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Flashcards in Vehicle Extrication Deck (462):
1

Most struts use a strap in a ratchet or a jacking device to add tension to the object. This is called

Tension Buttress Stabilization

2

When approaching a vehicle fire, Move in from the at a ______ angle

45 degree

3

Vehicle fire at minimum _____ should be deployed and charged

1 1 3/4 charged hoseline

4

Hydraulic tools may be locked in place by ______ to ensure that it will stay in place

removing the hydraulic lines attached to the tool

5

Full PPE must be worn in the ________

warm and hot zone

6

Staged apparatus and the command post are located the ______ zone... Decon in the _______ zone

Cold & Warm zone

7

Inner survey should take no longer than _______ with 2 vehicle or less

45 seconds

8

The best approach to the vehicle on an inner survey :
Outer survey:

-Front driver side corner of the hood (go clockwise)
- Front side opposite the officer during the inner survey

9

______ should never be omitted in our role as a public servant

Compassion

10

______ should be completed before any operations begin. At an extrication

Inner and outer surveys * Performed by 2 rescuers one walking clockwise and the other counterclockwise

11

Effective _______ and ________ are important to provide the best level or service.

Communication and documentation

12

Categories of roadway closures:
Minor = time
intermediate =
Major =

> 30 mins
30 mins to 2 hrs
> 2 hrs

13

ERG provide info on approx _________ different chemicals that may be encountered.

4000

14

It is better to assign crew members tasks enrollee rather that wait till arrival. This will prevent....

confusion and freelancing

15

A tech rescuer should utilize an _____ ______ for on scene time management. Dispatch will notify the IC in 10 min intervals until the scene is mitigated

Incident Clock

16

A basic vehicle extraction involving the assessment , removal, stabilization and packaging of a pt should take no longer than _______ mins.
* This does not include response or transport times

20 minutes
* Should be used as a tactical benchmark

17

Total incident time should be approx _______ for agencies located in urban areas

45 mins

18

_______ goes hand and hand with stabilization. The main objective in stabilization is to __________.

Balance.
Gain a balanced footprint by expanding the vehicles base and lowering its center of gravity prior to performing any work on the vehicle.

19

Hydor Rams generally come in ______, _______, and _______ sizes

20, 30, and 60 inches

20

Consists of short lengths of sturdy timber or composite material usually ______, ______. or _______. In lengths of ________ to ________ inches used to stabilize loads in place.

2x2
4x4
6x6
18 to 24 inches

21

Mechanical tensioning device that uses a ratcheting drum to put tension on a object utilizing a webbing material.
* Not designed to lift

Ratchet straps

22

Class B foam is used for Class B fires ( Flammable liquids). Class B can be divided into 2 categories...

Hydrocarbons - gasoline type petroleum based fuels

Polar solvents - alcohol based fuels that will mix with water such as Ethanol or E85.

23

An AC locater or " Hot stick" detects the presence of electrical frequencies below....

100 Hz

24

Most common stretchers are :

Collapsable
Scoop
Basket -can be used for water rescue

25

Common lengths of struts are ______ to ______ feet.

Struts can generally support a WLL of ______ to ______ lbs.

3 to 8 feet with support pins

WLL 4000 to 8000 lbs

26

***** This is called Defensive apparatus placement.
Positions apparatus at a ______ to ______ degree angle to the wreckage. Attempt to keep the pump panel facing the accident to keep the DE out of traffic. Make sure wheels face away from the accident in case vehicle is hit.

30 to 45

27

The systemic and continual evaluation of information presented in either visual or audio form.

Scene Size up

28

Inner survey boundaries:

Outer Survey boundaries:

5 to 15 ft with the rescuer staying 3 to 5 ft away from the vehicle in a defensive posture


Generally 25 to 50 ft but based on scene could be greater than 100 ft.

29

Most common Haz Mats that rescuers encounter:

Gasoline
Diesel Fuel
Kerosne
Nitric Acid
Toluene
Acetone

30

If a streetlight is not on or is several houses don't have lights on> What should you be thinking?

Downed Power lines
** Proceed very slowly

31

Traffic cones must be _____ in color ______ inches for daytime and low speed roadway.

_____ inches for night or high speed roadways

Cone spacing recommendations _______ ft.

Orange

18 inches

28 inches

15 ft

32

5 directional movement you must consider during stabilization :
pg 177

Horizontal - forward to rear
Vertical - Up and down
Roll - Side to side
Pitch - front goes down, rear comes up
Yaw - Twists or turns

33

5 box cribbing configurations:

Pg 176

2 piece layer crosstie
3 piece layer crosstie
Crosstie platform
Triangle crosstie
Modified crosstie

** 2 piece, 3 piece, crosstie platform are most commonly used

34

Not all wood is good for cribbing. ______ and _____ are commonly used.

Hardwoods such as _____ is strong but tends to crack under stress.

*** Primary concern is the measurement of applied stress

Southern Yellow pine or Douglas fur
(load bearing capacity 6ooo lbs pg 176)


Oak species
* wood is considered elastic

35

The max stress a board can be subjected to without exceeding the elastic range or proportional limit is known as its ________.

Fiber stress at proportional limit rating ( FSPL)

36

Most basic tool for stabilization:

Made from wood composite or steel

4x4 are cut at various lengths mostly ______ to ______ inches and _____ to _____ feet or longer.

Pg. 175

Cribbing

18 to 20 inches

3 to 6 feet or longer

37

________, _________, and ________ of vehicles after a collision can create challenges for rescuers.

size
shape
resting postions

38

Always approach helicopter from the _______ side.

Approach in a _______ position.

Main rotor blade can dip as low as:

Downhill side

Crouched position

4 ft off the ground

39

Fixed wing transportt is usually for ______ and for distances greater than _______ to _______

Interhospital transfers

100 to 150 miles

40

DOT defines Haz Mat as :

EPA defines HazMat as :
(enviromental protection agency)

Any substance or material in any form or quantity that poses a risk when transport in commerce


Any chemical that, if released into the environment, could be potentially harmful to the public health or welfare.

41

Never assume a line is dead place cones, snap light or scene tape around it.

Utility companies are programmed to energize the line several times to determine where there is break in the line

**** Never attempt to throw anything over a down lone to contain or move it

42

* Apparatus should be placed a minimum of ________ poles away from a down line or a line with items hanging on them

2 poles

43

More than _______ vehicle in the US use LPG (propane) most of which have spark ignition engines that can operate on propane or gasoline

500,000

44

The point at which all the weight of an object appears to be concentrated

Center of gravity

45

A review of the incident and a way to constructively examine the positives and negatives of the incident

" What if this happens again?"

PIA

Post incident analysis

46

3 basic strategies to remove a pt from under a load:

Raise load by lifting

Stabilize the load and lower the ground (dig)

Combine the two approaches

47

Forms

Extrication activities need to happen:

Quickly and methodically

48

When a person is trapped under a load for long time and muscles cells die, producing toxin that when pressure is released reach the heart

Crush injury syndrome

* One of the more critical injuries of traumas

49

The compression of nerves, blood vessels, and muscles inside and enclosed space within the body:

Compartment syndrom

* Tissue death due to lack of o2

50

Farm machine can often be _____ more easily than they can be cut

dismantled

51

You are allowed to ________ mechanism that has entrapped a pt

Manually unwind

52

Allows a tractor to traverse uneven ground while preventing the front end from lifting off the ground

Pivot point

53

All tractor wheels turn:

Independently

54

Allows rescuers to create an anchor point for rigging and stabilization where no other anchors are available.

Picket anchor systems

55

The most critical skill a rescuer can master is:

Effective cribbing

3 layer instead of 2 layer cribbing provides 2 1/4 times the lifting capacity

56

Turning off a trailer ignition may not _______

Kill electrical power

*Shutting electrical current off will stop a gas engine. It will not stop a diesel engine

57

Crush victim should be infused with fluids for _______ before extricated from machinery

* Allow bystanders to stay at a safe distance

1 hour

58

Hazards at the scene of a tractor overturn include:

Bystanders
Instability
Hazmats
Power
Enviromental condtions

59

Most states have no __________ when driving tractors

age restrictions

60

Tractors can weigh ________ to over ______ lbs

a few hundred lbs to over 60000 lbs

61

After 1985 all tractors should be equipped with _______ + ________

ROPS (Roll bar) and seat belts

* designed to hold the weight of the tractor for 1 revolution`

62

_______ over the leading cause of farmer fatalities.

_____ are to provide climate comfort and have to significant support

Tractor overturns

Comfort cabs

* Don't use for lifting or stability

63

NIOSH

National Institute for occupational health and safety

64

______ are the main weakness of farms.

The average age of a tractor exceeds ______ yrs

30

65

To kill electrical power to a trailer _______ it is not necessary to ________-

Disconnect the electrical wires

Cut the batteries

66

First step in stabilizing a machine ______ PG 328

Shut off the _______ 1st so no power is transferred to the PTO.

Then stabilize the shaft with a ______ or ______

Shutting off power

Engine

Haligan or pry bar

67

If a person is entangled in a PTO shaft you will have to _______

Dissasemble or cut the shaft

* Do not attempt to unwind the victim

68

Used to transfer mechanical energy to and through a piece of machinery

The PTO shaft turns ______ to _____ revolutions per min

PTO Shaft

540 - 1000 rpms

69

Farm Equip

Rescuers should never

*Crib compartments before shutting off power. If there is a leak components will settle and move when pressure goes down

Use the equipments power to assist with rescueI

70

If a hydraulic line develops a pin hole size leak the pressure coming out could exceed _____ Psi

7000 psi

* Would tear through rescue gloves

71

If a tractor stalls _______

Pressure in hydraulic line is normally ______ psi on farm equipment.

Power to the tractor is lost

1800 PSI

* If this happens steering and braking can be lost

72

Main sources of power in machines will come from

Hydraulic power
Mechanical power (PTO)
Electrical Power
Pneumatic power ( air lines)

73

Machines can have 1 or more power sources. Machines will typically use _______, ______,______

Gas powered
Diesel powered
Electrical motors

74

Farm Equipment

Identifying and stabilizing any immediate ______ energy that could be released when power is shut off.

* Lock out and tag out. all power sources

Stored

75

The majority of farms are not covered under ________

* Farmers equipment may not have guards or shield in hazard areas

OSHA

76

Points on a machine where an individual or object may be pulled into the moving parts of the machine.

Ex... clogged corn picker, wood hipper

Pull in point

77

Created when 2 objects move toward each other or when one object moves toward a stationary object.

Ex.. Hitches

Crush points

78

Created when the edge of two objects move toward or next to each other closely enough to cut soft material.

Ex... Harvester

Sheer points

79

Created when a rotating machine component is exposed:

Ex... PTO shaft

Wrap points

80

Created when 2 objects move together with at least one of them moving in a circle

Ex... Feed rolls

Pinch point

81

______ % of farm fatalities involve tractors, and _______% of these are machine related

50%

14%

82

The tow industry offers _______ levels of driver certification.

_______ being the highest

3

3

83

Class C tow truck can lift the trailer while a 2nd smaller tow truck removes the under ridden car. The large tow truck can perform both of these tasks by using a _______.

There are ________ types of tow units

snatch block

5

Class A boom rating of 8000 lbs
B of 160000 lbs
C 32000 lbs
D without a boom
E 2 trucks working together

84

The greatest concern for a tech rescuer responding to a CMV MVA is _________.

The cargo must be _________ before approach or operation can commence

* This action can be the difference between success and catastrophe

Hazardous Material

Immediately identified

85

Shipping papers must include

ID of shipper
ID of receiver
Hazard class
UN/NA ID number
Packing group number
Total product quantity and weight
24 hr emergency contact
a cert stating the materials listed are present
signature of the shipper stating all regs are met

86

United Nations / North American ID numbers are used to _______

They are out by ________

track hazmats being transported

United nations committee of experts on the transport of dangerous goods

87

The weight of a single package plus its contents ________

Combines the total weight of all the packages

gross weight

Aggregate weight

88

Diamond shape design that displays the hazardous classification type.

Federal Law says it must be ________

Placard

Clearly displayed on both sides and the end of the vehicle

89

Carry dry bulk goods such as powders pellets fertilizers or grain

Not pressurized

Tanks are V shaped with rounded sides

Dry bulk cargo tank

90

A _______ is considered a bulk package attached to a motor vehicle.

DOT does not view ________ as a cargo tank

Tube trailers carry ______ at _____ to ____ psi

Cargo tank

tube trailers

compressed gasses

3000 to 5000 psi
( Hydrogen, oxygen, helium,methane)

91

_______ is the most common way to transport a Haz Mat

Roadway

92

Hazmats are divided into _______ classifications

9

1 explosives
2 gases
3 flammable liquids
4 Flammable solids
5 oxidizing substances or organic peroxides
6 toxic and infectious substances
7 radioactive
8 corrosive
9 Misc Haz mat

93

Haz Mat regulations are issued by the ________

Which governs the transport of Haz Mats by highway, rail, vessel and air

DOT pipeline and Hazmat safety administration
(PHMSA)

94

The term hazardous waste includes:

Hazardous substances
hazardous waste
marine pollutants
materials with elevated temperatures

95

There are more than ______ CMV's dedicated to the transport of Haz mat with _______ shipment of gasoline and _______ shipments of explosives conducted each year by road way travel

400,000 CMV's

18,000,000 gas

125,000 explosives

96

The hybrid electric commercial motor vehicle utilizes either a _______ or _______ for propulsion

Electric power is generated by an on board __________

ICE

Electric motor

8 Electric power is generated by an on board battery pack or regulative braking

97

Fuel tanks on CMV's are usually constructed of _______ and when available in ________

Sizes ranging from _________ to ______ gallons

They are located on either side of the frame and are called _________

Tanks are not connected

_______ fuel is most common but ________ is starting to be used cause its cheaper

aluminum , steel

50 to 150

Saddle tanks

Diesel

Bio diesel

98

CMV battery systems consist of _______ or more _______ batteries

Which are hooked up to each other in _______

Positive and negative terminals wired together thus recharging storage capacity

They are usually stored ________

4 or more

12 volt DC

Parallel

Underneath the step up

99

* Never attempt to engage the brakes by ________ releasing the springs located in the sealed spring chamber

Manually

100

Air brake systems on a tractor connects the trailer by a min of _______ air lines

They are called ______

The couplers that provide air to the braking system are known as _______

2
Service line - normally blue
Emergency air line - red

Glad hands

101

Air compressed by an on board compressor that is run by the vehicles engine.

It stores the compressed air at ______ to _____ psi and auto starts and fills the tanks when psi drops below _______

120 to 125 psi

100 psi

102

There are ______ types of air brakes that make up the braking system on a CMV

3

Service brake - Normal brake pedal

Air brake / Parking brake - When vehicle is at a complete stop, system bleeds out compressed air to hold back large springs that release and lock the brakes in place

Emergency brake - Uses a combo of the other 2 brakes when brake failure or air line break occurs

103

_______ hinges may be hidden on the inside of the door

Two piece full / solid hinges

104

Doors on CMV's are very similar to conventional door except heavier steel.

The door handle is located _______

The latching mechanism grabs the nader bolt at ________ points

Expose and cut

Lower corner of the door

2 points

105

Tractor have ______ axles

3

1 up front to control steering has one wheel on each side

2 in the rear with 2 wheels on each side

106

______ is a structural component or shaft that is designed for wheel rotation

The three types are:

Axle

Live axle - transmit propulsion

Dead axle - used for load support

Lift axle - can be raised or lowered

107

A _______ is a separate box deck or plate mounted behind the cab in front of the 5th wheel.

It can be used to store products that should be kept away from the load in the cargo area, or to mount a power unit.

Dromedary

108

A stabilizing device called ______ _______ is at the front of the trailer and can be lowered to stabilize the tractor when its not hooked up to the tractor

Loading gear

operated by manual hand crank

109

The cargo trailer of a semi tractor trailer is connected to the tractor by the ________

Kingpin

* The kingpin sits in a flat harsh coupling called a fifth wheel, also called a turntable hitch

* fifth wheels are a attached to the frame rails of the tractor.

* The manual release is located the drivers side of the fifth wheel

110

The GCWR is calculated to determine a CV's cargo capacity limitations

It stands for ________

Gross combined weight rating

111

To maintain a CMV's suspension system you can _________ or ________

C Class tow truck w/ 2 slings to lift it w/ boom

Position air bags between the frame and the top of the tires

112

Designed to protect CMV's cargo and frame system from damage and wear ________

Connects the axles including the wheels to the vehicle

Suspension

113

Makes up the structural framework of the CMV, includes the braking, steering, and suspension. The frame structure is the _______ part of the CMV.

Its constructed of heavy gauge steel 2 parallel beams hold together with crossbeams

*Chassis

Strongest

114

Sleepers are most commonly found in a _______

* can be added or factory integrated outer shell uses a material known as _______

* ________ are most effective because of the large span of cutting required

Semi truck

Melton

reciprocating saws

115

Because of the tilt cab design on a COE ( Cab over engine) for safety purposes the cab may need to be ________

Secured to the frame before extrication

116

CT's are cabs are usually made out of steel, aluminum, and fiberglass

3 different types cab types:

Cab over engine ( tilt cabs)
Driver seat is positioned over the front axle

Conventional cab
Driver seat located behind the engine and front axles
* common in the US , Large fuels tanks

Cab beside engine -
Driver sits next to the engine
Mostly shipyards and airports

117

Anatomy of a commercial truck ( CT)

Almost all CT's have a similar constructions features

Sections include:
Cab
Chassis
Cargo area and drive train and power train

* The system that transfers rotational power from the engine to the wheels, makes the truck move

118

CMV's are classified into _______ categories. And are measured utilizing GVWR and the work duty of the engine as it relates to emissions

Classes 1 to 8

Class 1 0 - 6000 lbs
2a F150
2b F250
3 F350
4 F450
5 F550
6 F650
7 F750
8 above 33,000lbs tractor trailer

119

In the US the ______ implements rules and regs on CMV's.

NFPA required level ______ techs as well as JPR to perform extrication on CMV's

DOT


Level 2 tech

120

Cribbing height for box crib should ________

not exceed two times it width ( Possibly length)

121

Procedure for disabling a hybrid bus:

Ensure it is not running

Gain entry and turn off the hybrid switch on the dash

Turn off and remove ignition key

Set park brake

Exit bus and turn off battery pack service disconnect which is located on the outside of the battery pack

122

SB
System that is not commonly found. Utilizes the electric motor by itself to propel the bus and the ICE is only used to regenerate the battery pack.

May be found on a type _______ bus

Series operated propulsion system

Type A

123

Two types of parallel hybrid systems for type C and D school buses

Charge depleting hybrid system ( 28 12V DC batterries, yielding 336 DC volts)

Charge sustaining hybrid system uses nickel metal hydride batteries ion 7.2 volt modules yielding 288 DC volts

124

On a hybrid SB the driver must ________ to engage the system.

Regardless of the propulsion system every SB will have _________

Flip a switch

2 or more 12 volt DC batteries on a slide out
Front of bus drivers side

125

Majority of SB's utilize ______ fuel

A small portion use _______

* They also use alternate fuels and propulsion systems like hybrid and fuel cell technology
( LNG, CNG)

Diesel

Regular unleaded

126

SB steering wheel relocation:

Utilize a :

Small tow truck with a stationary boom. Grab the wire from the boom and wrap it around the steering wheel and retract the boom slowly

* or come along and chain package

127

For SB
Position _______ lift bags one on top of the other. With the _______ bag on the bottom close to the pt.

Make sure they are under ________

Inflate the _______ bag first

2

Larger

Structural support
( roof bow truss)

Lowest

128

Use a ______ to push box cribbing under a bus. Never put your body under the bus for any reason

a longer section of cribbing

129

To properly conduct a lift bag operation ________ rescuers will be needed

5

1 for pt care
2 cribbing on each side
1 managing controls lift bag controls
OIC directing operation

130

Lift bag operation on a SB

The key is to ________

"lift an inch ___________"

If sugar sand _________

If you only can fir 1 bag initially ________

Always lift evenly from areas with structural support such as roof bow trusses

"crib an inch"

Place large flat solid object underneath bags

Inflate then crib up. Then deflate he bag and another bag and inflate both of them.

131

Best tools to lift bus:

C class tow truck

High or low pressure air bags

132

To gain entry into the front door of a SB ______

Remove 1 of the glass panels and insert a pike pole to grip the lever bar to release the door

* if the lever doesn't operate cut it with hydraulic cutters

133

To create a platform to stand on to operate tools you can _______

Cross tie cribbing with a backboard on top

134

* Not all school buses are the same. Some may have _______

Additional support members like stringers that can be identified by the presence of rivet

135

Gaining _______ ________ to a SB can be difficult because you have too cut through multiple structural members made of heavy gauge steel

Roof access

136

In a SB :

Removing a section of ________ created a large opening for pt removal

sidewall

* remove 2 sides by side windows
remove 2 benchseats
cut off section of sidewall

137

Best tool for removing bench seats in SB's:

* first release seat from sidewall using spreaders

Spreaders and cutters

Other tool can be used but that is the best option

* Cut the seat frame where it is bolted to the floor for best results

* Don't use air impact wrench

138

Storing spreaders

Storing cutters

Fully closed then quarter turn back

Tips just touching each other

139

Before terminating the incident

Secure equipment and apparatus, maintain and decor all tools before placing them back on the truck for the next call

140

NFIRS

National Fire Incident Reporting System

141

Brief summary that analysis of the overall ops and effectiveness of the agency, at a particular incident.

Can be requested by :

Authority having jurisdiction, fire chief, chief of operations

After action report

Should cover topics including
- compliance to SOP, SOG's
Med protocols
staffing
mutual aid
equipment
training

142

2 types of PIA's:

Formal or informal

Not used to point fingers

If deficiency is found, needs to be corrected as a team

143

3 goals of CISD:

Diffuse the psych impact of traumatic event
Assist with recovery process
Identify individuals who may need further help
* usually last 45 to 60 mins

144

Structured and Confidential
Group discussion to address emotional, physical and stressful issues related to the event. Occurs within ________ to ______ hrs of the event

CISD

12 to 72 hrs

* Proven to be the most effective and helpful component of CISM

145

Informal and Confidential
Post incident meeting allowing individuals to express emotions. Should be conducted within 1 to 4 hrs after the incident

Defusing
pg350

* Last longer than 45 mins

146

Geard toward enhancing natural coping mechanisms and facilitating natural resiliency and recovery from an incident

CISM

Critical Incident Stress Management

147

Negative stress reactors

Cognitive

Behavioral

Emotional

Physical

C - Attentions deficit, nightmares, reliving the incident

B - Withdrawal, outburts, drunkness, absenteism

E - Depression, guilt, anger

P - Headaches, dry mouth, high BP

148

Type of stress that produces a negative response

* the major contributor to most health issues

Distress

149

Type of stress that produces a positive response in the mind Example Sports

Eustress

150

A normal response to an incident, pleasant or unpleasant.

Not necessarily bad thing

It is out coping mechanism that will determine how ______ effects the body

Stress

151

NFPA for power tools

Maximum hydraulic fluid temp is _______

NFPA 1936

!60 degrees F

152

Power tools must have a _______ feature which returns the control of the tools to the neutral position in the event that the control is released.

Typical force of a spreader _________

Dead man

Control

14,000 to 28,000 lbs of force
Spreaders were the first hydraulic tool to be used for rescue

153

Draws less current than conventional lights

ranges from ______ to _____ lumen per watt

LED lights ( light emitting diodes)

80 to 100 lumens

154

Require a fuel mixture of gas and oil

2 stroke engines

155

All chainsaws in use should be equipped with a _________

chain brake

156

Most commonly operate using a gasoline powered engine and a hydraulic pump

Hydraulic tools

157

Most hydraulic power units operate at _______ or _______ psi. And they utilize a ________ stage pump.

Lower pressure stage building to ______ psi

High pressure stage delivers ______ to ______ PSI

Depending on the unit you are operating

5000 to 10500

2 stage pump

3000 psi

5000 to 10500 depending on unit

Use either phosphate ester or mineral base oil.
* Mineral base is less fire resistent

158

Are electrical enclosures commonly found when the need for multiple outlets is required

Junction Boxes

159

Composed of rubber with synthetic lining. Noticed to stabilize a vehicle by itself. Don't stack more than 2. Ensure hoses and valves are facing out. Don't overinflate. When stacking, layer larger bag on the bottom. Only lift as high as necessary

Lift Bag

160

A pneumatic rotating tool used to removed nuts and bolts of various sizes, including those found in hinges seats and wheels. General operating air pressure is 90 psi.

Air impact wrench

161

2 types of winches: Chain hoist , Lever hoist

Chain hoists have a lifting capacity of :

Lever hoist have lifting capacity of:

500 to 40,000 lbs

250 to 12,000lbs

162

Device that only works on tempered glass

Spring loaded center punch

163

Protective gloves should extend no less than ______ inch from the wrist crease

1

164

Categories of tools for vehicle extrication:

Stabilization tool can be as:

Hand, pneumatic, hydraulic, electric battery powered, Fuel powered

Hand, pneumatic, and hydraulic

165

The most common air bags that are mandatory in all vehicle manufactured after 1998

Driver and front passenger

166

A min: explosive device used to ignite the propellent that produces the nitrogen to inflate an airbag

Initiator

Ex. Squib

167

Active restraint device (because the occupant has to activate the system)

Passive retraint device
( the occupant does not have to activate the system)

Manual seat belts


Air bags

168

A type of strut system that comes in a variety of lengths and may be extended by the use of compressed air

Air shoring

169

Tools utilizing air under pressure

Ex. Air chisel, impact wrench

Air is supplied by air compressors, SCBA cylinders, vehicle mounted systems operate at 90 to 250 psi

pneumatic tools

170

A hand operated ratcheted lever winching tool that, when used with chains and hooks can provide several thousand lbs of pulling force. The standard model for extrication provides _________ to ________ of pulling force

Come along


2000 to 4000 lbs

171

Standard on selection, care and maintenance of PPE gear

NFPA 1851

172

Recommended distancing from airbags while attempting a rescue.

Driver side airbag ______
Passenger side airbag ________
Side impact _______

10 inches

20 to 25 inches

5 to 15 inches

173

A gas generation system uses a chemical reaction that provides nitrogen and inflate the airbag at approx ________ MPH taking approx _______ to ______ milliseconds

200 to 250 mph

30 to 40 milliseconds

174

Normally consists of 3 different systems plus a suppression system which uses all of these sensors for automatic deactivation

- Seat position sensor
- Seat belt sensor
- Occupant weight sensor

Occupant classisfication system

175

Crashes are measured in milliseconds with 1000 millisecond equaling 1 second. The entrire crash process takes _______ milliseconds

100 to 125 milliseconds

176

Airbags were invented in the 1980's. They are also called ________ when used in conjunction with a seatbelt

Supplemental restraint system

177

High pressure lift bags are the most common type for extrication. They operate at _______

Medium pressure bags operate at _____

Low pressure provide a very high lift to right overturned vehicles, they operate at ______

100 to 145 psi

15 psi

7 psi

178

Pneumatic chiseler used to cut hardened steel. They do not create sparks. A high powered chisel can operate in a range of ______ to _______ psi.

* Always keep 1/2 of the blade showing to avoid burying the tip

150 - 225 psi

* Never operate at 300 psi

179

The max force that may be applied to an assembly in straight tension.

Rating are embossed on the chain every 12 to 18 inches

Grade 80 to 100 are most utilized

WLL

Working load limit

180

Components that make up an airbag

Airbag
Initiator
Electric control unit
Inflator
Sensors

181

With the reciprocating saw _______ blades are the best choice for cutting metals found on vehicles length of 6 to 9 inches
TPI 9 -14

TPI = ________

Bi metal

Teeth per inch

182

Which pulling capacity should be _______ times the gross vehicle weight of the vehicle to be pulled

1.5 times

183

Portable and mounted lights typically range from _______ TO ______ watts

300 to 1000 watts

184

Fuel powered chainsaws can cut:

Wood
Concrete
light gauge steel

185

When converted to a vapor LPG will expand ________ times its liquid state

270

186

Basic components of a fuel cell vehicle system:

Fuel cell module
Electric motor
Generator
Hydrogen storage system
Battery pack

187

100% Electric
Emits no air pollutants propelled by electric motors

Does not have a tailpipe because it does not emit exhaust

Electric vehicle (EV)
or
Battery electric vehicle(BEV)

Nissan leaf

188

Hybrid electric vehicles are unofficially classified as being _______ or _______ in terms of how they utilize the electric power that is generated

Full or mild

189

A vehicle that combines two or more power sources for propulsion, one of which is electric power.

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)

190

Invented the first fuel cell in 1839 "father of the fuel cell"

Sir William Grove

191

An electro chemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity to power a motor or generator, with the by products of this process being

Fuel Cell

192

One of the most abundant elements on earth.
Odorless, colorless, flammable, nontoxic gas

Came into the spotlight after the hindenburg went down

Hydrogen

193

______ is best used on bio diesel to suppress vapors

Alcohol resistant AFFF

194

Gasoline Flash point

Diesel Flash point

Bio diesel flash point

- 45 degrees F

100 degrees F

199 degrees F

195

Used solely for diesel engines, processed from domestic renewable resources such as plant oil, grease, animal fat, cooking oil and algae

Is not classified as a flammable liquid flash points is 199 degree F

Produces less pollutants than petrol based diesel. Its safe nontoxic and biodegradable

Bio diesel

196

Weighs 4.24 lbs per gallon

Mandatory 20 % reduction in product when filling

1.5 x heavier than air

Normally a vapor gas in temps over 44 degrees F

When stand under pressured it is compressed into a liquid state

Propane

Vehicle propane tanks we conduct of carbon steel

197

Liquified Petroleum Gas Code

NFPA 58

198

Flammability range between 4 to 75 % and its flame burns clear

Hydrogen

199

Four elements of a fuel cell

Anode
Cathode
electrolyte
catalyst

200

Propanes Flammable range

2.15 % to 9.6%

201

Clear plastic material that is very strong and can endure impacts with out breaking. Very pliable on impact. 50% lighter than regular glass.

Ex. Lexan and MaKrolen

* Supposed to leave it in place, removing the entire section as one

Polycarbonate

202

Step by step approach for extrication incidents:

1. Preperation , 2. Response., 3.Arrival and scene size up, 4 Stabilization, 5 Access, 6 Disentanglement, 7 Removal, 8 Transport, 9 Incident termination, 10 Post incident debrief and analysis

203

Is an individual vehicle and its assigned personnel

Single resource

204

Are established to divide an incident into physical or geographical areas of operation

Divisions

205

Transfer of command at a vehicle extrication should include:

Tactical priorities
Action plans
Hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions
Accomplishments
Assessment of effectiveness of operations
current status of resources

206

The application of knowledge, skills, and equipment to safely resolve unique and/ or complex rescue situations

Technical rescue

207

What are the different forms of energy?

Electrical, mechanical, Heat(thermal), light(radiant), chemical, gravitational, nuclear

208

DOT classifies vehicle based on whether the vehicle transports passengers or commodities

Department of Energy classifies vehicle by size using a __________

Cubic feet system and a gross weight system

209

A voltage regulator regulates the flow of electricity coming from the alternator, which keeps the voltage to a safe _______ volts

12.5 to 14.5

210

Basic components of a hybrid electrical vehicle:

Electric motor
generator
internal combustion engine
battery pack

211

Designed to burn a multitude of petroleum based fuels and alternative fuels

Internal combustion engine

212

Also known as propane, is a fossil fuel produced from the processing of natural gas. Propane is the third most widely used fuel source behind gasoline and diesel. Propane is heavier than air. 1.5 time as dense and will sink and pool at the floor level when released into the atmosphere.

Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)

213

A fossil fuel primarily comprised of methane that can be utilized as compressed natural gas or liquefies natural gas. It is known as the cleanest burning alternative fuel.

Natural gas

214

An alcohol based fuel. Is known as a wood alcohol because it is process from natural wood sources such as tress and yard clippings.
Can also be utilized as Flexfuel ( E85)

Methanol

215

Energy policy act of 1992 list "alternative fuel" for vehicles

Hydrogen, electricity, biodiesel, LPG, Methanol, Ethanol and natural gas

216

Also known as roof pillars, are designed to add vertical support to the roof structure of the vehicle

Generally labeled A,B and C post

Roof posts

217

Uses a shoulder harness that automatically slides or a sell or aluminum track system

Automatic seat belt system

218

Designed to pull back and tighten when activated by a collision.
Uses a pyrotechnic propulsion device to engage the retractor gear

Pretensioner Seat belt system

219

Stored gas inflators contain a non flammable gas and can range from ______ to ______ PSI

3000 to 4500 psi

220

A modern glass that uses both the laminating and tempering process. Used primarily side and rear windows

Enhanced protective glass

221

Includes a shoulder and lap belt, known as a 3 point harness system

Uses a retractor gear that locks in place when activated

Standard seat belt harness

222

2 door hinge design

Leaf system

Full body system

223

Used to hold open hatchback and are hydraulic or gas filled

Piston struts

224

Located between the top and bottom hinge. Designed to assist the door in opening and closing can be comprised of hardened steel or other alloy type materials

Swing bar

225

Composed of a mixture of various metals and elements

Alloyed steel

226

Has the ability to absorb or redirect energy during a collision. Incorporates crumple zones into the front and sometimes its rear

Unibody construction

227

Hollow section of metal on both sides of the car. There is very Little structural support in this section

Rocker panel

228

Created by heating a layer of clear plastic film between two layers of plate glass

Laminated safety glass

229

Type of glass that is heated and the quickly cooled, this gives the glass its strength and resistance to impacts

Tempered safety glass

230

Composed of heavy gauge steel and is round in shape with a cap at the end. Designed to hold the door in place. One of the most difficult type of latching mechanism to cut through

Nader Bolt

231

Generally smaller gauge steel; which makes it easier to cut through and / or release the latch mechanism of the door

U bolt

232

Any attempt to remove or cut this type of glass are not advised

Ballistic glass

233

Smart keys should be a minimum of ______ ft away from the vehicle

15 ft

234

Most side impact collisions occur at the ______ post

They are often reinforced because of this

B

235

Measures the amount of force required to tear a section of steel apart

Tensile strength

236

The amount of force that a section of steel can withstand before permanent deformation occurs

Yield strength

237

2 frame systems that are commonly used in todays vehicles

Body

238

Negative aspect of unibody construction

Can be cut in half with a severe collision

239

Bumpers must sustain a collision of ______ MPH without sustaining damage to the vehicle body

2.5mph

240

Located on the front top section of the vehicle

Consists of 2 beams located on both sides of the vehicle that hold the load section in place and attach the front wheel strut system to the chassis

Upper rail

241

Dashes are reinforced with a steel beam that runs the entire length of the dash

Dash bar

242

Located in the center console area where the radio, AC, and other components are located

It is two steel brackets attached to the dash bar

Dash brackets

243

Vehicle manufacturers will identify the fuel type using a _________

Vehicle Identification badge

244

Gasohol is _______ % ethanol and _______ % gasoline

EPA considers it "substantially similar" to gasoline and is not considered a alternative fuel

E10 OR GASOHOL
10% ethanol and 90 % gas


E85 85% ethanol 15% gas

245

Do not use water on a liquid natural gas leak or fire.

Water will cause the liquid to react violently . It will intensify the fire or cause an explosion. You should use _______

High expansion foam

or
Dry chem

246

A mechanism for the transfer of energy

Work

247

Objects at rest tend to stay at rest and objects in motion tend to stay in motion unless acted on by a outside force

Newtons first law of motion

248

Motor vehicle collisions are classified traditionally by the area of initial impact

Front
Lateral
Rear end
Rollovers
Rotational (spins)

249

3 collisions that occur during an MVA

1 Vehicle impact
2 Occupant impact with vehicle
3 Occupants organs impact solid structures of the body

250

Vehicle travels under an object or Over an object

Under ride collisions

Over ride collision

251

A very common cause of fatalities associated with MVA's

Lateral or side impacts

252

Sedan types range in size from _______ to ______

85 cubic ft up tp 130 cubic feet

253

ID system composed of a 17 character sequence containing #'s and letters with the exclusion of letters I,O,Q and numbers 1,0 to avoid confusion

VIN

254

Recharging stations for electric vehicle operate at

120 / 240 volts

255

An electro chemical device that utilizes a catalyst facilitated chem reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to create electricity that is then used to power an electric motor

A hybrid system by design that uses a 2 separate power sources as a propulsion mechanism for a vehicle

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

256

Kinetic energy =

Mass / 2 x velocity squared

257

Technical specialist initially report to the _______ ______.

Ex. Aviation, enviroment, hazmat

Planning section

258

All organizations should be trained at a min to a awareness level in accordance with

NFPA 1670

259

The staging manager will report to the .....

Operations section chief

( or the IC if an ops section chief hasn't been assigned)

260

Is an oral (informal) or written (formal) plan containing general objectives reflecting the overall strategy for managing a incident

IAP
Incident Action Plan

261

At a properly run ICS a person should only have ______ direct supervisor

1

262

In most situations one person can effectively manage _____ to _____ people with _____ being the optimal number

3 to 7

5

In the ICS system the IC receives information from a Max of 5 people

263

Can bypass the COC to correct unsafe acts and stop or suspend unsafe operations

Safety Officer

264

Safety officer must be knowledgable in

Strategies and tactic
Hazmat
Rescue practices
Department safety rules and regs

265

Are established to divide the incident into functional area of operation

Ex. Med group, search group, rescue group

Groups

266

May serve several purposes and many geographical or functional in nature. They are established when the number of divisions or groups exceeds the recommended span of control for the Operations section chief

Branches

267

Responsible for the collection, evaluation, dissemination, and use of information and intelligence critical to the incident

One of the most important functions is to look beyond the current operational period and anticipate potential problem.

Planning section

268

Is responsible for the accounting and financial aspects of an incident. As well as any legal issues that may arise

Finance / Administration

269

Is a group of personnel working without apparatus and led by a leader or boss

Crew

270

A group of 5 units of the same type working on a common task or function

Strike team

271

An organizational directive that establishes a standard course of action. It produces written guidelines that explain what is expected and required of emergency services personnel while performing their job

Standard Operating Procedures

272

How many MVA's per year since 1998?

Average of 6 million

273

The process of removing a trapped victim from a vehicle or machinery

Extrication

274

The spreading, cutting, or removal of a vehicle away from trapped or injured victims

Disentanglement

275

A step by step process requiring
1 stabilization of the scene
2 stabilization of the vehicle
3 Stabilization of the patient

Vehicle extrication

276

A person who applies ADVANCED techniques to perform technical rescue ops.

Commercial or heavy vehicle, complex extrication,

Technician Level 2 Rescuer

277

An individual who identifies hazards, uses equipment, and applies limited techniques specified by NFPA 1006 to perform Tech Rescue Ops involving common passenger vehicle and simple small machinery

Level 1 Technical rescuer

278

Each of the specialties in NFPA 1670 includes 3 response levels.

1 - Awareness Level - Basic competency level that stresses recognition of the basic components of vehicle extrication rather then the actual application of them
2 - Operations level - Identify hazards, use equipment, implement limited techniques, Intermediate level
3 - Technician Level - Apply advance techniques to coordinate, perform and supervise tech rescue incidents

279

Developed to provide guidance on the performance of processes, products, individuals or organizations

Standards

280

Standard for FF professional qualifications

Standard for technical rescue Pro qualifications

Standard of Ops and training for tech search and rescue incidents

NFPA 1001

1006

1670

281

4 ICS sections

Operations, Planning, Logistics, Finance / admin

282

Responsible for the development, direction, and coordination of all tac ops conducted in accordance with the IAP.

Operations section

283

The service branch with the logistics section may include....

The support branch may include

Supply unit , facilities unit and ground support unit

Communication unit, medical unit, food unit

284

The following units are contained within the finance/ Admin section...

Time unit
Procurement unit
Compensation/ claims unit
Cost unit

285

A group of up to 5 single resources of any type

Task force

286

The identification of situations or conditions that may injure people or damage property or the enviroment

Hazard analysis

287

Seeks to determine whether a organization could establish and maintain the capability and whether the organization could comply with appropriate rules, regulations, laws and standards

Organizational Analysis

288

Entails an assessment of the risk to the rescuers compound to the benefits that might result from the rescue

Risk benefit Analysis

289

Tracks:
Responders idnetifies, Assignments, locations

Accountability system
NFPA 1561

290

Standard of FD occupational Safety and health program

NFPA 1500

291

______ are established when the number of resources exceeds the manageable span of control of the IC and the Ops section chief.

Divisions, groups and branches

292

Branches are managed by a ______

Branch director

293

A fundamental entity of nature that is transferred between parts of a system in the production of physical change within the system and usually regarded as the capacity for doing work

Energy

294

Energy can neither be created or destroyed, it can only change from one form to another

Law of conservation of energy

295

When dealing with the science of MVA's ______ _______ is the driving force behind the dynamics of what actually occurs

Mechanical Energy

296

_______ technique is used when the impingement of metal on the victim requires a unique mechanism of movement that cannot be completed with a spreader
(impingement of the B post)

Cross Ram techniques

A hydraulic ram preferably a telescoping hydraulic ram is the best tool for the job

297

When tunneling use _______ to cut the arms that hinge the trunk

If the trunk uses ______ to assist its movement use ______ to cut those. Cut them closest to the end where they attach to the trunk hinge arms

Expose all metal, remove all lining

Hydraulic cutters

Tension rods

Bolt cutters

Much lighter and east to maneuver. If unsuccessful you can use hydraulic cutters.

Air chisel or recipe saw will not work because there is too much movement

298

Tools that should be set up and ready to conduct the tunneling technique

Air chisel w/ spare bottles
Recipe saw
Large bolt cutters
Spreader / cutter

299

On a crushed roof with impingement the first step should be ________

Raise the roof off of the victim w/ a hydraulic tool before any posts are cut. The metal will be drawn down at the victim as it is cut.

300

When using a ram DO NOT _________

Use a 4x4 to widen the footprint for your tips. The 4x4 will roll, break or kickoff under extreme pressure
* However you can use a 4x4 for the butt end

301

Do not use _____ _______ + ________ for cutting impaled objects, they will cause to much movement and torquing of the object

Hydraulic cutter
Recipe saw
Hand saw

302

When putting an impaled object operate the tool with ________ and cut ________

With 2 hands

as close to the pt as possible

303

Victim Management involves

Vehicle entry
Pt packaging
Pt removal

304

5 skin colors

Pale, flushed, blue, yellow, normal

305

Normal pulse rated
Adult-
Adolescent 12 -18
School age - 6 - 12
Preschool 3 - 6
Toddler 1 -3
Infant 1 month - 1 yr

60 to 100
60 to 100
70- 120
80 - 140
90- 150
100- 160
First number goes up by ten

306

When the come along and chain package is properly applied ______

The properly rated come along for this technique is rated in the _______ to ______ category

The rescuer has to complete control over and full movement

The rated handle is designed to bend and fail under a predetermined pressure

2000 to 4000 lb category

307

Non hydraulic dash lift can be completed using

Pneumatic air chisel
Recipe saw
Hi lift jack

308

3 ways to move a dash

Dash lift
Dash roll
Steering wheel and column relocation( using come along)

* never use hydraulic tools with a rated chain package to move a steering column. The rescuer cannot control the amount of pressure exerted.

309

How many rescuers will be need to complete a steering column relocation _______

2

310

_______ point rescuer system to lift pt on backboard

_____ point system to carry the backboard

3

4

311

When done correctly the inner/ outer survey plus to application of a tension buttress system should be completed in under _____ min

5

312

______ is usually performed to a vehicle resting on its roof but can be applied to any vehicle resting position where access to the roof and doors are blocked

Tunneling

313

Hybrid, fuel cell, and alternative fuel vehicle may have _____ so an alternative method rather than tunneling is recommended

High pressure storage fuel tanks and / or battery packs in the trunk

314

To expose the latch of the trunk

* Do not spread the door completely open. This will cause the whole vehicle to shift and be dangerous. Expose with spreader then use cutters on the latch.

Crash the rounded tip of the trunk with the spreaders creating a purchase point. Then spread to expose the latch . Cut latch with cutters

315

The area separated the trunk from the rear passenger compartment

Rear dash

Stereo speakers may be mounted here

Best tools are the air chisel and recipe saw combination

316

Tunneling
Remove the rear seats
the remove the front seat backs the best way is to ______

Expose the hinges by cutting material with a knife or trauma sheers. Once done cut the hinges with the air chisel or hydraulic cutters

317

Before opening a trunk

Determine if anything hazardous or heavy is going to fall out and crash down

318

How many rescuers should be inside a vehicle that is being tunneled?

2 if possible
1 to disentangle the to
2pt care

319

In the back seat the ______ is a great anchor point for the bottom of the ram

Transmission hump

320

After the impingement of an extremity is relieved form the B post

Crib above and below the extremity to maintain the spare created by the ram, prevent the metal from collapsing back onto the extremity

321

A good place to positions the tips of the ram to push the B post out is ______

Seat belt harness

* here is a steel reinforced plate inside the B post being the seat belt harness

322

When an object impales on an occupant, the main objective is to ________

Stabilize the object at the entry and exit point.

It will usually need to be cut at the entry and exit point for the pt to be properly extricated

323

During impalement OP position a rescuer inside the vehicle with a _________

Water extinguisher
* In case metal being cut need to be cooled or to extinguish sparks
* Not usually the case with a circular saw but can be expected with a cut off saw

324

Use ______ and _______ to secure the impaled object once cut.

Remove the pt in a _________ position

Pillows with the center cut out and taper

Seated position

325

The relief cut for the dash lift in the fire wall area should be made ______

* insert cribbing under rocker panel

Directly between the top and bottom hinge
* go through the entire firewall
* If its a large area use the spreaders to crush it before cutting

326

Dash roll

Pushing or rolling the entire front end of the vehicle
* Hydraulic ram is best option
* No need for upper rail relief cut

327

Relief cut for the Dash lift should be ________

In the upper rail between the strut tower and the dash
* strut tower is located above the center point above the wheel well. Strongest part in the area of the vehicle
* The cut created a hinge point

328

Dash Lift technique

* used when a object is on top of the hood or for an undesired type entrapment
* If you use a dash roll you would set a teepee effect
* Used when the dash needs to be lifted independently off the front end of the vehicle
* Requires a relief cut to the upper rail
* Only lifts the dash on one side of the vehicle

329

One of the first steps in the dash lift is to expose the hood and cut the hinge also look for ______ which could pose a safety hazard

Hydraulic piston struts
* to expose insert spreaders where the hood meets the dash and open, insert cutters and cut the hinge. If pistons are present cut the piston where it is attached to the hood. Do not cut the cylinder

330

The _______ technique can be performed with the roof still attached but for best pt access always remove the roof

Dash lift technique
* Just remove a small section of A post

331

Best technique to expose the upper rail to make the relief cut

Wheel well crush
* Then peel the hood off with the spreaders using the purchase point you located

332

The biggest compilation you can run into during a dash lift is the presence of ________

Dash Brackets
* Will stop dash from lifting
* Must expose brackets from passenger front compartment expose and cut both brackets

333

Do not cut a steering wheel ring if _______

It is still impinging on the pt

* A ratcheting cutting tool works well on steering wheels

334

Safety of the crew always precludes entering a vehicle that is unsafe

Use the ______ to position airway

Jaw thrust
( in case of spinal trauma)
If pt is in the sitting position put on behind his hand and one hand under the chin to raise the head to a neutral position

335

Unconscious pt check the _______

Conscious pt check the _________

Carotid

Radial

336

If you must insert a glove finger in a pats mouth use a _______

Bite block

337

If you don't feel a carotid after ______ to _______ start CPR

5 to 10 seconds

338

Triage IDME
Red -
Yellow-
Green- Black

Priority, delayed, walking wounded, already dead

339

One of the easiest methods of triage _______

Start - Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment

Jump Start

8 yo or 100 loss

340

For gaining door access ( exposing latches) use the __________

For gaining access to hinges ________

Vertical spread technique

Wheel well crush technique

341

Cutters should be positioned ______ to the object being cut

Perpindicular

Pg 221

342

A vehicle on its side has a _______ center of gravity and a narrow track or base causing it to topple easily

High

The goal is to lower it by expanding the vehicles foot print or the area of the vehicle in contact with the ground

343

The goal is to position the struts to form a ________

A frame configuration

344

Tools needed for a cross ram techniques

Large hydraulic telescoping ram ( extends 50 in or greater)
Assorted cribbing
backboard

345

Normal respiration rates
Adults + adolescents
Children 1 to 12
Infants

12 to 20
15 to 30
25 to 50

346

SWOT analysis

Is a self analysis examination model that can be adjusted, adapted, and applied to any situation, incident or project an organization is involved in

Strengths, Weaknesses,Oppurtunities, Threats

347

School bus doors open _______
_______in wide
______ in high
Can be operated by ______ or ________

Outward
24
68
Lever bar or air actuated switch
* glass is tempered or laminate tear gasket around glass and push in release it from the frame

348

DOT defines a commercial motor vehicle as a motor vehicle or combo of MV used in commerce to transport passengers or properly if the MV satisfies at least one of the following

Has a gross vehicle weight of 26000 lbs including tower until with a GVWR of over 10000lb or more

Designed to transport more than 16 passengers including the driver

Any size if used in the transport of hazardous materials

349

A pedal can be removed using

Any power tool or a section of webbing or rope

350

Side removal of a vehicle resting on roof make 2 relief cuts _________

1 Completely through the fire wall between the hinges
2 at the bottom of the B post and rocker panel area

* Using the spreader and a small ram you will be able to lift the vehicle up and create space

351

For a single removal or a vehicle resting on its roof. First cut should be ________

Cut through the bottom of window frame ( D ring) on both side. This will release the door from the ground

352

Removing door hinges with air chisel cut the _______ hinge first. On heavy gauge hinges ______ brace the back of the chisel against _______ lean into the gun and apply a _______

Bottom
Cut only one hing leaf at a time
Your chest
Slight up and down rocking motion

353

A recip saw with ______ to ______ amps will allow you to cut a wide range of grades and types of steel

Use a ____ inch ______ blade with a TPI rating between ______ and ______

11 to 15 amps

9 inch bimetal blade

TPI 9 to 14

Lower TPI will vibrate too much

Higher TPI is not aggressive enough and will dull

354

Don't cut _____ or ____ with the air chisel

Rubber or plastic
the blade will only bounce off of it

* Always cut at least 2 inches above or below the seat belt bracket

355

Never ______ an air chisel

Pressure should be in the general range of _____ to _____ psi

Free fire : can damage tool

150 to 200 psi

356

2 types of air chisel blades ________

Panel cutter ir T blade - used for shallow straight cuts on small gauge sheet metal

Flat/ curved blade - cutting medium to heavy gauge steel

357

When cutting a wide C post with an air chisel you must _________

Make a pie or inspection cut to peel back the outer metal panel to reveal the inside panel. A air chisel cannot cut a wide C post without first completely this step

358

2 area to cut a roof

Cut at the base of the post using the weight of the vehicle. Or cut at the roofline if it is not compromised

359

When cutting a roof with an air chisel check the roof for ________

Tensioning or torsion deformities. This will determine the proper angle for the cut.

* always cut away from these area to avoid getting your tool trapped and jammed by collapsing metal

360

Rub rails:

What gauge? what width? Where are they placed?

16 gauge corrogated metal
inches or more in width
run entire length of bus (even rear)
Floor line
Seat cushion line and just under window frame
* BLACK LINES

361

School bus main body frame structure consists of steel sidewall ______ _______ that go from one side bow over the top and back down other side

Bow trusses
* support frame of the sb
made of heavier 12 gauge steel

362

Chassis frame of a school bus is a 2 long steel channel beam of _____ to _____ gauge steel

And cross members of ________ gauge steel
Crossmember are normally spaced _______ apart

8 to 10 gauge

14 gauge

12 inches

363

FMVSS school bus standards:
Length of bus:
Width of bus:
Inside body height-
aisle width-
Aisle clearance for wheel chair accessibility -
Bus with power ramp or lift aisle width -

Not created than 45 ft
Not greater than 102 inches
72 inches or more at least 12 inches at bottom 15 on top of seat
30 in to the closest emergency exit
30 in from the ramp to the emergency exit

364

SB's are designed to prevent:

The body design is :

Prevent overrides

Low to the ground

365

Stabilizing a SB in its normal position -

2 1 3/4 lines charged
2 high lift jacks at rear
4 tension struts 2 front 2 rear
Ensure air brake is engaged

366

School bus is any bus carrying a driver and more than ______ passenger for transport to school.
2 classifications for school buses _______ and _______

10
small less than 10000 lbs
Large over 10000 lbs

367

2 types of SB glass:

Gasket push out type ( can be pushed out)

Beaded mastic type
(requires recip say)

368

SB have _________
installed to control emissions

It has 3 stages

Exhaust after treatment device
Passive, Active, Manual

All performed automatically

369

SB Bench seat have a _____ in tubular frame and _____ outer leg posts only exception is ________ which ________

1 inch
2 outer leg posts
Emergency agree seats
The seat section lift up

370

SB emergency roof hatches
Operate from in and outside the vehicle
total opening is ______ inches
not large enough for ________

16 1/2 inches

Pt secured to backboard

371

SB side window exits
_____ to _____ in high
at least ______ wide
Slide down to open
They are designed to release the _______ _______ remaining hinged only on 1 side

9 to 13 high
22 wide
entire frame
* use air chisel and a prying tool to remove

372

SB emergeency exit doors
Swing ______ from _______ to _______
hinges on the ______ side ( when outside)
Several types of hinges

Outward from left to right
hinges on the right

Piano type, three bolt, single strap( non exposed)
Maybe on the inside of the bus

373

There are approx ________ buses traveling _______ miles transporting ________ kids to and from school annually

474,000
4.3 billion
23,5 million children

374

4 types of buses

School bus
transit bus -fixed, scheduled routs, urban geographic areas
Intercity bus - Long distance transport
Charter / tour bus - usually round trip service or for a tour

375

(GVWR)
Gross vehicle weight rating
takes into account

cargo
people
fuel
and the vehicle itself

376

No passenger vehicle are subdivided by:

Number of axles
number of units
including both power and trailer units

377

Seats are attached to floorboards in ______ or more places

4

378

Pedal relocation using webbing
Webbing must be ______ ft long secure the webbing to the pedal and ______
* _______ have to be operational for this to work

15ft
Window frame / D ring close to latching mechanism

Door hinges
* Door need to be opened at least 1 inch

379

Never drop the ________ below the pats feel where the brake and accelerator are

Fuel or electric lines could be down there

floor plan

380

Recip saw roof removal, vehicle on its side: to increase the speed of this op ________

2 recip saws can be used at the same time by 2 rescuers. This can lead to roof removal in 2 to 3 mins

381

Removing the roof of a vehicle on its side utilizing recip saw cut 2 ______ lines just above the roof rail. You must cut the ______ section first

Horizontal
Lowest section first to avoid the tool getting stuck due to the roof collapsing on itself

382

When using a recip saw to remove the roof of a vehicle on its side you should use a ______ inch blade rather than the standard 9 inch

6 inchh 9 to 14 TPI
Roof top are generally 2 to 3 inches thick
shorted blade will help ensure you don't hit the victim

383

Before the roof is removed ensure that the ______ have been cut

Seatbelts

384

The recip saw will cut through the C post ______

Easily
It works better on a wider post

385

Assign _____ rescuers to stabilize both sides of the roof as it is cut

2

386

When holding the air chisel 1 hand on the grip and one hand _______

Gripping the blade, mid shaft between the tip and collar
* Always keep 1/2 of the blade showing through the entire cut

387

When using a recip saw cut at a _______

Downward angle to limit vibration. also keep the shoe of the tool firmly against the object being cut

388

______ give bow trusses members structural support at the roof level
______ gauge steel

Stringers * run from front to back
16 gauge steel

389

Because of time and difficulty gaining access through the _______ of a SB should not be attempted. Unless there are no alternatives.

Floor

390

Only school bus with wheels in front of the front tires

Type D

391

NHTSA -

FMVSS -

National Highway safety administration

Federal motor vehicle safety standards

392

Type D school bus

* Transit style
Stripped chassis is were the outer body is mounted to the bare chase. Entrance in ahead of the front wheels. 80 to 90 person capacity
* front of the bus is flat
* 85 to 90% of all buses are type C or D

393

Type C school bus:
Weighs-

Known as conventional school bus constructed with a hood and front fender assembly.
Entrance behind the front wheels

Over 21,500 lbs
85 to 90 of buses are type C or D

394

Type B bus

Type B 1 weighs
Type B2 weighs

Constructed utilizing a stripped chassis. Entrance door is behind the front wheel well

B1 10,000 lbs or less
B2 over 10,000 lbs

395

Gaining or creating access to a SB will depend heavily on the vehicle _______
The goal is to create a main entry or exit area

Resting postion

396

A SB will not usually come to rest on

Its roof

397

If you can't get to the battery of a school bus you can

locate the air intake manifold

dischage a 10lb dry chem into it. It will suffocate and shut down the engine

398

To chaulk SB wheels

Step cribbing placed upside down in front and behind each tire

399

School bus travel is one of the safest from of travel
approx ______ accident per every 100 million miles traveled

0.001

400

Tow truck with articulating boom

Class C

401

2 suspension systems found in SB

Metal leaf spring

Air ride type sustem

very important to stabilize the air tide type

402

For big incidents
Assign a resource/ staging officer and add a

separate response channel for all incoming units

403

Marry SB in

4 or more places

404

Front window of a SB is made of

Laminated safety glass

405

Greatest concern for a officer at a school bus extrication is _____

The first _____ to _____ mis set the tone for the incident

Gaining and maintaining control

10 to 15 mins

406

SB batteries are secured on a _______ position in side the vehicle body located near the _______ of the vehicle on the _____ _____.

There are usually ____ or more _____ batteries connected in a ______ configuration to increase amperage

Pull out sliding tray
Front
Drivers side
2
12 volt DC
Parallel

407

Type D and SB does not have a ______ it will have a _______, and also a door a ______, and also a door in the _____ section of the bus

rear exit door

Emergency escape window
middle section

408

In europe commercial vehicles are called a

Lorry

409

SB floor deck is composed of

14 gauge sheet metal panels

410

Type A school bus

Conversion type constructed utilizing a cutaway front section
* with a leftist drivers side door
Type A1 14,5000 or less
Type A 2 14,5000 to 21,500lbs

411

Crash rail

Between the floor and seat rub area. Extends entire length of bus.
* Designed to protect student from impact intrusions

412

SB are designed with a _____ construction

The body frame has inner and outer sheet metal panels usually made of _____ to ____ gauge steel.With fiberglass insulation inside measuring _____ to _____

Body outer frame
22 to 24 gauge
1 to 1.5 inches

413

Not designed to "cut" metal but to compress it until it reaches its fracture point.

Two types of blades are _____ and ______
Cutting force can range from _____ to _____ psi

Hydraulic cutter
Curved or O blde
straight blade

40,000 to 80,000 psi

414

Dr ________ was the creator of the golden hour

R adams Cowley

415

3 step process to produce a favorable outcome for vehicle extrication

Site operations
Vehicle stabilization
Victim access and management

416

5 primary phases of an incident action plan

1 underdstand the situation
2 establish incident objectives and strategies
3 develop the plan
4 prepare and disseminate the plan
5 evaluate and revise the plan

417

Most apparatus do not carry enough ______ to properly divert traffic safety.

* Always start from th furthest point and work towards the incident

traffic cones

* PPE must be worn on every MVC

418

Best tool to defalte a tire

Stem pillar or channel lock

* can also use the forked end of the halogen to sheer the valve stem of where it protrudes from the rim
* Only on rimmed where w/ hubcaps removed

419

The overall objective for is to position cribbing in _____ or more solid areas spread out equally to create that _____ _____

4 or more

Balanced platform

420

Wood is _____ in nature meaning it is a mix of material and has a lack of uniformity

It is considered anisotropic in that property of each species can differ according to its growth ring and direction of the grain

Heterogenous

421

Landing zone should measure

100x 100 ft
no less than 60x 60

422

Landing zone is established by the ______ through a coordinate effort with the ____ ____

ground crew
flight crew
Both operators must agree

423

Most air ambulances fly well in excess of _____mph

100

424

If a propane tank relief valve does not activate or if it is overwhelmed, the tank will _____

BLEVE

425

Concerns with fuel runoff ____ _______ ____ ___ all ways to control runoff 3 D's and an A

Presence of ignition sources
Enviromental concersn
Reaction of fuel when they mix with each other or other products at the incident

Damming, Diverting, Diluting and absorbing

426

Gas explosions and leak usually involve?

Occur due to leaking tanks or damage from over pressurization

Natural gas
Propane gas
Once leak has been located monitor all building in immediate area

427

Do not use the spreaders as a push point for the Ram . After crushing the rocker panel

This will damage the spreaders

428

In a dash roll, if the B post has been removed, Crimp the rocker panel to create a dip for the ram to sit in. Positions the tip of the ram _____

at the bottom corner of the A post ( where it meets the dash)

Make sure to crib under the rocker panel where the base of the ram is

429

First step of a dash roll

remove the roof

430

The C post is

Hollow

431

A side out when done correctly can be completed in less than

5 mins

432

The side out begins at the _______

* Never lean against a door that is being spread

Rear door and progress forward
* Spread the B post off of the rocker panel. Make sure to crib under the B post rocker panel area pro to spreading

433

Most common type of vehicle collisions

Side impact
Side out was introduced in 1999 Fire engineering magazine

434

Popular to access the hinges to cut them when you cannot access a vehicle latch side

Wheel well crush technique

435

Don't spread door until it pops off the radar bolt or U bolt. You should ....

Window frame is known as ______

Expose the latch with a vertical spread and insert the cutters and make the cut

D ring

436

Purchase point may be needed to expose a locking mechanism enough to insert a cutter.
This technique is known as:
A _____ is the best hydraulic tool for making a purchase point

Expose and cut

Hydraulic spreader

437

With a partial ejection carefully insert towels around the head and neck _____ _______

Then use _______ to slowly cut away sections of laminated glass

From the direction the windshield was impacted

Trauma sheers

438

Utilizes multiple layers of tempered glass laminated glass, laminated material, polycarbonate thermoplastics all andwhiched together to a desired thickness

Ballistic or bullet resistant glass

439

_____ is not effective for cutting polycarbonate windshields. The heat cause by friction will reseal the incision.

Recip saw
K 12 will work but not recommended

* One tool that shows promise is the hand held electric 5 inch dual action circular saw

440

You should treat polycarboante windows as :

Options for removal

Part of the vehicle body

Remove the entire section as 1 piece
Utilize a prying tool or spreder to pry the window out of its casing
With the spreaders make a purchase point by crushing a section of the roof rail where the window is seated

441

A thermoplastic material used in vehicle window applications

It is light durable plastic that is up to _____ times stronger than glass

Polycarbonate
250 times
* it will resist direct impacts from any striking tool on the apparatus

442

Using the glass hand tool make two holes with the spiked end for purchase points at the ____

Top center and bottom center of the windshield
* avoid short strokes when cutting glass

443

Removing a laminated glass windshield is best accomplished using ______

* Remove rearview mirror to avoid it becoming a projectile when you strike the glass with the glass tool

2 rescuer working on opposite sides of the vehicle

444

Cut windshield out with ______

Hand saw or recip saw

Always use respiratory protection N 95 filter

445

Laminated glass is held in place by a ______

Usually used for windshields sometimes used for and side windows

Mastic type adhesive
That requires a cutting action of the glass itself to be removed

Avoid trying to scrape adhesive out very time consuming

446

Start breaking glass at the

Tinted windows

Furthest point from the victim

Make a hole with a center much
create a space insert gloved hand and take whole section of glass out at once

447

The process of removing a roof or a major structural component of the vehicle requiress

all glass to be removed from the vehicle

448

Center punch only works on ______

Front windows or common passenger vehicle are _______ glass

Tempered glass most vehicle used tempered glass for side windows

laminate

449

Managing your victim entails:

Dont remove pt from vehicle remove vehicle from pt

Victim access, care, packaging, removal

450

Describes a objects balance in relation to its center of gravity

Footprint

451

Secondary batteries can be located in

Rear trunk
Under front or rear seat
Under the right or left wheel well

Fold back tape when cut sections of cable to prevent cabled from touching terminals

452

A smart key lets a driver start the car from _____ to ______ ft away

15 to 20

453

To marry 2 vehicle. Anchor the ratchet strap to the _____ of the bottom vehicle, then loop the loose end through the ______. Make sure that the hook is facing ______

Lowest area of the passenger side A post of the bottom vehicle.
Through he B post of the top vehicle and back through securing it to itself
Up and outward to avoid hood dislodging when tension is applied

454

MArrying 2 vehicle will eliminate ______
Best tool for this ______
Stabilize the bottom vehicle first using cribbing

Independent movement of the 2 objects

Industrial grade ratchet strap

* use a pike pole to pass straps under a vehicle
* Never crawl under the top vehicle

455

Roof strength requirements
prior to 2012

post 2012

Equal to 1.5 times the unloaded weight of the vehicle

3 times the unloaded weight of the vehicle

While vehicle are on their roofs

456

Never stack box cribbing more than ______
* initial cribbing goes to most unstable area

2 times the width

457

With a vehicle on its roof there are usually 3 points of access

Drivers side
Passenger side
trunk
Cribbing should be placed to keep these area unobstructed

458

A basic operation for stabilizing a vehicle on its side should take no longer than

Main advantage of A farm stabilization of a car on its side

3 to 5 mins

Roof area is free of any cribbing

459

Create a purchase point with

After struts are in place ______

Spike end of a halogen and flat axe
Once its in pull down on halogen to create a bigger purchase point

Reseat all cribbing with a 4x4 or rubber mallet

460

With a vehicle on its side the first strut should be placed at a ________ so that the tip of the strut can push off from it.

Maintain a angle of not less than _____

Sold section of the under carriage

45

461

Rescuers at a extrication should work from ______. In a ___ stance.

One knee
Semi kneeling stance

462

After inner/ outer survey is done the officer should _____ ______ as the other crew members begin cribbing

Place his hands on the front or rear section of the vehicle to feel for shifting or movement