates CNG or LPG is:

To get acquainted with hybrid vehicles:

Orange wires should be considered:

In a hybrid the battery starting system is a ____ system, and the energy storage system (battery power system) may be a:

Fleet service
* noting the slightly different type of fuel door

Contact dealership, they have manufactures guidelines for emergency responders

High voltage, don't cut

12 volt , lithium ion battery pack under the floorboard. Lithium ion batteries require large volumes of water to extinguish


Vehicle Fires

Airbag components and actuators can be found:

Typically airbags deploy regardless of whether:

Unless there is a need to rescue a victim:

Don't cut _____ wires. They are for airbags systems. May cause them to deploy.

In a convertible, the roll bar activates:

Virtually anywhere in a vehicle

Anyone is in the seat, * Unless its a smart air bag

Keep body parts outside the deployment

Bright yellow

With explosive force, can activate during a fire even if the vehicle did not Flip


Vehicle fire Hazards


Any compressed component of the engine:

Hood or latch pistons


can explode

Explode under pressure

may fail violently

may deploy under fire conditions


Vehicle fire hazards

Drive shafts:

Ac units:


Wheel, motors and airbags made with :

Catalytic converters

Car batterries

May explode and expel shrapnel

Emit deadly phosgene gas when burning

May decompose and eject violently

Magnesium (violent water reaction)

Temps over 1500 degrees F when functioning properly

May explode and eject acid


____ including cars, vans and light pickups make up the majority of vehicle fires

3 categories of vehicle hazards:

Vehicles are not designed to work properly under _____

Passenger vehicle
* Don't become complacent, can't be taken lightly

Vehicle components, alternate fuels, hazardous cargo

Fire conditions
* can't rely on brakes working or any other part to maintain its integrity


Vehicle fire can be considered :

A typical car fire can be handled by :

A company officer at a vehicle fire becomes the :

If media arrives, he also becomes the :

Mobile hazmat fires

One engine, one hose line, one set of tools

IC, accountability officer, liaison, investigator, safety officer, and operations. They also usually involved in extinguishment



A phenomenon found in HR fires where in heated smoke rises until it establishes equilibrium with the surrounding area and then moves horizontally



A phenomenon found in HR fires where in as heated air rises and then cools, it forms a layer, or ceiling, from which more rising smoke banks
Pg 343

Stack effect



Initial evacuation should only take place on :

the fire floor and floor above


High Rises pose several challenges that can effect FF safety:

height of building

Effective comms

FF fatigue

Personnel accountability


Overhaul of a high-rise is :

Most HR buildings are:

labor intensive

Commercial office buildings



If extra resources are not available focus on:

In defensive mode, pick a position that is not:

confining the fire

Over exposed


HR fires

3rd or 4th engine company should:

All engine companies should bring:

** All handlines operating should be at least:**

FD hose is usually tested:

get the second handling in operation

Extra lengths of hose and extra SCBA cylinders

** 2 1/2**

Annually or semi annually


Confinement in HR's usually is performed by:

The task of first attack crews is to :

second attack crew:

Pairing of crews at a HR fire should be:

effective and timely extinguishment

Stretch sufficient hose to reach the fire and supplying the sprinkler and standpipe systems

Help get 1 st hotline in operation and then stand by, reserve air supply and be ready to relieve the first engine crew on the line

A standard practice



Exposure to adjacent buildings can be prevented by:

advancing hoselines into the exposed buildings and operating them on the the fire building



One of the first companies task is to ____

A FF of that Co should ____

Elevators should never be ____

Taking control of building evacuation is done concurrently with _____

Control elevators, determining fire location , and search and rescue ops on the fire floor

Remain with the elevator

Left unattended

Search and rescue ops


HR search and rescue

The command officer in charge of the S and R group is responsible for:

Units should bring ____ to increase work time

Rapid deployment of ____ to assist with S and R is crucial at the HR fire

the search and safe evacuation of civilians from 2 floors above the fire to the rest of the height of the building

extra SCBA bottles

Ladder Co



Rehab can be set up on the same floor as:

Have an accountability location _____
* one may be necessary on each floor


In the lobby
allows accountability officer to know what crews are operating on upper floors



All types of communication systems should be sought out and controlled. Interior comm systems in HR's include

It is imperative that units be designated specific channels to operate on, such as ____ or _____ and _____

Standpipe telephones
In house telephones
special sound powered telephones
building public address systems
radios used by security
elevator telephones

Command channel
Primary or secondary tactical channels


HR Elevators

2 components of FF elevator service

Once a FF boarded an elevator he should:

When using an elevator always take not :

Swinging car doors open out while office doors open in. When searching if you come to an outward swinging door ____

gaining controlling recalling elevators, and using the elevators safely

Clear the floor selector panel by hitting the call cancel button. This ensures the elevator won't make unwanted stops

The nearest stairway

Beware, it could be an elevator door with no car present


Most HR buildings elevators are equipped with FF service features like:

Use of elevators in HR fires is ____

Never take elevators ____

Anyone using an elevator should be in :

FF can look at the ____ sign

recall, hold buttons, FF service

Absolutely necessary

* above the fire floor*

Full gear, SCBA turned on, tools and radio

You are here

For a floor diagram


We can't let 9/11

Make us shy away from HR SOG



A command officer should be designated to the :

A ____ should be set up 2 floors below the fire floor

When FF's are relieved , ____ is a factor

From the time the alarm is received until water is on the fire could be ___ or more

fire floor

Forward staging area


20 mins


Engine companies at a HR fire must hold :

Ladder personnel should:

Separate handlines MAY be operated from separate stairways provided:

their positions on handline until properly relieved

Ladder personnel in many cases should be ordered off the fire floor before additional personnel are sent in

They don't oppose one another


At a HR fire the IC must ____, ____, and ____

HR fires require a tremendous commitment of both ____ and ____

IC should immediately locate the ____, ____ or ___, and establish the ____, this will serve as the _____

*** No 2 HR fires are the same**

gather info, form strategies, deploy FF's

Personnel and supervision

Fire safety director, maintenance person, or building manager

Lobby command post

Center of operations


Describe the high-rise standpipe operation

Depending on the size of the building, consider having a minimum of two pumpers simultaneously supply 2 Siamese connections during fire operations