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What is the purpose of the accountability system?

The purpose is to account for all emergency personnel, at any given time, within a small geographical area, within the “hazard zone” of an incident.


Accountability involves a ------ -------- to work within the safety system at an incident

personal commitment


A minimum crew size will be considered

two members and a radio will be required.


Who must supervise all crews entering a hazard zone?

B100 d
A Lieutenant or other higher ranking individual


SOG if radio fails in hazard zone?

B100 E
If a radio fails while in the hazard zone, the crew will exit unless there is another working radio with the crew. Continuing operations with a crewmember radio failure will be best managed with the non-functioning radio personnel remaining in close contact and within hearing distance of a crewmember with a functioning radio until all crew members exit the hazard zone.


Size of passport unit



PAR's should be conducted

PARs should be conducted face-to-face within the Company or with the Group or Division Officer whenever possible.


A Personnel Accountability Report can be employed by the Incident Commander for the following situations:

1. Any report of a missing or trapped firefighter (Command initiates a report of all crews on the scene).
2. Any change from offensive to defensive operations (Command initiates a report of all crews on the scene).
3. Any sudden hazardous events at the incident, including flashover, back draft, collapse, etc. (Command initiates a report of all crews on the scene).
4.At each thirty (30) minute interval of elapsed incident time.
5.At a report of “fire under control”.
6. By all crews reporting an “all clear” (Company Officers of crews responsible for search and rescue will ensure they have accounted for their crews at the time they report an “all clear”)


The following rules must be followed for the accountability system to function properly:

1. PASSPORTs never enter the hazard zone.
2. PASSPORTs must be maintained at the Command vehicle during large or complex operations.
3. PASSPORTs must reflect only personnel presently in the hazard zone.


Implementation of the PASSPORT system will occur at any incident that requires the use of

Self Contained Breathing Apparatus.


For single company incidents, the PASSPORT will remain on the ---- ----. The -------- will assume accountability responsibilities.

apparatus dash
Driver Engineer


On multi- company operations where SCBA is used, PASSPORTS will be delivered to the Command Post or Accountability Officer prior to entering the hazard zone, exception will be made for

first due units that are actively engaged in initial fireground or hazard mitigation operations. In those instances, the Accountability officer will assign the duty of acquiring those Passports from each of those units.


For any reports of a missing firefighter(s), Incident Command shall request

the next greater alarm assignment.


With missing/ lost firefighter,command must next do an immediate roll call of all companies assigned in the hazard zone. Searches will begin in the

the last reported working area of the lost firefighter(s).


The hazard zone will be defined as any area that requires an -----or in which a firefighter is at risk of becoming ------,--------, or-------

- an SCBA,
-lost, trapped, or injured by the environment or structure. This would include entering a structure reported to be on fire, operating in close proximity to the structure during exterior operations, confined space or trench rescue, the hot zone at a hazardous materials incident, or the debris field of a motor vehicle accident


Command will react to all barriers that influence incident accountability and will ensure that all companies entering a hazard zone have radios and are supervised by a

Company Officer or higher ranking officer.


If a situation occurs that the entire crew is not assigned to the hazard zone, an individual must leave the hazard zone, or an individual is reassigned (i.e. the Driver/Engineer is at the apparatus pumping), the individual’s name will be

turned upside down to indicate that the person(s) is not in the hazard zone.


Which way should passports be placed at the beginning of shift?

All personnel will place their individual passports right side up on the passport unit at the beginning of the shift. Only when on scene, and it is determined that an individual will not be entering the hazard zone, should an individual’s passport be turned upside down.


After ---- failed verbal or radio attempts to contact the firefighter with the activated P.A.S.S. device or a member of the company that can account for the activation, the Division or Group Officer shall contact Command to activate Rapid Intervention Team operations (see Rapid Intervention Team SOP) to locate and extract the downed worker.



These Teams shall be assigned when a RIT is indicated or requested.

Personnel assigned to the BSODFRES Hazardous Materials Team and Technical Rescue Team received many hours of specialized RIT training and were supplied with the most advanced RIT equipment.


Who shall be responsible for identifying the need for a Rapid Intervention Team (RIT)

The Incident Commander


Establishment of the RIT shall be at every

incident in which firefighters enter a hazardous are that could be immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH).


Examples of when a RIT shall be established include, but are not limited to

1.Offensive interior fire operations.
2.Hazardous materials incidents.
3.Trench rescue operations.
4.Large frame aircraft fire operations.
5.Boat and shipboard fire operations.
6.Any other incident posing a significant risk to firefighters.
7.At the discretion of the Incident Commander or Battalion Chief.


The terms “MAYDAY” and “EMERGENCY TRAFFIC” must only be used in situations where

immediate communication is necessary to protect life or prevent injury.


Radio traffic during "Mayday" or emergency traffic

-Whenever a “MAYDAY” or “EMERGENCY TRAFFIC” is transmitted, all communications on the frequency are to cease. Only those transmissions between the member initiating the communication, the Incident Commander or designee, and the Firecom center are allowed.
-It will be the responsibility of the Incident Commander to take the fire ground operation to a different monitored frequency and keep the rescue operation on the original tactical frequency. Both channels shall be monitored by Firecom and the Incident Commander.


MAYDAY – Mayday transmissions are an indication that a ------ --------- situation has developed. The “MAYDAY” transmission shall receive the ------ ------- priority from Firecom, Incident Command, and all operating units.

Life threatening
Highest communication


Reasons to call Mayday working fires:

a. Collapse of a roof or floor.
b. Firefighter is lost or trapped.
c. Flashover has occurred.
d. Discovery of another downed firefighter.
e. Separated from crew and low on air.
f. Tangled, pinned or stuck with a low pressure alarm.
g. Tangled, pinned or stuck and unable to self-extricate within 60 seconds.
h.Change in fire conditions that causes to inability to make immediate access to a known egress.
I.Low air alarm activates and there is no exit within 60 seconds or firefighter is not on a hoseline of 200 feet or less.


Reasons to call Mayday confined space/trench ops

1.Recognized change in mental or physical state (i.e. dizziness, headache, nausea, numbness/tingling, etc.).
2.Suspected change in the mental or physical status of another firefighter operating in the IDLH.
3.Any situation requiring the use of an escape bottle or buddy- breathing.
4.Discovery of another downed firefighter.
5.Collapse causing any blockage of the egress.
6.Collapse in the confined space with or without trapping firefighters. g. 7.Firefighter judgment


Reason for Mayday Hazardous Materials Operations

A. Recognized change in mental or physical state (i.e. dizziness, headache, nausea, numbness/tingling, etc.).
B. Suspected change in the mental or physical status of another firefighter operating in the IDLH.
C.Discovery of another downed firefighter.
D. Collapse of any confined space with or without trapping firefighters. E.Drastic change in the nature or speed of a hazardous material release while firefighters are operating in the IDLH.
F.Any change or collapse that impedes the ability of firefighters to make a quick egress.
G. Firefighter judgment.


is used to indicate that a serious injury has occurred that is not immediately life threatening, or to inform members on the fire ground of a serious change in conditions

EMERGENCY TRAFFIC – The “Emergency Traffic” transmission


Emergency traffic can be transmitted for the following reasons, but not limited to:

1.When a member suffers an injury that is not immediately life threatening but which required medical attention and possibly hospital care.
2.An interior attack is to be discontinued and an exterior attack instituted.
3.Discovery of a structural problem indicating the danger of collapse. 4.Fire is discovered entering an exposure to a degree that any delay may considerably enlarge the fire problem.
5.Flashover or back draft conditions are apparent and/or imminent. 6.Loss of water which would endanger members.


The primary task of RIT is to respond to firefighters in distress. Distress generally falls into three (3) categories:

1. Trapped.
2. Disoriented or lost.
3. Low air or out of air.


The RIT shall assemble in full gear and breathing apparatus to a location away from the hazard area as designated by the incident commander. The following additional equipment shall be assembled by the RIT, if available:

1. Spare SCBA and bottle.
2. Forcible entry tools.
3. Cutting tools.
4. Rope bags.
5. Lighting equipment.
6. Stokes basket (if available).


The initial RIT will also be responsible for taking measures to “safe” the building in the event of a “MAYDAY” and shall include but is not limited to:

1. One RIT Officer shall perform a 360 degree survey of the structure to identify means of entry and egress, construction features, and potential hazards.
2.Reviewing pre-fire plans of the building, if available.
3.Identify means of egress on upper floors and request/perform placement of ground ladders at those locations and aerial devices on multi-story occupancies.
4. Removing of bars on doors and windows that may be needed for egress.
5. Force entry of other doors and possible means of egress.
6. Illuminate points of egress.


Firefighters calling the “MAYDAY” should include specific information. The Incident Commander and/or designee should listen for the following from the firefighter(s) calling the “MAYDAY”

2.Unit number.
3. Names of crew members.
4. Assignment.
5 Resources needed.


The Incident Commander may also initiate these procedures for an uncontrolled P.A.S.S device or other notification of need for assistance.

1.Deploy the RIT.
2.Firecom will automatically dispatch another alarm (i.e. a first alarm assignment will go to a second alarm)
3.The Incident Commander will confirm that additional alarm assignment was automatically dispatched by the Communications Center
4.The Technical Rescue Team must be automatically dispatched, if not already assigned to the incident. Should the Department of Fire Rescue Technical Rescue Team already be assigned and/or committed to the incident, another technical rescue team shall be dispatched from existing resources or through mutual aid.
5.A personnel Accountability Report (PAR) must be taken for all members operating on the fire ground. A different radio frequency/tactical channel will be assigned for the fire ground operation, and the rescue/RIT operation will remain on the original tactical frequency (in the event the victim(s) are trapped, they may not be able to reach their radio to change frequency).
6.All units not specifically assigned as part of the rescue operation will change radio frequencies to the newly assigned channel. These units shall confirm with Firecom on the new frequency.
7.Another Chief Officer other than the Incident Commander shall be assigned to the RIT operation to enable the Incident Commander to maintain focus on the original incident.
8.A second RIT must be assembled to serve as a backup and relief for the primary RIT. This second team will be assembled from the resources that arrived with the original RIT assignment. When the RIT is deployed, the second designated team shall be dispatched if not already on scene.
9. In addition to the above, the primary response rescue unit should be assigned only to the treatment of the firefighter(s) involved in the intervention. An additional rescue unit shall be dispatched for assignment as REHAB/MEDICAL Group and to stand-by for medical needs during fire ground operations.


The RIT crew will give a “UCAN” report to the Incident Commander upon locating the firefighter(s) in distress:

1. Unit number – Crew that is making the transmission.
2. Conditions – What they have encountered.
3. Actions – What they are doing to rectify the situation.
4. Needs – Any additional equipment or manpower that may be needed.


Upon location of the down or trapped firefighter, the RIT shall perform the following:

1. Locate and shut off the firefighter’s P.A.S.S device if activating.
2. Ascertain the air supply left in the SCBA and make arrangements for continuing air supply.
3.Perform a secondary survey by sweeping the downed firefighter’s body with hands to determine possible entanglement or entrapment. Should these conditions exist, notify Command immediately.


The RIT will advise if the rescue is either a “clean” or “dirty” rescue. What is the difference?

The RIT will advise if the rescue is either a “clean” or “dirty” rescue. Clean rescues involve careful manipulation of the firefighter for maximum safety. Examples would include broken bones, neck and/or back injuries. Clean rescues shall only take place when surrounding hazards are controlled. Dirty rescues involve rapid extrication of personnel due to surrounding circumstances or firefighter condition. Examples would include imminent explosion, heavy fire conditions, or the need for immediate medical attention. If RIT-1 cannot extricate the firefighter(s), they will need to advise RIT-2 of what will be needed to remove the victim(s), and have the RIT crews change to facilitate the removal of the victim(s).


LET safe means

LET Safe (location/extension of the fire, entrances and exits, type of occupancy/construction) the building: Making the building safer for crews working in and around the building by placing ladders, removing bars, board-ups, etc.


RICO definition and responsibilities

RICO (Rapid Intervention Crew Officer): The RICO is the team leader and will report to the Command Post. The RICO will enter the building with the RIT-1 crew when a “MAYDAY” is transmitted. The second Officer from the respective team that responds will report to the Command Post or assist the Incident Commander and/or Operations Officer with the “MAYDAY” operation. The remainder of the crew will be staged for entry in the most appropriate location to assist RIT-1 with manpower and additional equipment if necessary.


RIT passport locations

Passports with RIT-1 will have the PAR tags of the RIT at the Command Post with the Incident Commander, and there will also be another passport at the RIT’s entry point into the building, either in a bucket or connected to the rope bag.


The primary objective of the first RIT is to locate, tag and supply air to the firefighter(s) in distress.

They will then assess the situation and either extricate the firefighter(s) or call for additional equipment and manpower to facilitate extrication of personnel


When can RIT be terminated

At the discretion of the Incident Commander the RIT can be terminated when it appears that control of the situation has been achieved


What may be considered in operations involving aid to co-workers from high levels of injury or other stressful traumatic situations involving RIT rescuers.

Should conditions warrant, critical incident stress management efforts


What will most likely be the most difficult assignment that a firefighter will ever perform - physically and mentally?

Engaging in a firefighter rescue within a burning building or other hazardous environment


of firefighter deaths and injuries are attributed to becoming lost or trapped in structures.

Thirty percent (30%)


A fire that is in the initial or beginning stage and that can be
controlled or extinguished by portable fire extinguishers, Class II standpipes or
small hose systems.

Incipient Stage Fire


The crew available for rescue prior to assignment of a dedicated
RIT, consisting of at least two personnel fully equipped with appropriate
protective clothing, SCBA, and specialized rescue equipment that might be
needed for the specific operation underway. This team may be engaged in
secondary activities as described

Standby Team


A. An exception to the “Two In / Two Out” Rule may be taken only for life rescue
given the following criteria:

A. An exception to the “Two In / Two Out” Rule may be taken only for life rescue
given the following criteria:
1. Information that an immediate risk to life safety exists within the interior
IDLH atmosphere. Probability of a rescue is made in accordance with
normal size-up indicators and fire ground evaluation factors. Examples
include: report of persons inside, size-up signs indicate a probability of
persons inside, etc. The Incident Commander or first arriving Company
Officer shall evaluate the situation, considering the occupancy, time of
day, day of week, reports from persons on the scene, signs that persons
may be inside the structure, etc. Entry may be considered if signs indicate a probable victim rescue situation. This is a significant responsibility placed on the first Officer on scene.
2. Realistic expectations of successfully
performing a rescue.


Interior structural fire fighting operations will not begin until how many firefighters are
available outside the IDLH atmosphere to monitor the safety of the interior team
and, if necessary, effect rescue?



What must be announced by the first interior team prior to entering an IDLH?

The first interior team shall announce on the radio when they enter the structure
and that an outside/exterior team has been established, unless making an
exception to the rule as outlined within these guidelines


Anytime firefighters are engaging in interior structural fire fighting (no matter the
number of firefighters or apparatus on-scene) and a RIT has not yet been
established, one of the -------/ --------- ----------- -------must monitor the safety of
the interior teams; this shall be these firefighter’s sole responsibility

outside/exterior team members


Number of personnel usually needed for extinguishment of outside fires and fires in the incipient phase.

If upon arrival at a fire emergency, members find a fire in its incipient stage,
extinguishment of such a fire shall be permitted with less than four persons on the
scene. Extinguishment of outside fires such as dumpsters, brush, or automobiles,
shall be permitted with less than four persons, even if SCBA is required.


If an Officer decides to make an exception to the two in two out rule, what needs to be communicated?

the reason for the exception
and the actions needed to prevent death or serious injury should be communicated
to the firefighters on scene. In addition, the Officer shall announce the exception
to the rule on the tactical fire ground communications channel so other responding
companies are aware of the situation.


Full personal protective equipment consists of:

1. Helmet with face shield or goggles.
2. Protective hood.
3. Turnout/bunker coat.
4. Turnout/bunker pants.
5. Fire fighting boots.
6. Fire fighting gloves.B110


Emergency or training operations shall not commence until all involved personnel have

Donned all necessary protective equipment.
Under no circumstances shall any aspect of personal safety be sacrificed in
order to increase the speed of emergency or training operations.


All fire fighting personnel shall wear full protective equipment when
responding to any type of alarm indicative of fire, potential fire, explosion,
potential explosion, or release of any type of hazardous material. These incidents include, but are not limited to:

a. Structure fires.
b. Hazardous materials incidents.
c. Smoke investigations.
d. Gas leaks.
e. Vehicle accidents (excluding protective hoods).
f. Vehicle fires.
g. Aircraft emergencies.
h. Automatic alarm


What equipment shall be donned prior to boarding the apparatus?

All personal protective equipment (with the exception of gloves and helmets where practical) shall be donned prior to boarding the apparatus. .


Full protective equipment is optional for who while responding to an incident.

Full protective equipment is optional for Driver/Engineers and Command Officers during their response.


Personnel operating in or near lanes of traffic shall wear

their turnout gear or traffic safety vests, unless other protective equipment is required


Hearing protection will be worn when excessive noise levels may be experienced, regardless of the length of exposure. Examples include, but are not limited to:

1. When checking apparatus in the bay.
2. When operating at the pump panel of fire apparatus.
3. When operating the air compressor or small engines.


Primary eye protection shall meet at a minimum

ANSI Standard # Z87


Eye protection will be worn whenever the possibility of eye injury is present. Examples include, but are not limited to the following situations:

1. Working with any small hand or power tools such as saws, sanders, grinder, rescue tools, etc. (when SCBA mask is not in use).
2. Operating the air compressor.
3. Working with chemicals, biohazards or other materials which could cause injury by spilling and/or splattering.
4. Performing salvage operations (when SCBA mask is not in use).


Each fire fighter (inclusive of all ranks) will inspect his/her PPE when?

at the beginning of each shift and after each use. Any PPE defects and/or damage will be reported immediately to his/her direct supervisor.


Each fire fighter (inclusive of all ranks) is responsible for the cleanliness of their PPE. Cleaning PPE falls into three categories:

3) Specialized


The light cleaning of PPE performed by the employee without taking the PPE out of service. Examples include brushing off dry debris, rinsing off debris with a water hose, and spot cleaning.

Cleaning (routine).


The thorough cleaning of PPE by washing and cleaning with agents. Cleaning usually requires PPE to be temporarily out of service. Examples include hand washing, machine washing, and contract cleaning.

Cleaning (advanced)


The cleaning of grossly contaminated PPE to remove hazardous materials or biological agents. This level of cleaning involves specific procedures and specialized cleaning agents and processes.

Cleaning (specialized)


Helmets, gloves, boots, eye protection and ear plugs should be cleaned with ------
Eye protection should be dried with a -----. Helmets and boots can be wiped dry. Gloves and ear plugs -------

mild detergent and water
soft cotton towel
should be air-dried.


According to NFPA and manufacturer’s guidelines, protective clothing should be washed and/or cleaned

a. At least every six (6) months, or
b. As soon as possible after contamination or exposure to blood or bodily fluids, tars, fuels, oils, resins, paints, acids, or any other hazardous materials.


There are industrial cleaner/degreaser products available for protective clothing that the user may wish to purchase for cleaning. Contact the manufacturer or a local fire equipment distributor for additional information. Some examples of household products that may be utilized for cleaning, spot cleaning, and pre-treating are as follows:
Cleaning –
Spot Cleaning and Pre-Treating

Cleaning – Liquid Purex, liquid Dreft, or Citro Squeeze.
Spot Cleaning and Pre-Treating: Liquid Spray and Wash, liquid Shout, liquid Purex, liquid dishwashing detergent, or Citro Squeeze.


What happens when you use Chlorine Bleach on PPE

Never use chlorine bleach on fire fighter protective clothing. Even small amounts of chlorine will seriously reduce the protective qualities of PPE.


Preparation procedures for washing PPE

Detach outer shells from inner liners and wash each component separately to avoid redepositing soil from one component to another.
Pre-treat heavily soiled garments.


Spot cleaning and pre-treatment PPE

a. Apply liquid detergent directly from the bottle on the soiled areas. Gently rub fabric together. Carefully rinse off with cool water or place garment in washing machine as instructed, add the remaining amount of the recommended detergent. To clean garments that are heavily soiled, use a liquid detergent or pre-cleaner solution prior to laundering


What type of washing machine shall be used for PPE?

Only a front-loading extractor or front-loading washing machine with a tumbling action should be used for cleaning. A top-loading machine will not clean PPE as thoroughly, and the agitator action will damage PPE and reduce the durability and protective value of the garments.


Machine setting washing PPE

Wash water temperature should be between 110-120 degrees Fahrenheit.
ii. Use the normal cycle, cotton/white, or similar setting.
iii. Double rinse. This removes residual dirt and ensures detergent removal. If the machine will not automatically double rinse, a complete second cycle should be run without adding detergent.


Wash Procedures PPE

Wash procedures
a. Load machine with garments to be washed.
b. Add ½ cup (4 oz.) of oxygenated (non-chlorine) bleach and one cup (8 oz.) of liquid detergent to the machine.
c. Start machine.
d. Make sure that garments are double rinsed


Drying procedures PPE

a. Remove garments from washing machine and turn them inside out to expose the inner liner. Dry by hanging in a shaded area that receives good cross ventilation, or hang on a line and use a fan to circulate air.
b. Do not use automatic dryers because the mechanical action and excessive heat may damage or shrink the garments


What is the iodine based disinfectant/sanitizer that is recommended by Scott for Mask/facepiece?

The iodine based disinfectant/sanitizer that is recommended by Scott is Wescodyne Plus (WP). In the concentrate form, it has a shelf life of approximately three (3) years.


The concentrate in the WP bottle MUST BE DILUTED with ------------as shown on the bottle label instructions. The diluted product must be used within -------months.

potable (drinking) tap water
within six (6) months.After dilution, personnel must immediately mark the six (6) month expiration date on the bottle label with a permanent marker


What harmful effects can the diluted form of the disinfectant/sanitizing cleaner Wescodyne Plus cause.

The diluted form of the disinfectant/sanitizing cleaner is not expected to cause chemical burns, but it may cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and mucous
membranes. Personnel should avoid contact with the spray and direct the spray away from themselves and others


What type of cleaner should never be use on the Scott AV-3000 respirator?

NEVER use a quaternary ammonium type of cleaner on ANY part of a the Scott AV-3000 respirator.


Face Piece Cleaning procedures

a. With the regulator or face piece adapter removed, carefully wash the face piece assembly with warm (110° F / 44° C maximum) soap or detergent solution and thoroughly rinse in clean water.
b. Disinfect/sanitize the face piece by spraying three (3) full pumps of the properly diluted disinfectant/sanitizer on the regulator/adapter side of the mask and three (3) full pumps on the face side of the mask, wetting entire mask including all rubber and plastic areas. Allow a ten (10) minute cleaning contact time prior to rinsing.
c. Rinse with drinking water using a spray bottle or running water.
d. Shake excess water off of face piece and then dry with a clean, lint free cloth or gently blow dry with clean, dry breathing air of 30 psig or less pressure. Do not use shop air or any other air containing lubricants or moisture.


Cleaning Mask-Mounted Regulator

a. Remove the breathing regulator from the face piece by pulling back on the locking clip and rotating the regulator 1/4 turn clockwise.
b. Remove any obvious dirt from the external surfaces with warm (110°F / 44° C maximum) soap or detergent solution and thoroughly rinse in clean water.
c. Inspect the inside of the regulator assembly through the regulator
opening. If excessive dirt or soil is present forward the unit to
Department SCBA Repair technician authorized personnel for thorough cleaning.
d. Depress the donning/air saver opening switch and close the purge knob by turning it fully clockwise.
e. To disinfect/sanitize the regulator, spray a minimum of six (6) full pumps of the disinfectant/sanitizer into the regulator opening.
Make sure to also wet the immediate area around the opening. Swirl to completely cover the internal components.
f. Turn the regulator opening face down and shake excess liquid out. Allow for ten (10) minutes of contact cleaning time prior to rinsing.
g. Rinse regulator with drinking water using a spray bottle or gently
running tap water.
h. Shake excess water out of regulator and completely air dry the regulator before use.
i. If the regulator was disconnected from the air supply for cleaning, reconnect it and open the purge valve to remove any moisture from regulator spray bar. Close the purge valve once this action is completed


All PPE belonging to a fire fighter that has sustained injury and/or death in the line of duty shall be immediately

placed in the custody of the Fire Marshal’s Office. PPE will be made available to all approved investigating agencies.


A SCBA will be worn with the face piece in place, using tank air, by any
personnel operating:

1. Inside a structure where a contaminated atmosphere is known to exist.
2. At an outdoor incident that is known to produce toxic smoke and/or gases.
This includes, but is not limited to:
a. Vehicle fires.
b. Dumpster fires.
c. Hazardous materials incidents (including fuel spills and gas leaks).
d. In an oxygen deficient atmosphere.
e. In any area that may be subject to explosion or sudden contamination.
f. On the roof or any floor above a working structure fire.
g. In any atmosphere where monitoring has shown the carbon monoxide
level to exceed 30 parts per million.
h. In any situation where a contaminated or oxygen deficient atmosphere is
suspected (i.e. overhaul, confined space, etc.).


will conduct a thorough investigation of any smoke inhalation or respiratory injury
sustained by firefighters.

The Fire Marshal’s Office


All personnel should be aware of their individual air consumption rate which
ultimately determines the amount of time personnel can expect to safely work in
an IDLH atmosphere. Factors such as temperature and work load should be
considered in determining the rate. The goal in determining the air consumption
rate is for personnel

to exit an IDLH atmosphere without consuming emergency
air (the air available when the low air alarm activates).


Each SCBA that is not assigned to an individual or in-service unit will be inspected



Face piece daily inspection

a. Check the face piece for cracks, gouges, etc. that affect the use.
b. Inspect the head harness for damage and/or worn components.
c. Check the seal. If you have “spider straps” the proper sequence for
tightening the straps are: chin, temple, and top. If you do not have
“spider straps” on your face piece, begin at the chin and work your
way up. Keeping your hand in place, exhale to check the
exhalation valve.


SCBA Cylinder inspection daily


a. Check the latest cylinder hydrostatic test date to ensure it is
b. Visually inspect the cylinder and valve assembly for physical
damage such as dents, gouges in metal or in composite wrapping
(gouges 1/8” deep and 1” long must be taken out of service and
sent to Support Services for inspection).
c. Check the cylinder pressure for “full” (above 4000 psi). If cylinder
pressure is less than 4000 psi, it is considered out of service and
must be replaced with a fully charged cylinder.
d. Ensure the cylinder is firmly locked in position by the cylinder
retention assembly.
e. Ensure that the 1st stage regulator is attached to the cylinder and is
firmly tightened. Do not over tighten the 1st stage regulato


Backpack / harness assembly daily

a. Visually inspect the complete SCBA harness assembly for worn or
aging rubber parts, worn or frayed components and for other
b. Visually inspect all high and low pressure hoses.
c. Ensure that all straps are fully opened.


Daily inspection PASS and Heads-Up-Display (HUD) indicators.

a. Connect the face piece to the second stage regulator. Ensure that
the regulator bypass is closed and that the 2nd stage regulator has
been reset to prevent flow when the cylinder is opened.
b. Slowly open the cylinder valve fully by rotating the knob counterclockwise.
The alarm should activate, then stop. When the cylinder
valve is opened the PASS device should automatically be
activated; activation should be confirmed. The PASS device
distress alarm is now in automatic monitor mode.
c. Once the air cylinder has been fully opened, check the four lights
in your HUD. The fifth light is the low battery indicator. Compare
the psi gauge reading on the cylinder to the analog gauge located
on the right shoulder strap (any deviation of more than 100 psi
between the gauges warrant placing the SCBA out of service).
Compare the reading in your HUD with the analog gauge located
on the right shoulder strap. Remember that the HUD is your
primary indicator of air supply.
c. Check your PASS device. If the battery light on the PASS device
is flashing, it needs to be replaced.
d. Manually activate the PASS device by depressing and holding the
button down for 3-5 seconds.
e. Reset the PASS device by depressing the button twice.
f. Hold the unit motionless for 20 seconds. The lights on the PASS
control console should flash red, approximately one per second,
and be accompanied by an ascending/descending audible tone
which increases in volume. This is the pre-alarm mode.
g. Move the SCBA to reset the PASS to monitor mode.
h. Hold the SCBA motionless, allowing it to go into pre-alarm mode,
then approximately 10 seconds more, allowing it to go into full
alarm mode. You will hear a loud continuous three tone chirp
accompanied by the flashing red lights on the control console.
i. Manually reset the PASS device by pressing the button twice.


Regulator daily inspection


a. Don face piece or hold to the face and obtain a good seal. Inhale
sharply to automatically start the flow of air. Breathe normally
from the face piece and check for normal flow and proper
operation. Remove the face piece from the face; air should flow
freely. Fully depress the center of the 2nd stage regulator and
release. The flow of air should stop.
b. Rotate the red purge valve a half-turn counter clockwise. Air
should flow freely from the regulator. Close the purge valve. The
flow of air should stop.
c. Close the air cylinder fully and rotate the red purge valve a halfturn
counter clockwise. The low air alarm should activate when air
pressure in the first stage regulator approaches 25%.


Cleaning Procedures for SCBA Masks

A. Make a solution of warm water and mild detergent.
B. Immerse mask top first in the solution until exhalation valve is covered.
C. Agitate the mask and gently clean with soft brush.
D. Thoroughly rinse the mask in fresh water, paying particular attention to removal
of all soap residue from the exhalation valve.
E. If possible, direct running water onto exhalation valve.
F. Disinfect the mask in a warm suitable sanitizing solution, such as a “hypochlorite
solution” (two tablespoons of chlorine bleach per one gallon of water), for 2 to 3
minutes. Rinse thoroughly afterwards.
G. Allow mask to drip-dry.
H. Hold mask firmly against face and exhale several times to ensure exhalation valve
works properly.


Following cleaning procedures, SCBA masks should be inspected for the

1. Deep gouges or cracks in the lens.
2. Cracks in the rim assembly around the mask skirt.
3. Cuts or tears in the silicone skirt or head strap.


When a rehabilitation area has been established by the Incident Commander, who will be responsible for the management and
coordination of the rehabilitation area until this duty is reassigned by the Incident
Commander or designee.

the first two available paramedics


Site Characteristics Rehab

1. Large enough to accommodate the number of personnel expected,
including emergency medical services personnel required to provide
medical monitoring.
2. In a location that will provide physical rest by allowing the body to
recuperate from the demands and hazards of the emergency operation or
training evolution.
3. Have a separate area for personnel to remove all personal protective
4. Located far enough away from the incident that members may safely
remove their turnout gear and SCBA and be afforded mental rest from the
stress and pressure of the emergency operation or training evolution.
5. Provide suitable protection from the prevailing environmental conditions.
During hot weather, it should be in a cool, shaded area. During cold
weather, it should be in a warm, dry area.
6. Enable members to be free of exhaust fumes from apparatus, vehicles, or
equipment (including those involved in the Rehabilitation Group
operations), as well as other toxins that may be present at the emergency
7. Located away from hazardous noise, which can have a direct impact on
the blood pressure of rehabilitating members.
8. Easily accessible by EMS/rescue units.
9. Allow prompt re-entry back into the emergency operation upon complete
10. Have access to a water supply (bottled or running) to provide for hydration
and active cooling.
11. Located away from spectators and the media.
12. Removed from visual stimuli that could delay the rehabilitation process.


Site Designation Rehab

1. Fire apparatus, rescue unit, or other emergency vehicles at the scene or
called to the scene.
2. A nearby garage, building lobby, or other structure.
3. A school bus, mass transit bus, or municipal bus.
4. An open area in which a rehabilitation area can be created using tarps,
fans, etc.


The Rehabilitation Officer shall secure all necessary resources required to
adequately staff and supply the Rehabilitation Area.

The supplies should
include the items listed below:
a. Fluids – Water, decaffeinated sports beverages or other oral
electrolyte solutions and ice.
b. Food – Designated meal replacement bars, MREs, etc.
c. Medical – Blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, oxygen
administration devices, cardiac monitors, pulse oximetry monitors,
carbon monoxide monitors, temporal artery/tympanic membrane
thermometers and intravenous solutions.
d. Other – Awnings, fans, tarps, smoke ejectors, heaters, dry clothing,
extra equipment, floodlights, chairs, blankets and towels, traffic
cones and fireline tape (to identify the entrance and exit of the
Rehabilitation Area), soap and water to clean hands and face, and a
water supply for active cooling through forearm immersion.


What beverages should be avoided and why?

Caffeine beverages should be avoided before and during heat stress
because both interfere with the body’s water conservation mechanisms.
Carbonated beverages should also be avoided.


How many minutes of work while wearing an SCBA,requires the firefighter to go to rehab?

Firefighters having worked for one (1) full SCBA bottle, or thirty (30)
minutes of strenuous activity shall be immediately placed in the
rehabilitation area for rest and medical evaluation. This does not preclude
an Officer from having emergency personnel evaluated if he/she deems


Minimum time must spend in rehab

Rest shall not be less than fifteen (15) minutes and may exceed an hour as
determined by the Rehabilitation Officer.


What medications can impair the body’s ability to sweat?

Certain medications can impair the body’s ability to sweat and
extreme caution must be exercised if personnel have taken antihistamines
(Actifed, Benadryl, etc.) or has take diuretics or stimulants.


When the Incident Commander of designee has established a
Rehabilitation Area, firefighters and other emergency responders can use
the following as examples of guidelines for evaluation necessity:


a. One SCBA bottle or thirty (30) minutes of strenuous activity
(shorter times should be considered during extreme weather
conditions or workloads that create the potential for heat stress).
b. SCBA failure while in hot zone.
c. Weakness, dizziness, chest pain, muscle cramps, nausea, altered
mental status, difficulty breathing, etc.
d. Discretion of the Incident Commander, Rehabilitation Officer,
Safety Officer or Company Officer.
e. Any time an emergency responder feels it necessary.


Evaluation guidelines allow for two evaluation cycles of rehabilitating firefighters in the --------minutes if no abnormal findings are present. If abnormal findings are present, or the responder complains of
any symptom (dizziness, nausea, shortness of breath, chest pain/pressure,
etc.) re-examination will occur every------- minutes

first ten (10) minutes


Abnormal finding
examination will involve a minimum of:

a. Behavior.
b. Coordination.
c. Gait.
d. Work of breathing.
e. Breath sounds.
f. Glascow Coma Score.
g. Blood pressure.
h. Heart rate.
i. Respiratory rate.
j. Temporal artery/tympanic membrane temperature.
k. Pulse oximetry.
l. Carboxyhemoglobin determination.
m. Skin condition.
n. Blood glucose level.
o. EKG/12-lead.
p. Orthostatic vital signs.


In hot, humid conditions a minimum of at least --- minutes of active cooling shall be applied following the use of the second and each subsequent SCBA cylinder.

fifteen (15) minutes (twenty is preferable)


If a responder is demonstrating abnormal vital signs, EKG shall be

continuously monitored with blood pressure evaluated every three
to five minutes


If personnel have C/p/SOB, dizziness or nausea, what shall be done?

Personnel experiencing chest pain or pressure, shortness of breath,
dizziness or nausea shall be transported to an appropriate medical
facility for further evaluation and treatment.


Personnel should be encouraged to drink approximately --- ounces of water during the first twenty minutes of

ounces (500cc)


After a total of one hour of work, a total of --- ounces of fluid should have been consumed, recommending what type of fluid(s)?

thirty two ounces (one liter)
recommending sport drink with electrolyte and protein
replacement as the second container of fluids for consumption


The most reasonable and readily applied recommendation to protect personnel from the hazards of both over and under drinking is

drinking to thirst. It is important to recognize that nausea and the
loss of thirst can be early signs of dehydration and heat stress. All
personnel should demonstrate the ability to consume some fluids.
If personnel can not, further medical evaluation is deemed


CO levels rehab

i. Nonsmokers range 0-5%.
ii. Smokers range 5-10%.
iii. Personnel with COhb above 10% shall receive 100%
oxygen via non-rebreather mask.
iv. Personnel with COhb levels higher than 5% shall not be
allowed to leave the Rehabilitation Area.


Sx of high CO

CO-Oximetry to Measure Carboxyhemoglobin Levels.
a. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas present in every fire.
Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning are nonspecific and easy
to miss diagnostically; these include headache, nausea, shortness or
breath, flu-like symptoms, or gastrointestinal symptoms


SPo2 rehab

Pulse Oximetry.
a. Normal SpO2 ranges from 95-100%.
b. Most oximeters are unable to differentiate between oxyhemoglobin
and carboxyhemoglobin.
c. Personnel with SaO2 readings below 94% shall receive
supplemental oxygen.
d. Personnel with oxygen saturation of less than 93% shall not be
permitted to leave the Rehabilitation Area.


Tympanic Membrane Temperature rehab

A. Tympanic membrane infrared thermometry will be taken in both ears
The higher temperature recorded will be used as the initial baseline reading.
B.Tympanic membrane temperature readings may be as much as two (2) degrees lower than the actual core temperature.
C.Oral temperature should not be used as a baseline as the patient will often have increased respirations, thereby lowering the sublingual temperature. Additionally, patients may have had water to drink prior to attempting a reading, again giving an inaccurately lower reading than the actual core temperature.
D.Personnel taking the tympanic membrane temperature shall demonstrate correct technique when inserting the tympanic membrane probe into the external ear canal (proper angle of retraction of the pinna) to ensure the most accurate reading result.
E.Initial tympanic membrane temperature readings at or above 103 degrees Fahrenheit shall receive immediate active cooling via forearm immersion.
F.Patients with tympanic membrane temperatures at or above 100 degrees Fahrenheit shall not be permitted to leave the Rehabilitation Area until temperature reading returns to normal (less than 100 degrees Fahrenheit).
G.Patients with temperature readings above 100 degrees Fahrenheit shall receive active cooling via forearm immersion.
H.Given the potential of tympanic membrane devices underestimating the core body temperature, it is essential that a measured temperature in the normal range not be used to exclude the possibility of heat related medical problems.


Heart Rate rehab

A. Initial heart rate measurements above the 70% maximum target heart rate ((220-age) x .07) should initiate oxygen therapy via non- rebreather mask.
B. An initial heart rate at or above 100% of maximum heart rate should initiate oxygen therapy via non-rebreather mask and active cooling measures via forearm immersion. Personnel with these high heart rates should seek medical attention from a physician regardless of how quickly the pulse rate returns to the normal range.
C.If after five (5) minutes of rest and oxygen the heart rate does not decrease to below 90% of the target heart rate, the responder will be relieved of duty for the remainder of the shift and advised to seek immediate medical attention.
D.Personnel who have not achieved a heart rate of less than 100 beats per minute by the end of twenty (20) minutes of rehabilitation shall not be released from the Rehabilitation Area and should continue o be monitored and, if warranted, transported for further medical evaluation. E.Part of additional monitoring for abnormal findings shall include 12 lead EKG, orthostatic pulse and blood pressure readings.
F. Initial heart rates that are below 60 beats per minute in the responder who has been under extended physical stress and exertion should warrant further investigation. Beta blockers, antihistamines and other medications, as well as certain types of heart disease may inhibit the body from protectively increasing the heart rate and protect the body from the stressor demand. These individuals (except in the most extremely well conditioned individual) should have further medical evaluation including 12 lead EKG and orthostatic vital signs. These individuals shall be sent for further medical evaluation.
G.Personnel that have heart rates above the 70% target heart rate after five (5) minutes of rest and cooling shall have a 12 lead EKG performed. Any abnormalities will be reported to the unit Officer and the responder will be transported to the closest appropriate medical facility.


Blood Pressure parameters rehab

A.Blood pressure is a critical indicator used to assess health status and stress.
B.Blood pressure should increase as the level of physical exertion/stress increases.
C.Blood pressure readings that are too low, too high, or fail to return to normal levels while in rehabilitation can indicate a serious medical problem.
D.A responder whose blood pressure is greater than 160 systolic and/or 100 diastolic shall not be released from the Rehabilitation Area.
E.The Rehabilitation Officer will make the determination as to whether the individual remains in the Rehabilitation Area or is transported to the closest appropriate medical facility.
G.Individuals with low systolic readings (hypotension) during rehabilitation should be highly suspect for heat stress. 12 lead EKG readings as well as orthostatic vital signs should be performed on these individuals to determine hypovolemia and indicate the need for more aggressive fluid intake (oral) and/or intravenous fluid challenge treatment.


Respiratory Rate rehab

A.Normal respiratory rate is 12-20 per minute.
B.By the end of rehabilitation, personnel should display a respiratory rate within these parameters.
C.Personnel with abnormal respiratory rates will not be allowed to return to duty and will be advised to seek further medical evaluation. c.


Active Cooling procedures

A.Active cooling is often necessary to return a responder’s core temperature to with safe, normal range and minimize the chance of experiencing heat stress of other heat related emergencies.
B.Misting fans – May not provide adequate cooling in a humid environment (less effective). Personnel wet by mists may become more susceptible to steam burns if they are sent back into an active fire environment with wet clothes.
C. Forearm and hand immersion in cool water is more effective in hot, humid environments to reduce core body temperature. The vascularity of blood vessels close to the skin of the arms and hands acts as an excellent means of heat transfer.
D.Individuals entering the Rehabilitation Area shall be afforded relief from climatic or extreme conditions through forearm immersion in cool water.


Adequate replenishments practices

A.Replenishment encompasses fluid replacement and rehydration, calorie, electrolyte and protein replacement.
B.Dehydration impairs the body’s ability to maintain core temperature, decreases strength, and shortens endurance time, decreases blood volume which in turn increases cardiovascular strain.
C.Twenty (20) minutes of strenuous fire fighting activity can result in a 15% reduction in plasma volume and 40% reduction in cardiac stroke volume.
D.Sweating can easily exceed two liters (64 ounces) per hour in hot, humid conditions and continues even after work has stopped and the individual enters the Rehabilitation Area.
E.Personnel entering the Rehabilitation Area shall, at a minimum, consume at least 32 ounces of fluid during rehabilitation and be encouraged to rehydrate after the incident is over and/or returning to personal life.
F.Sports drinks that contain protein which will encourage glucose uptake by the muscles shall be provided. This will also mitigate disruption of the immune system.


Controls that affect heat stress

The key to managing heat stress is to be familiar with the controls used to prevent it and to minimize its effect. Controls for heat stress include the following: a. Fluid intake (hydration). b. Work rotation. c. Active cooling. d. Rest.


Heat rash:
Signs and symptoms

a. Cause – Hot, humid environment, plugged sweat glands.
b. Signs and symptoms – Red, bumpy rash with severe itching.
c. Treatment – Changing into dry clothes and avoiding hot environments. Rinse skin with cool water.
d. Prevention – Wash regularly to keep skin clean and dry.


Signs and symptoms

A.Cause – Too much exposure to the sun.
B.Signs and symptoms – Red, painful, or blistering and peeling skin. C.Treatment – If the skin blisters, seek medical aid. Use skin locations (avoid topical anesthetics) and work in the shade.
D.Prevention – Work in the shade. Cover skin with clothing, apply skin lotions with a sun protection factor of at least 15.


Heat cramps
Signs and symptoms

A.Cause – Heavy sweating drains a person’s body of salt, which cannot be replaced just by drinking water.
B.Signs and symptoms – Painful cramps in arms, legs, or stomach that occur suddenly at work or later at home. Heat cramps are serious because they can be a warning of other more dangerous heat-induced illnesses.
C.Treatment – Move to a cool area. Loosen clothing and drink cool water or commercial fluid replacement beverage. If the cramps are severe or do not go away, seek medical attention.
D.Prevention – Reduce activity levels and/or heat exposure. Drink fluids regularly. Workers should check on each other to help spot the symptoms that often precede heat stroke.


Heat exhaustion
Signs and symptoms

A.Cause – Fluid loss and inadequate salt intake causes a person’s body’s cooling system to start to break down.
B.Signs and symptoms – Heavy sweating, cool moist skin, elevated body temperature over 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit, weak pulse, normal or low blood pressure, person is tired and weak or faint, has nausea and vomiting, is very thirsty, or is panting or breathing rapidly. Vision can also be blurred.
C.Treatment – Seek medical attention immediately. This condition can lead to heat stroke, which can be fatal. Move the person to a cool, shaded area, loosen or remove excess clothing, provide cool water to drink. Use active cooling to lower core body temperature.
D.Prevention – Reduce activity levels and/or heat exposure. Drink fluids regularly. Workers should check on each other to help spot the symptoms that often precede heat stroke.


Heat Stroke
Signs and symptoms

A.Cause – If a person’s body has used up all its available water and salt reserves, it will stop sweating. This can cause body temperature to rise. Heat stroke can develop suddenly or can follow from heat exhaustion. B.Signs and symptoms – Body temperature over 105.9 degrees pulse; headache or dizziness. In later stages, a person can pass out and have convulsions.
C.Treatment – Immediate transport to a medical facility. If transport is delayed, immediately immerse body in cold water.
D. Prevention – Reduce activity levels and/or heat exposure. Drink fluids regularly. Workers should check on each other to help spot the symptoms that often precede heat stroke.Fahrenheit and any one of the following: the person is weak, confused, upset or acting strangely; has hot, dry, red skin; a fast b.


Required documentation rehab

A. An EMS run report (patient care report), worker’s compensation first report of injury/illness and a supervisor’s injury report shall be completed on each fire fighter or other emergency responder when he/she is not routinely returned to normal duties.
B.All rehabilitation evaluations shall be recorded on the prescribed forms along with the responder’s name and complaints and must be signed, timed, and dated by the Rehabilitation Officer or designee.
C. All rehabilitation evaluation forms will be submitted to the Incident Commander at the conclusion of the incident and retained as part of the official documentation of the incident.


SAR operations, which can be extremely hazardous, require personnel to have a combination of knowledge, skills, and equipment in order to be effective. Although they are always one of the first priorities at a fire scene, they should not be conducted until personnel complete an adequate search and rescue size-up. At minimum, this size-up shall include:

(1) a risk-benefit analysis; (2) occupancy/building information; and (3) scene observations.


Risk Benefit Analysis Components of size up

a. Identify any uncertainties that could cause failure of the operation.
b. Analyze which fire ground risks will impact the operation.
c. Prioritize these risks so they can be neutralized and/or mitigated prior to them having any major impact.


Occupancy/Building Information size up

a. Time of day/day of week. b. Known and/or suspected victim location. c. Number of occupants.


Scene Observations size up

a. Presence or absence of cars in the garage or driveway - indicates probability of occupants being present within the structure.
b. Front and rear door locations - represents primary access/egress points through which search crews can operate. Also represents a secondary means of egress in case the primary access point becomes blocked or un-passable.
c. Bedroom window location - indicates areas where victims are typically found. Since most windows that are not immediately adjacent to the front door are bedrooms, identifying these areas helps determine the search team’s initial search pattern (e.g. left or right hand pattern). d. Presence of window/door security bars - represents forcible entry challenges and potential blockage of secondary escape routes.
e. Roof vent location - indicates the probable location of bathrooms, utility rooms and kitchens in older construction (bedrooms are typically located adjacent to or across from bathroom areas). Roof vents in modern construction do not necessarily identify specific room locations since contractors now run vent pipes from several different locations into one or more central vent stacks.
f. Window size/shape - indicates probable room type.
g. Fire location - indicates areas of immediate danger. It, along with construction type, indicates where fire will spread and whether or not search areas will become blocked by fire extension.
h. Smoke conditions - indicates severity of fire, possible location of fire and room/area conditions (whether or not the area is tenable for trapped occupants).


Search duties are typically carried out simultaneously with fire attack operations. These operations, which may be accomplished with or without hose line protection, are designed to:

a. Locate and remove all trapped occupants. b. Ventilate where needed. c. Temporarily prevent fire extension by closing doors and windows. d. Check for interior/exterior fire extension. e. Help locate the seat of the fire.


Three types of searches are conducted within involved structures:

primary,secondary and final


are a quick attempt to locate potential victims during fire
attack operations. They should be concentrated in those areas where potential
victims will most likely be found and be as thorough as possible. Typical
areas that potential victims will likely be found include: bedrooms, beds,
cribs, chairs, sofas, bathrooms, hallways and closets

Primary searches


are conducted after the fire has been brought under
control and are more thorough and time consuming because of the
thoroughness of the job (e.g. every area of the building must be completely

Secondary searches


are a complete and systematic search of the entire structure and
all areas that surround the structure where victims could be found. This type
of search is conducted after the fire has been extinguished.

Final searches


Primary search teams have seven (7) specific responsibilities:

1. Determine probable victim location by properly “reading” the building.
2. Carry the proper tools for the operation (i.e. portable radio, forcible entry
tools, 6’ hook, water extinguisher, Thermal Imaging Camera, hand lights,
search rope, webbing, and door chocks).
3. Locate and remove trapped victims (look, listen and feel).
4. Confine fire and prevent fire extension by closing all doors; advise location of
fire and call for charged line as needed.
5. Search all priority areas checking for victims around doors, inside closets and
bathrooms, and under and/or behind furniture.
6. Ventilate each room (vent for life v. vent for fire).
7. Indicate/mark all searched rooms.


A primary search is a rapid search that gives those trapped within fire involved
structures their best chance at survival. As a result, it should be

coordinated with advancing fire attack crews and completed as soon as possible


Prior to entry, search personnel should gather as much information as possible

escaping occupants and/or witnesses so that the amount of victims and their
probable locations can be identified


Safety tips search and rescue

During these operations, personnel should stay low and remain in contact with a
wall in order to keep from getting lost. If necessary, they should use their tools or
webbing to extend their search patterns into areas that cannot be covered by the
typical wall-based search and utilize search ropes to search all irregularly shaped
or large, open living/office areas in order to prevent firefighter disorientation.


What was the order of searched areas in the structure

Searches should be patterned in a deliberate, logical fashion. In general, those
areas that are most severely threatened are searched first followed by areas where
the largest numbers of potential victims may be located, the fire area, and any/all
remaining exposed building areas.


Search team personnel should know what their primary and secondary
access/egress points are and have the proper tools and equipment with them at all
times. Generally, primary search teams are equipped with the following equipment:

1. One (1) portable radio per person - allows personnel to monitor fire attack
progress and inform the IC of their location.
2. One (1) 6’ hook (pike pole) - allows personnel to: (1) check for overhead
extension; (2) extend search reach; and (3) identify the means of egress should
interior conditions start to deteriorate.
3. One (1) set of irons (axe and Halligan tool) - allows personnel to conduct
forcible entry operations and helps extend search reach.
4. One (1) water extinguisher - helps extinguish/control fire. Fire studies indicate
that a 2 ½ gallon water extinguisher will produce 4,250 gallons of steam at 212°F
(NOTE: The average residential bedroom is 1,200 cubic feet).
5. One (1) Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) - assists in determining victim, fire and
search team member location.


How and why are previously searched rooms marked?

Areas or rooms already searched should be conspicuously marked so that
redundancy while conducting the initial search can be avoided. Marking doors or
walls with chalk can be an effective means of marking searched areas or rooms.
Room doors should be closed and marked after the area is searched to help
prevent fire extension


What is the name of the search methods used for primary searches?

Oriented Person Search Method (OPS) and Vent Enter Search


Describe OPS search method

A.This method, which emphasizes team search
methods and good communication, allows engine company personnel to advance
and attack a fire while other crews simultaneously search adjacent bedrooms and
living areas.
B. During an OPS, search teams use a sweep search pattern to extend their search off
of a wall or hallway so that interior spaces can be quickly checked for possible
victims. This pattern involves the search team leader remaining oriented to one
place in the structure (e.g. hallway, doorway, hoseline, search rope) while other
team members utilize traditional wall search patterns within their assigned search
C. The search team leader is responsible for guiding his/her crew back to the central
orientation point before moving to the next search area, uses specific reference
points (i.e. placing a light in the search area doorway, pounding on the floor/wall,
or giving verbal instructions) to maintain crew integrity throughout the operation


OPS search uses how many firefighters, and is ideal for what type of structures?

OPS, which typically utilizes three (3) firefighters, is ideal for single family
dwellings where multiple rooms are located off a central corridor or hallway


Describe VES operations.

A.Another type of primary search is called VES operations. This type of search
involves firefighters creating openings from an exterior position to carry out a
primary search in a high-risk area of the structure. Typically performed without
hoseline protection, these operations consist of performing horizontal ventilation
at an appropriate location in order to increase victim survivability and hoseline
advancement through the structure.
B. Once a VES team determines their entry point, they should vent the opening and
check room integrity before making entry. Once inside, they should: (1) control
the room opening; (2) be cognizant of their interior surroundings; (3) perform a
rapid search of the area; and (4) watch for fire spread (NOTE: Another firefighter
should be present at the entry window in order guide and assist the search team
member and/or victim out of the egress point).
C. Search and rescue teams shall report when the primary search is complete, and the
time noted by dispatch. Communications with interior search and rescue teams is
a critical safety component, therefore Command should ensure that radio contact
is maintained and monitored.


Salvage operations are the methods and operating procedures that aid in reducing
both the amount of ----- and ------ damage that occurs during fire fighting

Primary and secondary


are the identification and extinguishment of any/all hidden of
remaining fire.



Personnel should realize that both (Salvage and Overhaul)of these operations are an important part of
firefighting because they help:

(1) protect the contents of the building; (2) protect
the building itself from structural damage; and (3) save the building’s occupants
from unnecessary hardship.


The IC may designate a sector Officer who will be responsible for the
coordination of salvage and overhaul operations. The radio designation for this
sector shall be



Guidelines Salvage Ops

A. Salvage operations generally start at the same time of the fire attack and are
usually dependent upon the construction features of the building and the amount
of available resources (e.g. personnel, equipment) that are present.
B. Personnel should try to determine what type of property and high-value contents
are present within the structure and realize that the cost of losing documents
and/or equipment within commercial occupancies can result in the loss of
hundreds of thousands of dollars.
C. Salvage operations should consider protecting the contents against damage by
containing and removing smoke, heated gases and water as soon as possible.
Typical salvage operations include:
1. Ventilating the area.
2. Covering contents with tarps.
3. Controlling water flow via the use of water chutes, catchalls, and
absorbent material.
4. Removing water from the building via floor and wall drains, large floor
openings, or portable pump


Personnel should ensure that one or more of the following pieces of equipment
are available during salvage and overhaul operations:


1. Waterproof canvas or vinyl (cover valuables).
2. Suitable plastic rolls (cover valuables).
3. Brooms and Squeegees (move water or debris).
4. Shovels (move debris).
5. PPV Fan (move smoke).
6. Wooden blocks or cribbing (elevate furniture).
7. Pliers (cut or pull wire).
8. Sledgehammer, Denver Tool or Axes (open walls and floors).
9. Pike poles and NY hooks (open ceilings to check on fire
10. Saws, drills, screw drivers (make small openings and build
11. Buckets (carry debris).
12. Bale hooks or pitchforks (move loose material).
13. Duct Tape (seal openings).


The following actions should be considered while conducting any/all salvage and
overhaul operations:

1. Conduct a collapse danger survey and rope off all identified danger
areas (i.e., damaged utilities, structural defects, and unstable objects).
2. Set up portable fans to remove toxic smoke and gas.
3. Set up portable lights and power supply.
4. Survey walls and ceiling with Thermal Imaging Camera (TIC) for
hidden fire.
5. Shut off utilities of gas and electricity.
6. Determine the fitness of firefighters that are selected to perform these
operations. If possible, use fresh personnel for overhauling duties.
Rest and rotate personnel as needed.
7. Assign firefighters specific areas large enough to provide safe work
areas. Supervise and coordinate over-hauling in close quarters where two
or more firefighters must work together.
8. Group the largest and heaviest pieces of furniture together as a base for
other lighter furniture and fabric coverings (i.e., rugs, blankets, pillows,
etc…) prior to covering with tarps. Do not build this pile close to
anything that would impede proper coverage.
9. Check the tops of bureaus, dressers and tables for valuables and place
them in drawers for safekeeping. Inform company officer or IC of
item and location.
10. Conduct “Top Down” overhaul operations. Always wear SCBA face
pieces and eye shields when pulling ceilings and check all routes of
potential fire spread.
11. Guard, protect and preserve all evidence where it is found. Rope off
area(s) and remain on scene for a Fire Marshal Office (FMO)
representative. For further guidance, consult the appropriate FMO
12. Notify incident commander if any smoldering rubble that must be
removed from the building. Control flare-ups and rekindles with hose


If doors or windows have been burned, personnel should have exposed the
door frames or casings and check all concealed spaces above the fire floor
(e.g. ceilings, floors, and within the walls) in order to assure that there is
no remaining or concealed fire is present. They should also look for:

a. Weakened floors.
b. Spalled concrete (from heat).
c. Weak steel roof members.
d. Walls that have been offset.
e. Weakened roof trusses.
f. Sharp objects.
g. Dangling wires/debris.
h. Non-firefighting personnel moving debris out or about the fire


Personnel should also note any signs of fire when conducting overhaul. This can be accomplished
through what findings

Personnel should also note any signs of fire. This can be accomplished
through sight (discoloration of materials, peeling paint, smoke
emissions, cracked plaster, rippled wallpaper, burned areas, and melted
plastic), feel, sound (popping or crackling, high-pitched or hissing) and/or
with the aid of different sensors (i.e., TIC and infrared heat detector


TICs are considered to an extremely valuable asset because of their ability to help
suppression personnel with the following activities:

1. Fire attack
2. Search and Rescue
3. Ventilation
4. Overhaul


Fire Attack. Thermal imagers allow fire attack crews to work in buildings
with poor visibility. Images captured on the screen allows firefighters to

: (1)
locate the seat of the fire and execute a faster, more efficient interior attack;
(2) determine the path of fire spread; (3) identify potential flashover
situations; (4) locate hot spots; and (5) locate and isolate hidden fires within
concealed spaces


Search and Rescue Thermal imagers

Thermal imagers allow firefighters to see through smoke,
and quickly navigate to trapped occupants and/or firefighters who have
become lost or disoriented within a structure. They also enable Rapid
Intervention Teams (RIT) to quickly and efficiently locate downed
firefighters within a building. Other uses include locating holes within the
floor assembly or obstacles in the structure and determining the location of
any/all entry and exit points within a structure.


Using the thermal imagers for Ventilation

Ventilation. Thermal imagers can be used to identify areas of heat
accumulation, possible ventilation points and significant building
construction features. They also help identify if proper and effective
ventilation has been achieved


Using the thermal imager for overhaul

Overhaul. Thermal imagers allow firefighters to find hidden fires or
smoldering materials that could cause fire spread or re-ignition. When used
for overhaul, they allow firefighters to methodically scan each room for hot
spots thereby minimizing the risk of a rekindle and property damage


Personnel should not be totally dependent upon thermal imagers as their sole
means of personal navigation since they are mechanical devices that can fail
because of low battery life and high temperature extremes. As a result, they must
continually employ standard fire fighting practices while operating within
involved structures by:

(1) carrying flashlights (personal light and hand light) with
them; (2) maintaining contact with a wall/hose line and using other routine
methods for remaining oriented to their location; and (3) knowing the position of
every potential exit within their operational area.


Why is walking while using the thermal imager discouraged?

Thermal imagers only allow a two dimensional view within a smoke filled
environment, and thus limit the amount of depth perception that is possible. As a
result, personnel should remain low to the ground and scan the entire area before
entering a floor (NOTE: Walking with the TIC is discouraged since trip hazards
may be overlooked


Thermal imager limitation regarding walls

Since thermal energy does not travel directly through walls, TICs will only be
able to locate fires located behind walls when the fire causes the temperature of
the wall itself to increase. Personnel should realize that fire inside wooden clad
walls will be picked up much faster than fire that is located with more significant
barriers (e.g. concrete and steel).


Thermal imager limitation Metal doors, glass mirrors or Plexiglas panels

Metal doors, glass mirrors or Plexiglas panels can produce false images on the
monitor. Personnel should physically confirm what they are seeing before
initiating/directing further operations.


The TIC can be used for determining:

1. Fire and/or victim location within a structure.
2. Proper entry points for fire attack.
3. Proper ventilation locations (based on the location and amount of fire).
4. Hazardous materials spills.
5. Fluid levels in tanks.
6. Heat producing chemical reactions.
7. Lost or missing persons in wilderness search operations


TICs shall be utilized in all situations where their use will enhance fire fighter


1. The TIC shall be used for all primary and secondary search and rescue
(SAR) operations. Personnel should stay low and avoid any/all trip
hazards during use (Remember: The TIC has a limited field of view).
2. The TIC shall be used during all fire suppression operations for evaluating
interior conditions since it helps identify high heat conditions/areas that
indicate potential flashover conditions.
3. The TIC shall be used during all Rapid Intervention Team (RIT)
operations since it enables RIT personnel to rapidly locate and reach a
downed or trapped firefighter.
4. The TIC shall be used during all overhaul operations since it easily
identifies fire extension and hot spots within concealed spaces


Step 1 scanning with TIC

Scene ceiling/overhead for the presence of fire and collapse potential


Step 2 scanning with TIC

Scan floor for victims, holes, or obstructions


Step 3 scanning with TIC

Scan left for Search/attack team members


Step 4 scanning with TIC

Scan right for Search/Attack team members


Care maintenance TIC

Inspect the TIC during daily equipment checks and after each use. Some areas that should be inspected include:
1. Outer housing – for structural, heat or chemical damage.
2. Mechanical hardware – ensure all parts are tight and secure.
3. Lenses – for heat damage, chemical damage, cracks and breaks.
4. Warning labels – ensure they are still intact.


Inspect the TIC Batteries

1. Check battery casing for damage or leakage.
2. Check battery contacts for damage or corrosion.


Cleaning TIC

1. Clean outside of camera with mild soap and water. Wipe lens with a soft cloth.
2.Clean display with a soft cloth.
3.Never use solvents or paint thinners to clean the TIC as they could permanently damage the surface or degrade the protective properties of the casing.


Special consideration TIC

1. Do not attempt to disassemble the sealed case of the TIC.
2. If the TIC is not functioning properly, submit a repair request to Support Services.
3. When not in use, store the TIC in its case or charging mount.
4.Make sure the camera is dry before returning it to the charger. 5.Checked the battery to make sure that it is adequately charged (NOTE: Company officer shall ensure that the TIC is properly charged and maintained.


Engine response considerations

A. All responses to fires and emergencies should begin with proper receipt of the alarm. All responding firefighters should be informed as to the type of alarm the unit is responding to and the location or address. 2.BSODFRES and the public expect an emergency response that is safe and accident free. Apparatus accidents cause injuries to firefighters and civilians and damage to the apparatus. Units unable to proceed to the alarm location are unable to render the assistance for which they were initially summoned. For these reasons a safe and reasonable response is necessary.
3.Engine companies returning from previous alarms or available on the air must consider the potential hazards caused by responding from locations outside of quarters. Other companies responding to the same incident may not expect to encounter this unit, which will be responding using other than its normal response route. This situation can cause surprise meetings at intersections and result in units arriving out of normal response sequence. It should be noted that the above situations can also occur when relocated companies respond from quarters (as always, units should be guided by their response assignments, i.e. 1 st due, 2 nd due, etc.). When two engine companies arrive at approximately the same time, but out of response sequence, they shall be guided by the zone engine company and operate in accordance with that company’s direction For this reason, the second due engine company shall make no extraordinary effort to arrive first due, unless it is obvious the first due engine company will be seriously delayed.
4.Engine company members responding to an alarm should monitor the mobile/portable radio and MDT screen. This will provide the officer and firefighters with vital information about conditions at the scene and any problems encountered by earlier arriving units including water supply problems, trapped occupants, difficulties in locating the fire, heavy smoke conditions, or the need for special equipment.


3 types of engine company responses

Engine response only
First alarm response
Multiple alarm response


Describe Engine only response type

Since this is a single unit response, action to control situations in addition to engine work may be required, such as forcible entry, victim removal and search.


Describe Engine company First alarm response type

Knowing if the unit is first or second due prepares the company for certain procedures that may be employed upon arrival. If first due, the engine company can expect to initiate strategy and tactics according to the conditions found and to transmit the appropriate preliminary radio reports. If arriving second due, the engine company must ascertain if the first due engine company has arrived and if not, assume their duties. If the first due engine company has arrived, the second due engine company will stage at the nearest forward lay hydrant position. Supply line deployment will depend upon the first due engine company’s request for water supply. If the incident involves a “working fire” or presents with obvious fire conditions, the second due engine company will connect to an appropriate hydrant and lay a supply line.


Describe multiple alarm response engine

Multiple alarm response – When responding to multiple alarms, engine companies should anticipate long hose stretches, the need to supply large caliber streams, and to provide relief for first alarm engine companies.


The officer will decide where to position the apparatus once the fire location has been determined. This decision must be based on several factors, such as overall objectives,

water source, type of fire, how close to the fire building the apparatus will be, the type of stretch to be made, and if the apparatus will block out or be blocked out by other incoming units.


Response sequence Engine vs ladder

1.As per Department regulations, engine companies shall precede ladder companies with both units are responding together on the same alarm. This response sequence allows for several apparatus positioning options and does not hinder ladder company positioning.
2.In order to facilitate an efficient and coordinated operation, the officer of the first engine company should strive to enter the block ahead of the first ladder company from the same direction. This is particularly important where street width or parked cars would prevent the engine company from passing the ladder apparatus to reach the desired hydrant. This order of arrival allows the engine company to forward lay a supply line if needed. After sufficient hose is removed, the engine company Driver/Engineer can proceed forward. This approach gives the firefighters of the unit a view of up to three sides of the fire building prior to stretching a line. The engine company Driver/Engineer will be afforded a good view of the street conditions and any approaching apparatus. This enables the engine company Driver/Engineer to contact via radio any company approaching from the opposite direction which might prevent the engine company from reaching the desired hydrant.


The general plan or course of action decided upon by the Incident Commander in order to achieve fire fighting objectives.



The operations or actions required to carry out the strategy selected by the Incident Commander.



Selection and implementation of any strategic plan and its supporting tactics is dependent upon an accurate and ongoing

size up of the fire situation


Size up starts with the

receipt of the alarm and continues until the fire is under control.


Time of day considerations size up

Sleeping occupants at night. Rush hour traffic delays in response. Limited visibility at night.


An accurate and complete size up must include consideration of the following strategic factors. They are:

a. Time of day. i. ii. Sleeping occupants at night. Rush hour traffic delays in response. iii. Limited visibility at night.
b. Life. i. ii. Residential versus commercial building. Occupied versus vacant. iii. Transient versus permanent residents. iv. Ambulatory versus non-ambulatory occupants.
c. Area. i. ii. Large volume of fire. Long hose stretches.
d. Height. i. Standpipe stretches. ii. Long stretches.
E.Construction. i. Frame buildings. ii. Concrete block construction. iii. Light weight trusses.
F. Occupancy. i. Public assembly. ii. Health care facilities. iii. Hazardous materials. iv. Fuel loading.
G. Location and extent of fire. i. Front of structure. ii. Cockloft. iii. Rear of structure.
H.Water supply. i. Hydrant spacing. ii. Hydrant serviceability.
I.Street conditions. i. Construction. ii. Overhead wires.
J.Auxiliary appliances. i. Standpipe systems. ii. Sprinkler systems. K.Weather. i. Wind direction and velocity. ii. Heat stress.
L.Apparatus and equipment. i. Large caliber streams. ii. Large diameter hose. iii. Foam equipment.
M.Exposures. i. Five sides of the fire.


Consideration for protection of life

1. The protection of life is the primary consideration at any fire ground operation. Engine companies are often confronted with life saving operations upon arrival. Life saving operations are placed ahead of fire fighting when sufficient firefighters are not available to do both, as is the case when no ladder company is on the scene. Judgment is a key factor when confronted with this situation. The best life saving measure may be a prompt attack on the fire which, if allowed to spread, would trap occupants. A life hazard, visible upon arrival, must be addressed. Immediate rescue attempts by the first arriving engine company without simultaneously stretching and positioning a hose line should only be attempted in extreme situations.


Factors impacting on the decision to attempt an immediate rescue include:

Occupants endangered by being in the immediate vicinity of the fire. Number of persons trapped. Occupants threatening to jump. Means of egress cutoff by fire. Ability to reach occupants with portable ladders. Anticipated arrival time of the first due ladder company.


Actions that the officer of the first arriving engine company can implement to protect endangered occupants include:

a. Position a hose line between the fire and the endangered occupants.
B.Ventilate to draw fire, heat and smoke away from the endangered occupants.
C.Give verbal instructions and assurances to the occupants.
D.Close doors to limit the spread of smoke.
E.Ensure that incoming units are informed of the location of endangered occupants.


Considerations for locating the fire

Before any fire attack can be initiated, the exact location of the fire must be determined. This is the first stage of the fire suppression effort. a. Refer to dispatch information for reported particulars (i.e. floor number, apartment number, etc.). b.Upon arrival, an exterior survey of the building should be conducted for visible flames, smoke, smoke blackened windows, occupants in distress, and doors/windows being utilized by fleeing occupants. c. Solicit information from occupants exiting via the interior stairs. d. Listen to radio traffic from ladder company personnel.


Often the odor given off by burning materials, even if there is no visible smoke, may indicate what is burning and perhaps indicate where the fire might be located:

a. Wood and paint odor – apartment.
B Food on the stove – apartment.
C. Rubbish odor – public hallway/stairway, compactor room, shafts. D.Electrical odor – overhead lights in hallways.


If a particular apartment is suspected to be the fire location, but the door is locked and there are no visible indications of a fire, try

jostling the door. Smoke might puff out around the door casing.


Confining/ controlling the fire

Confining/Controlling the Fire 1. Confining and controlling a fire is the second stage of the fire suppression effort and includes those actions taken to prevent the fire from extending beyond the area already involved. This is generally the immediate concern, and fulfills the role of placing a hose line between the fire and the majority of the building occupants.
2.Confinement of the fire must take into consideration the intensity of the fire as well as the known or anticipated direction of fire spread. Be aware that the fire may be extending via pipe recesses, voids, concealed spaces, etc.
3.Depending on the type of building and the fire location, the first line stretched and operated may be committed to confining the fire extension while a subsequent hose line is utilized to extinguish the main body of fire.
4.In some situations the closing of a door or window may play a vital role in confining the fire while hose lines are being stretched to the location. 2. 3. 4.


Extinguishing the fire

1.Extinguishment is the third stage in the fire suppression effort. Initial extinguishment includes “knock down” of visible flames and readily apparent burning and smoldering material debris.
2 Final extinguishment means that any fire uncovered by “opening up” and overhauling procedures has been extinguished.


Growth Stage (Incipient) a. During the growth stage a fire increases in size from small flames to full fire that involves the entire room. It may take several seconds to several hours for this to occur. Fire growth is dependent upon:

i. ii. Combustible content (fire load). Oxygen supply (ventilation openings). iii. Size of room. iv. Insulation of room.


Process of fire development incipient stage

During the growth stage, flammable gases released by the burning material collect at the ceiling level and mix with oxygen. The heated gases are pushed under pressure from the fire area into uninvolved areas. When this mixture ignites flashes of flame can be seen in this layer of smoke. This condition is known as rollover. Rollover should serve as a warning that the fire area may flashover. As the fire progresses through the growth stage and into the fully developed state the potential for flashover exists. Flashover is defined as the sudden involvement of a room or area in flames from floor to ceiling caused by thermal radiation feedback. Radiation feedback from the ceiling and walls heats the smoke and gases given off by the burning materials and the combustible contents of the room. When the contents have been heated to their ignition temperature, sudden and simultaneous ignition of the area can occur.


Fire development fully developed stage

a. In the fully developed stage the entire room and contents are involved in fire. If no efforts were made to extinguish the fire, the fire would continue to burn until the available fuel and/or oxygen in the room or area was consumed. Because of limited ventilation, most structure fires are air regulated, not fuel regulated. This means that fires will move into the decay stage due to insufficient oxygen. Outside fires are fuel regulated. How long and to what extent an outside fire burn is controlled by the amount of fuel available, not oxygen.


Describe the decay stage

Decay Stage (Smoldering) a. As available oxygen is consumed, the fire moves into the decay stage. Although some oxygen remains in the fire area, visible flames have started to diminish, and the fire continues to smolder. High heat and smoke conditions remain and the potential for a backdraft is present. A backdraft is a smoke explosion which can occur when additional oxygen is introduced into a smoldering fire and the heated gases enter their flammable range and ignite with explosive force. Firefighters must realize that a backdraft produces violent shock waves which can shatter windows, blow down firefighters and collapse walls.
B.Warning signs of a possible backdraft include: i. Heavy dense smoke with no visible flame in a tightly closed occupancy. Black smoke pushing out around closed doors or window frames. b. ii. iii. Glass stained with smoke condensation and pulsating from the pressure of the fire. iv. Reversal of air movement pulling smoke back into a building through a doorway.


Engine company officer influence

The engine company officer will have more influence on the outcome of a fire operation than any other member on the scene. The attitude this officer displays will become a model for the unit’s firefighters to follow. The manner in which orders are given and assignments made sets the tone for the entire Engine Company operation at a fire or emergency. Officers who are serious about training and expect a high level of professionalism from the members of their Company will see it reflected in their unit’s performance at drills, fires, and emergencies.


After the engine company officer has determined that a hose line is needed, the location, route, and number of lengths required in the stretch should be relayed to the company’s members. Properly trained firefighters should be able to perform the following tactics without the officer’s personal supervision:

a. Hose estimate and removal from the apparatus.
B.Positioning the apparatus at a serviceable hydrant.
C.Connection of the apparatus to the hydrant.
D.Stretching a hose line.
E.Supplying booster water if ordered.
F. Operation of apparatus mounted large caliber stream devices (master streams).
G.Supplying standpipe and sprinkler systems.


The first arriving engine company officer should consider the removal and placement in the street of a

second hose line if fire conditions indicate it is warranted.


After ordering the first hose line stretched, the engine company officer should enter the fire building and begin gathering information that will assist the unit in stretching rapidly and accurately to the fire area. This information should include:

Radio transmissions from the ladder company. Type of stairway present (i.e. interior or exterior). Difficulties caused by large numbers of fleeing occupants.


If no ladder company is present, the engine company officer shall attempt to enter the IDLH when teamed up with another available firefighter. He/she may only enter individually to address a known life hazard as previously mentioned. If the ladder company is forcing the door to the fire area, the engine company officer should proceed to the area immediately below the fire and:

a. Determine the layout of the area (in multiple dwellings, layouts tend to be similar in each vertical line of apartments).
b.Look at the ceiling for signs of structural weakness or holes.
c.Look out a window to determine the location and extent of the fire on the fire floor.


While gathering information concerning the hose line stretch, the engine company officer should be alert to building occupants with information relative to persons trapped or distressed. If persons were reported trapped on the initial alarm, or if information or statements indicate this possibility, the engine officer should determine the following:

Where are the people trapped? How many people are trapped? Are the trapped persons children or adults? Are the occupants normally home at this time of day?


What actions should engine company officer do before opening door to fire area?

Prior to opening the door to the fire area for advancement of the hose line, the engine company officer must assure that no firefighters will be exposed in the hallway or on the stairs above as the fire attack is initiated. This can be done via radio or in person. When the door to a fire area or fire apartment is opened, there exists the possibility that fire will flash outward and upward and seriously expose or burn any firefighters operating in unprotected positions above the fire.


The nozzle team must begin every interior fire attack through the door to the fire area crouched low, near the floor, regardless or conditions, why?

A sudden ceiling collapse, rapid self-venting or a fire driven by wind could create a blowtorch effect at the entrance door and seriously injure any firefighter in its path. After entry is made into the fire area, the engine company officer can evaluate conditions and adjust or modify the method of advance used.


Engine company officers should develop a communication system with the nozzle firefighter for use when voice communications are impaired due to stream impact noise, power saw operations, opening up and ventilation noise. The following system of touch signals can be used in conjunction with verbal commands to relay orders:

Opening or closing the nozzle – One or two slaps on the back or shoulder. Direction of stream – Tug or pull on the arm or nozzle, either left or right. Advancement of hose line – Steady push on the back or SCBA cylinder. Halt or stop advance – Pull back on shoulder, bunker coat or SCBA harness.


If an emergency situation develops which requires the immediate withdrawal of the nozzle team, the officer or other member aware of the situation should indicate this fact by using

four (4) strong slaps on the shoulder of the other members and then pull them in the direction of retreat.


Hydraulic ventilation uses and procedure

When conditions permit, the engine officer may order a fog or broken stream directed out a window in the fire area to assist in removal of heat and smoke conditions. This action will also make search and overhaul operations easier. The stream is directed out the selected window with the nozzle held 4-5 feet back from the window and the stream filling the opening.


The following listed tactics are of such importance to fire control efforts that the decision to implement them is reserved for the engine company officer alone:

a. Calling of water (charging the line). b. Opening the nozzle. c. Initial stream direction (at ceiling, seat of fire, etc.). d. Direction of team advance. e. Initiating line advance. f. Stopping line advance. g. Stream shut down. h. When adequate “knock down” has been achieved. i. Use of stream for cooling. j. Use of fog for attack. k. Use of fog or broken stream for venting. l. Amount of water used. m. Assignment of engine firefighter for venting or search. n.Relief of nozzle team. o.Need for relief of the unit. p.Necessity to back the hose line out.


The primary responsibility of the engine company Driver/Engineer is the

safe delivery of the personnel, apparatus and equipment to a reported fire
or emergency and the delivery of water to the operating fire fighting force.


When stretching hose lines off the apparatus, the apparatus should be
positioned so

that it will not interfere with ladder company positioning.


The nozzle firefighter should never enter the fire area without

water. To
do so could allow the fire to rapidly extend and overtake the nozzle team
causing burns to them and any firefighters operating behind or above


When preparing to enter the fire area with a charged hose line, the nozzle
firefighter should ensure that if an adjustable fog/straight stream tip is
being used, it is in the

straight stream position (rotated to the right).


Firefighter position after entering the structure

After making the initial entrance into the fire area the nozzle team should
move to either side of the doorway. This action is taken to remove these
members from the flue like conditions that develop when the entrance
door is opened. This condition becomes even more pronounced when the
fire has not vented via windows and the entrance door is the first opening
into the fire area.


If the engine company is present on the fire floor prior to opening the door
to the fire area the firefighters assigned the nozzle and back-up positions,
as well as the officer, should position themselves on the same side of the
entrance and

remain low. When the entrance door is opened the heat,
smoke and toxic gases from the fire should be allowed to “blow”. As the
smoke lifts, the nozzle firefighter may be able to look into the fire area at
floor level and observe the room layout. Once the nozzle is opened, the
thermal layers are disrupted and visibility is reduced significantly.


The manner in which a firefighter physically advances the hose line may
depend on the conditions encountered. There are several methods that can
be used, each with their own advantages

a. Crawling – This method is useful where heat conditions require a
very low approach to the fire area.
b. Duck walking – This tactic is useful where rubble or debris which
cannot be swept with the stream may cause injury or difficulty to
the nozzle team. In buildings with concrete floors, duck walking
keeps scalding water, a consequence of the fire attack, from
absorbing into the bunker pants and burning firefighter’s knees.
c. Leg forward (or outstretched leg) – This method can be used where
the integrity of the floor is in doubt. The outstretched leg is used to feel for holes in the floor before the full weight of the firefighter
moves forward. Probing with the leg forward will also help the
nozzle firefighter recognized the presence of descending stairs,
ramps, or open shafts. This technique is recommended for
commercial occupancies.


When operating the stream as the advance is made, the stream
should be directed forward and upward, striking the ceiling and
deflecting the stream toward the fire area. The deflected water will:

i. Cover a greater area.
ii. Break up and cool superheated combustible gases at the
ceiling level.
iii. Provide greater heat absorption by breaking up on impact
and exposing more water surface area to the heat.
iv. Prevent “rollover” of the advancing fire.
v. Prevent development of “flashover” by cooling the upper
levels of the fire area
b. Rapid side to side or clockwise rotation of the nozzle pushes the
heat, fire and steam ahead of the nozzle team.
c. As progress is made, the initial angle of the stream can be lowered
and the stream can be directed toward the main body of fire.
d. Minimum steam generation at the lower level of the passage or
hallway is desirable for rapid advance, therefore impacting side
walls with streams should be minimized at lower levels. The steam
generated initially at the upper levels will be pushed ahead with the
heat and fire. Maintaining an adequate rate of flow will condense
the steam and cool the fire gases ahead of the stream and will carry
away the lower wall heat in the run-off.
e. The stream should not be operated directly overhead. This can
cause hot water and debris to fall on the firefighters below. There
area, however, several emergency situations which may justify this
i. When the room “lights up” overhead.
- 22 -
ii. Fire rolls overhead or from behind.
f. When stock, furniture, partitions, vehicles, machinery or other
obstructions block or prevent the stream from hitting the main
body of fire, use the ceiling, walls or other stable, stationary
objects to deflect water onto the fire.
g. Avoid knocking down stock with the stream whenever possible as
it will conceal or extend fire and impede the hose line advance.
Fallen stock could also make it difficult for firefighters to exit the
fire area or back the hose line out.


If rooms to either side of a hallway must be extinguished while advancing
toward the main area of involvement, the stream should be operated well
ahead of the line prior to turning to operate into the side rooms, why?

action is necessary in order to push back the advancing fire sufficiently to
allow the nozzle team to safely reposition and operate into the side rooms.


A cardinal rule of engine operations is

advancing an attack hose line through a fire area consisting of several
rooms, it is usually only necessary to operate the stream from the doorway
of each room/area. By utilizing the reach of the stream, the fire can be
knocked down in these rooms and the hose line can be advanced rapidly to
extinguish the remaining areas. This tactic may leave smoldering debris or
window frames but there should be no visible flame in the areas passed


The term “knock down” means

to have control of the fire area without
complete extinguishment


As the attack hose line is advanced through the fire area all doors must be
opened to assure that the nozzle team does not unknowingly

pass an area
involved in fire. Closed doors to closets, stairways and other rooms may
contain hidden or extending fire which can burn through or erupt behind
the nozzle team cutting off their escape route. Hose lines can also be
burned through leaving the Engine Company without water and fire in
front and behind them.


Situation # 1 – Fire will not darken down or cool down.
An engine company is making good progress advancing through a
fire area and is suddenly stopped or slowed by fire that will not
cool down or darken down.Possible causes for this situation are:

i. The stream is not adequately penetrating into the fire area.
ii. The stream may be inadequate for the size/intensity of the
iii. A heavy body of fire may exist in another area which the
stream is incapable of reaching.


An engine company is making good progress advancing through a
fire area and is suddenly stopped or slowed by fire that will not
cool down or darken down.Possible solutions for this situation area:

i. The stream direction may need to be adjusted to enter the
room more completely or an advance of a few more feet
may be necessary to open another avenue or direction of
ii. The gallons per minute (GPM) flow may be insufficient
due to friction loss, low pump pressure or kinks in the line.
A radio message to “increase pressure” or “get the kinks”
may result in an increased flow and faster knock down of
the fire.
iii. If fire exists in an area which is incapable of being reached
by this hose line such as the floor below or an adjoining
area, this attack line must make a stand at this point and
hold the fire until a back up line can be stretched. The
second hose line can be stretched to the other area involved
or can be advanced together with the first attack hose line
to press the attack into the fire.


Situation # 2 – Fire has darkened down but will not cool down. Possible causes for this situation are:

i. The material and furnishings in the fire area have not been
completely extinguished.
ii. Fire has extended into walls, floor and ceiling spaces and
continues to burn there.
iii. Inadequate ventilation of the fire area.


Situation # 2 – Fire has darkened down but will not cool down.Possible solutions for this situation are:

i. The areas where the fire was “knocked down” may need
additional water application to completely extinguish all
material, furnishings, and structural components.
ii. Wall, floor and ceilings must be opened up to expose and
extinguish and hidden fire.
iii. Initial or additional ventilation must be performed
including the use of a fog or spray stream by the Engine


technique withdrawing attack line

If it becomes necessary to withdraw an attack hose line from a position
due to fire intensity, the stream must be kept in operation and the line
should be backed out. Firefighters withdrawing a hose line from an
interior position should never turn their backs on fire.


Flaking out a hose line can be accomplished using several methods
depending on the conditions encountered. The following options can be

a. The hose is flaked up the public hall stair above the fire floor.
After the hose line is charged the weight of the water in the line
moving down the stairs will assist the officer with feeding the line
into the fire area.
b. The hose line can be flaked out either wholly or partially in the
public hallway on the floor immediately below the fire floor. This
option is utilized when the volume or intensity of fire prevents
access to the fire floor for flaking out the hose line.


When the nozzle firefighter wants to change the direction or elevation of
the stream, the officer must maneuver the section of hose behind the
nozzle firefighter in the

opposite direction


The general duties of the second to arrive engine company are as follows:

a. Assist with the stretching of the back-up hose line.
b. Assure that the first due engine company is connected to an
adequate water supply.
c. Relieve the first due engine company personnel as required.


The specific duties of the second due engine company officer include:

a. Water Resource Officer for the first hose line.
b. Provide a communication link between first due engine company
and the Incident Commander


The second due Engine Company Driver/Engineer shall:

a. Position their apparatus at a hydrant and test it prior to assisting the
first due engine company Driver/Engineer.
b. Monitor the radio.


Defensive operations are conducted when the risk/benefit analysis indicates that
unacceptable risks to firefighters would

result from the continuation or
establishment of offensive operations


Defense operations are primarily
characterized by exterior activities that are not necessarily passive but are
designed to

contain fire to the building of origin and protect any exposures while
minimizing risk to personnel.


Primary strategies (Defensive Ops)should focus on

personnel safety
and incident stabilization


Special consideration should be given to keeping
personnel out of collapse zones this should be accomplished by .

a clearly
established safety perimeter


Guideline switching to Defensive Ops

The announcement of a change to a defensive mode will be made as
“EMERGENCY TRAFFIC” and all personnel will be ordered to withdraw from
the structure and maintain a safe perimeter outside the collapse zone.
Communications will sound alert tones and repeat the Incident Commander’s
Emergency Traffic message and announce to command the need to conduct a
PAR. Company officers will account for their personnel and Command will
conduct a personnel accountability report (PAR). Once all personnel are out of the
structure and accounted for, defensive operations will begin.


After firefighter safety has been ensured, the first priority in a defensive operation
is to

protect exposures. Interior hose lines will be withdrawn (or abandoned, if necessary) and repositioned when changing to a defensive mode.


The second priority(Defensive Ops) is to

control the main body of fire.


What does the Term "Fire Knocked Down" mean?

The completion of bringing the fire under control is reported utilizing a radio
report of “FIRE KNOCKED DOWN”. This means the forward progress of the
fire has been stopped and the remaining fire can be extinguished with the onscene
resources; it does not mean the fire is completely out. It is the responsibility
of Command to transmit this report to dispatch.


The Incident Commander shall make the decision to evacuate. The Incident
Commander will announce “EMERGENCY TRAFFIC” and have the dispatch
center sound the radio alert tone, and state, “ALL PERSONNEL EVACUATE
THE BUILDING OR AREA IMMEDIATELY”. This shall be repeated How Many times?



When the order to evacuate is given, all available and appropriately equipped
units in the immediate vicinity will sound their air horns intermittently how?

(one second on, one second off) for thirty (30) seconds.


Command shall notify the dispatch center when all personnel have been
accounted for. To avoid creating undue anxiety amongst on scene personnel, if
personnel are missing,

no report will be announced over the radio as to personnel
status until the incident commander is prepared to fully address the issue.
Whenever possible, all communications shall be done face-to-face.


An advantageous location, usually a barrier to fire spread. The anchor point is used to minimize the chance of being flanked by the fire while attempting to control it. An anchor point is generally located at roadways, a secured and completely extinguished location near the fire origin, at canal or creek beds, etc.

Anchor Point


Fire that is moving against the wind or downslope, this behavior tends to have a slow rate of speed.

Backing Fire


Fire that is carried from tree to tree or bush to bush above the ground. Crown fires are sometimes classed as running or dependent to distinguish the degree of independence from the surface fire.

Crown Fire


Working directly on the burning fireline while mainly operating from the black to extinguish the fire.

Direct Attack


Fire conditions during high wind driven fires such as individual torching of trees.

Extreme Fire Behavior


Long narrow strips extending out from the main fire. These are a result of a mixture of light and heavy fuels, with the fire advancing more rapidly in the light fuel.



The general area of a working wildland fire.



The leading part of the fire that is usually moving with the wind and does the most damage.



The area of the fire where it originated.

All reference for the flanks, head and fingers should be related to the “heel” of the fire.


Working from a position distance from the fire and using mechanical methods of extinguishment with hand tools or dozers, possibly with the additional use of back firing techniques to create a fire line to control the boundaries of the fire. This method is not commonly used, but may be seen on fires where Federal or State firefighters are working.

Indirect Attack


An area within the main body of fire that has not burned.




An acronym that stands for Lookout, Communication, Escape routes and Safety zones.


Somewhat cooler than the right flank and should be contained after the right flank is controlled.

Left Flank


Extinguishing or removing burning material near control lines, feeling snags and trenching logs to prevent rolling after an area has burned to make safe or to reduce residual smoke.



The outside boundary of the fire. The perimeter is constantly changing throughout the fire.



Indentations in the main fire line formed by fingers or slow burning fires.



Days in which the possibility of a brush fire is increased due to an increase in wind speed, decrease in humidity, and elevated temperatures.

Red Flag Day


Generally the hottest flank of the fire. The temperature difference is due to the tendency of the wind to blow in a clock-wise fashion in the Northern Hemisphere.

Right Flank


A dead standing tree that can be hazardous, either burning or not.



The effect of burning materials carried by the wind ahead of the main body of fire.

Spot Fire


Act of overhauling or mopping up a fire.

Spotting Out


A fire that is burning the surface fuels such as leaf litter and grass.

Surface Fire


The mix of residential interspersed with wildland fuels that create the situation that requires the use of both wildland firefighting tactics simultaneously with structural firefighting defensive tactics.

Wildland Urban Interface (WUI)


A basic strategy of fighting a wildland fire is to

"fight from the black”. This strategy shall be adhered to whenever feasible.


Wildland fire specific size-up information includes:

1. Location of the head of the fire.
2. Fuel loading (light, medium, or heavy fuels).
3. Pertinent access points.
4. Known exposures.
5. Request a weather forecast.
6. Request additional resources.


Orientation at a wildland fire is accomplished by giving directions in relation to:

B138 G
the origin of the fire using the terms provided above. When communicating with other firefighters the use of these directions will greatly aid Command, lookouts and other responding units.


It is vitally important that all personnel, but especially personnel with Command responsibilities, consider all factors contributing to wild fire behavior. The three main influences are:


1. Weather – High temperatures with drought conditions can lead to catastrophic fires. Many severe wildland fires also occur during the winter months due to commonly dry conditions, low humidity and high winds. Wind normally has the greatest effect on fire spread. The level of humidity will also affect the moisture in fuels and can have a profound effect at lower levels, especially in finer fuels such as grasses. The time of day has some effect on humidity as it will generally be higher in the morning and drop in the afternoon. Changes in weather conditions can also have a profound effect on fire conditions. Storm fronts can cause erratic and gusting winds. Frontal passages can cause increased wind speeds and abrupt wind direction changes.
a. Wildfire intensity is dependent upon: i. Fuel type. ii.Fuel moisture. iii. Size and shape. iv. Fuel loading (light, medium and heavy fuel). v. Horizontal continuity. vi. Vertical arrangement.
b. Light fuels such as dry grasses have a tendency to ignite easily and burn quickly.c. Medium fuels such as tall grasses, brush and small trees can burn with great intensity, depending on species and moisture content, and will burn for a longer period of time.
d. Heavy fuels such as large stands of mature trees, thickets of bamboo, and thick strands of large brush over eight feet will burn with great intensity and require extensive mop up and overhaul.
E.Some fuels will produce large quantities of embers which can contribute greatly to fire spread ahead of the fire front. Nearby structures are especially susceptible to ignition due to fire brands or embers.
3. Topography – Steep terrain can greatly effect a wildland fire direction and speed. Fires will burn quickly upslope and slowly down slope. Unburned canyons should be avoided by firefighters. Slopes facing the South and West will normally be drier and will burn more readily.


Extreme fire behavior should be watched for and precautions taken if found. Signs of extreme fire behavior include:

1. Rapid rate of spread due to high winds, fuel type changes, and increase in slope.
2. Intense burning.
3.Spotting, where sparks or embers carried by the wind or slope beyond the main fire.
4.Crowning, where the fire is advancing from tree top to tree top independent of the surface fire.


“LCES” is extremely important for ensuring firefighter safety in a wildland fire environment.what does it stand for.

Lookout, communications, escape route, safety zones


L is for Lookout WUI

– A trained firefighter(s) in WUI and wildland fire tactics, other than Command or an operational unit should be assigned to an elevated position(s) (aerial, helicopter or terrain feature). The lookout(s) will be tasked with:
a. Observing fire behavior and recognizing changes in due to weather, fuels or topography.
B.Alerting Command of changes in fire behavior or fire conditions. C.Maintaining visual contact of the fire at all times.


C is for Communications WUI

– All personnel on the incident should have a radio. The use of the tactical channel(s), or face to face should provide adequate coverage in most situations. Should there be a radio failure or “dead spots” in an area, the Lookout can serve as a relay or a mobile repeater may be requested.


E is for Escape Routes WUI

These are paths of egress from the fire back to a safe zone. These escape routes must be communicated to all personnel on scene. It is the Officer’s responsibility and the firefighter’s personal duty to establish or request an escape route depending on their location on the incident. Roads, trails, and the “black” can serve as escape routes.


S is for Safety Zones WUI

Areas of refuge where a large body of fire will not affect personnel or apparatus regardless of flame length or radiant heat. Command is responsible for designating safety zones during incidents with the help of lookouts. All personnel on a wildland fire should be aware of escape routes and safety zone locations at all times. Roadways may suffice in some instances, but in extreme fire behavior these may not be adequate if they are in the path of the fire. Fire apparatus are not considered a safety zone, but may be utilized in an emergency as a temporary shelter until a fire passes if no other shelter is available.


Describe anchor point WUI

When beginning an attack on a wildland fire, an anchor point should be established. This is considered a road, terrain feature or waterway that would prevent the fire from wrapping back around on working crews. Wind, fuel loading and type and topography should be considered in selection of an anchor point as these conditions will strongly influence method of attack and strength of the anchor point. While working from this anchor point and performing a direct attack which involves working the flank or flanks of the fire, crews will strive to work from the black as much as possible. A direct attack on the head fire should only be undertaken when adequate resources have been assembled and there is a significant risk/benefit analysis that indicates that direct attack on the head is advised.


While working with Brush Trucks, an effort should be made by Command to work the Brush Trucks ----------so as to maximize their suppressive efforts.

In tandem


Lookout considerations WUI

The use of aerial ladders and platforms as highpoints for lookouts is strongly encouraged. A firefighter experienced in wildland tactics or a trained lookout should be used as a lookout. At larger incidents, it may be advantageous to request the use of a helicopter for aerial observation. Personnel in the helicopter should relay information concerning the need for rescue, exposure protection, fire behavior, overall conditions of the incident so as to maximize resources on the fire ground. Also relayed should be information about terrain problems or natural fire breaks such as large bodies of water or hard surface roads that would be pertinent to the control and extinguishment of the fire.


All firefighters need to be fully aware that operating in the vicinity of water drops from aircraft is

extremely hazardous.


An incident where ---- or ----- structures are threatened by a wildland fire shall be considered a WUI incident

3 or more


Resources dispatched WUI

A WUI alarm shall consist of the same resources as a first alarm commercial structure fire assignment


The WUI alarm is not an initial alarm type, but should be requested by Command when several structures

are threatened or a structure fire has wildland involvement that must be fought defensively.


Interior attack WUI

Companies assigned on a WUI alarm should not attempt to make an interior attack on a structure without approval from Command.


If a structure does become involved, an additional ------ ------- ---------may be requested and standard structural fire ground procedures shall be followed by the companies responding on that alarm.

an additional structural alarm assignment


Items to be considered in evaluating the structure, WUI

a. The roof is the most vulnerable to fire spread. Wood shingles are the most likely to ignite. Also note whether metal and tile roofs are sealed at the eaves and ridge as this is a location for the possible entry of embers into the attic.
B.Siding may be combustible.
C.Overhanging decks, open gables and eaves can trap heat and ignite. D.Openings where fire brands may enter should be located. Some of these would include gable vents, crawl spaces, under decks.
E.The number and size of windows on the exposed side of the building can make protection more difficult. Leave window screens attached. F.The size of the structure should be evaluated and the number of resources needed to protect should be determined.
G.The position of the structure on a slope, whether mid-slope, or at the top of a ridge can have an effect on the intensity of the exposure to fire.


The defensible space around the structure should also be analyzed, noting the general rule of thumb is --’ from the structure to flammable brush and tress.



Apparatus placement tips WUI:

1. Apparatus should remain to the fire side of the road to allow other apparatus and evacuees to pass.
Hose lines should be placed on the fire side of the apparatus when possible
2. Apparatus placement tips:
A.For dead end streets, position heading out.
B.Position apparatus to face toward designated escape routes.
C.Avoid parking under power lines.
D.Avoid parking near flammable trees or shrubs.
E.Leave apparatus doors and windows closed.


Safety zone consideration WUI:

Safety zones should be determined in case apparatus need to pull back or for use by residents during evacuation. Ensure that there is room for fire apparatus and the estimated number of evacuating residents. In most cases moving apparatus one or two blocks back from the fire area should suffice as long as the area would not be subjected to heavy smoke or embers. Safety zones should be no more than two minutes travel time. They should not subject escaping apparatus or residents to heavy fire conditions. Location of power lines should be considered when establishing safety zones.


Position pumping apparatus at threatened structures. Generally, for structures less than 50’ apart ----apparatus may cover two structures



For buildings spaced farther apart, ----- apparatus will be needed to cover each structure.



For an exceptionally large structure (larger than 5,000 square feet) --- apparatus may be required to provide protection.



Structure protection WUI

A.Use 1 3⁄4” hose to access the rear of structures. Deploy lines to cover all areas of the structure that could be exposed to fire.
Clear a defensible space around threatened structures. Remove leaves and litter from exposed areas under decks and in gutters.
B.Use discretion in cutting landscape trees and shrubs. Trimming lower branches to prevent fire spread to the canopy can be helpful if in close proximity to the structure. Place cleared vegetation where it will not add to the fuel load and outside the defensible space.
C.Other material such as wood piles, furniture, fuel containers, awnings and swing sets should be moved away from close proximity to the structure. Homeowner property such as wheel barrows and dollies could be useful in moving some of these items. Do not overlook highly combustible items such as doormats.
D.Combustible fencing should be removed (if possible) for at least eight feet where it connects to the house. If there are gates they should be left open to leave a break in the fence. If these actions are not taken, the fence may act as a “fuse” to the structure.
E.Ladder structures as necessary to access roofs for inspection and to provide protection after fire passage. A line should also be stretched which can be used on the roof, if necessary.
F.Shut off gas supply. Consider leaving electricity on unless the structure becomes involved in fire.
G. On the interior of the structure, ensure all windows are closed. Light, combustible window coverings should be removed. Close interior doors. Turn off fans and HVAC systems.
H.Mobility can become of prime importance when structures are threatened by fire. The fire direction may change and apparatus may need to be repositioned quickly to protect structures in a different area.
I.If it appears that structures will become involved in fire, an additional alarm assignment should be requested and apparatus staged until needed. If the companies are brought to the scene for a structure fire they should be assigned to a group and given another fire ground channel. Apparatus positioning for a structure fire should still attempt to ensure that roadways are not blocked.


Evacuation procedures WUI

1. Determine evacuation routes for occupants and escape routes for fire apparatus.
2.When conducting the evacuation, ensure that structures are left unlocked for fire department access. Security should be maintained, enlisting the help of law enforcement when possible.
3.If it is determined that occupants should evacuate the following items should be considered: a. Designated escape routes should be located and cleared. Marking of these routes may be necessary under heavy smoke conditions with the use of traffic cones or apparatus placement. Use law enforcement to assist with evacuation and traffic control. Evacuation transportation and shelters may be necessary for larger incidents.


In WUI, If conditions have deteriorated rapidly and resources are limited, there may become a need to

triage structures.
Determine whether the structure is defensible, defensible with some improvements, or non-defensible


e designation of a non-defensible structure should be approved by -----



Structures that due to type of construction and/or additional distance between the structure and combustible vegetation may need little or no protection, or may be a structure which would only require hand line placement with some fire control. In all cases structure condition should be monitored as long as the structure is exposed.

Defensible structure


Structures that may require some work to remove combustible material in the yard, on porches, or under decks. Some openings subjected to fire brands may need to be blocked.

Defensible with some improvements


Structures that may not be defensible due to problems with access, inability for improvements or impending fire involvement. This type of structure should be assessed immediately after the wildland fire intensity abates.

Non-defensible structure


are one of the leading factors in structure loss during a wildland fire event.

Fire brands


Flying Sparks and brands WUI

A.Sparks and embers can enter through very small openings in roof assemblies including gable vents and under eaves and ridges, especially on metal or tile roofs which are not sealed in these areas. B.Spaces under porches and decks should also be evaluated. Embers may also ignite material such as leaves and other material in gutters and next to structures.
C.Other combustible items such as door mates can also be dangerous in close proximity to wood exterior assemblies.
D.Assigning a “Downwind Exposure Group” should be deemed a necessity at most large wildland fires.
E.Areas within close proximity to the fire and fire brands should be patrolled by personnel on foot if at all possible, with special attention paid to windward facing sides of structures.


A current policy of the BSODFRES is that the initial responsibility for the determination of fire origin and cause rests with

the operations personnel that respond to the incident


After fire, it is imperative that who/whom ensure that scene preservation and scene security is maintained?

All personnel


Comparison of the amount of fire damage to various structural elements and furnishings may help determine the area or point of origin. Examples include:

a. Basic “V” patterns may help to identify the direction of fire movement.
b.Areas indicating lowest fire damage and greatest fire damage should be evaluated and explained.
c. An inverted “V” pattern, distinct pour patterns and multiple points of origin may be indicators of an intentionally set fire.
d. Greatest ceiling damage.


The identified cause of the fire should include both the ignition source and the first combustible ignited. Examples include:

a. Food on the stove. b. Combustibles too close to heater. c. Fuel leaking in engine compartment of vehicle ignited by hot manifold.


Fire officers should remain alert for and be able to recognize plain view evidence that may indicate an incendiary fire. Unless absolutely necessary, such evidence should not be moved; it should be protected where it is found. Examples include:

1. Fuel containers such as gas cans, charcoal lighter fluid, paint thinner cans and Molotov Cocktails may have been used to transport an ignitable liquid to the scene for the purpose of intentionally setting a fire.
2.Broken windows or forced doors may be indicators of forced entry. 3.Tools used to force entry may be left on the scene.
4.Disposable lighters and matches may be the source of ignition.


Hand line procedure

1. Confirm the hose lay is complete and personnel are ready for water before charging any hose line.
2.Open and close nozzles slowly.
3. Be prepared for the nozzle reaction each time you open or close the nozzle. This is especially important when operating a nozzle in a precarious position such as off a roof or ladder.
4.Be cognizant of the direction the nozzle is aimed before it is opened.
5.If possible have at least two fire fighters on any hand line (three firefighters for 2 1⁄2” lines).
6.Personnel using hand lines on fires must wear full protective clothing. 7.Driver/Engineers shall know the proper hydraulic calculations for the hose lay and must not exceed the recommended pressure.
8.When using a hand line from a portable ladder, the ladder should be heeled.
9.A straight stream is electrically conductive. Consider all wires and fences to be electrically charged.


Portable deluge procedure

1. The device must be anchored before its water supply is charged.
2. Use hose placement to balance the appliance.
3. Use a proper stream angle. If the stream is too horizontal the appliance may become unstable and slide.
4. Never attempt to relocate a flowing portable deluge.


Deck gun procedures

Deck gun.
1. Be cognizant of the direction the nozzle is aimed before it is charged.
2. Be aware that the stream can cause flying debris to be driven toward other personnel.
3.Be aware that the stream can drive heat and smoke toward personnel if they are attempting to operate inside the structure. Streams from the outside will not be used when personnel are inside the structure.
4. Consider all wires to be charged electrical lines.


Storz couplings / large diameter hose procedure

1. Always use caution when removing Storz outlet or intake caps.
2. Be sure the pressure is bled off, and stand to one side.
3.Be sure Storz couplings are locked when coupled.
4. Do not attempt to tighten couplings when charged. If tightening is required, first shut off the water.
5.If at all possible, attach the L.D.H. to an intake other than the one at the pump panel. Be aware that L.D.H. will elongate 3’ to 7’ when charged and tends to “snake”.
6.When using a manifold, pay close attention to the flow valves. Vibration and/or large flows tend to close the valves.
7. Do not allow automobiles or other low clearance vehicles to drive over L.D.H. hose when charged. 8.
8.No vehicles or apparatus should cross L.D.H. hose when it is flat.


Miscellaneous water flow safety

1. The only methods that may be used to control a loose (wild) line are closing a valve or using a hose clamp.
2. Close and open a hose clamp slowly. Be prepared for the reaction force when opening the clamp.
3.Do not allow non-emergency vehicles to drive over fire hose. 4.Remember to use eye protection at all times.


is the systematic removal and replacement of heated air, smoke and gases from a structure with cooler air.



Ventilation facilitates firefighter entry into an involved structure by

improving visibility and life safety for those operating inside the building.


Personnel Company should size-up the fire situation upon arrival in order to:


(1) decide what type of ventilation is needed (e.g., horizontal, vertical and/or positive pressure); and (2) determine the where ventilation should take place.


Considerations that influence ventilation decisions include but are not limited to:

1. Roof type (e.g. flat, arched, pitched, or truss). 2. Type of building involved. 3. Location of the fire. 4. Duration of the fire. 5. Extent of the fire. 6. Existing roof openings. 7. Safety of personnel. 8. Possibility of fire spread.


There are four basic types of ventilation that can be utilized:

(1) natural; (2) horizontal; (3) vertical; and (4) mechanical.


refers to the technique of making openings in the structure and allowing the ambient wind, weather conditions and natural convection currents to ventilate the structure.

Natural ventilation


----- ventilation consists of opening up doors and windows on the leeward side of the fire area so the heat and smoke that is trapped within the building can escape.



-------ventilation allows products of combustion to escape harmlessly into the atmosphere and reduces the likelihood of potential backdraft and flashover conditions within the building

Vertical ventilation


In performing vertical ventilation, personnel must ensure that:

(1) the escaping smoke and fire gases have a direct path out of the structure; and (2) that such travel does not spread the fire or interfere with occupants trying to exit out of the building.


Personnel should conduct a thorough analysis of the area being ventilated in order to determine what features will help or hinder their operations and/or cause them to use a different ventilation method. Such features include:

(1) The presence of any aids/obstructions-air handling units, process vents, machinery vents, and dust collection units all can aide ventilation efforts while obstructions like solar panels can interfere with the process. (2) Weather-rain will not only increase the roof’s live load, but also make the surface slippery and dangerous to work on. (3) Smoke conditions-smoke may reduce visibility, obscure openings/ventilation holes and make reading the roof difficult. (4) Fire conditions-fire weakened roofs may collapse without warning.


Personnel must know the type of roof that needs ventilation and make sure that there is a

a charged hose line present and available for use (NOTE: Roof lines are only used to protect personnel and external exposures-do not operate hoseline into ventilation hole unless ordered by the IC).


Personnel should make a ---- ----- ----- in the roof near the ladder whenever fire conditions below the roof are not known. Locate ventilation holes in a manner that will

small inspection hole
support rescue activities and fire confinement.
If vent holes are cut in the wrong places, the fire will naturally be channeled into them and expand structural loss. If heavy heat and fire are found, they should advise the IC since they may want to reconsider the need for the continuance of roof operations.


Lighting roof ops

Consider using the aerial ladder for lighting during nighttime roof operations. When lighting the roof area from aerial ladders, be sure to light the area high above the working area at a high angle so roof crews are not blinded by the cross lighting.


Smoke ejector placement

1. Electric smoke ejectors are hung or placed in openings (doors and windows)and smoke and heat are drawn out of the structure over the ejector motor. Gasoline powered smoke ejectors can be utilized for negative pressure ventilation but they trend toward poor performance when used in this manner; smoke is drawn over the engine reducing the fresh air needed for proper functioning.
2.Ejectors should be set up to take advantage of any ambient wind conditions. Ejectors set up in series may assist in smoke removal. Smoke ejectors placed in openings, especially doorways, tend to hamper ingress and egress.
3.Electric cords and power sources must be established when utilizing electric smoke ejectors for ventilation. 2. 3.


Hydraulic ventilation procedures

A water stream can be used to create positive air movement within an area. This technique involves directing a hose stream out of a window so it can exhaust any/all smoke and heat that is trapped within the involved area.
a. Although solid stream nozzles can be used for this purpose (by partially opening the nozzle to create a coarse, broken stream), fog or spray streams are most commonly used.
b.In order to be most effective, a fog nozzle should be positioned about 2’ inside a window so that its pattern covers most of the opening. (NOTE: this position may change depending upon the amount of observed smoke movement).


Fog streams should not be used for venting if they: (

1) damage items that have been removed for protection; (2) create exterior or adjourning building damage; and/or (3) create damage inside of room from which it was directed.


Advantages PPV

Advantages include: a. Rapidly removes heat and smoke from the building, thereby reducing the fire's ability to propagate and advance. b.Causes an improving atmosphere and thus increases patient survivability profiles.
c.Improves firefighter's ability to conduct search and rescue operations as well as effective salvage operations.
d. Increases the firefighter's ability to conduct the attack/extinguishment operations.
e.Reduces firefighter heat stress.
f.Reduces smoke and fire damage to the structure and can limit the need and risk for vertical ventilation at certain fires.


A PPV fan should be placed --- to ---- ft from the doorway of the structure so that its ---- of ---- extends beyond the opening’s boundaries and into the structure.

“cone of air”


Fan placement using multiple fans

During multiple fan usage, the larger blower should always be placed in front of the smaller blower when different size fans are used; fans should be positioned so the first fan is located 3’- 5' from doorway and the second fan another 3’-5’ behind the first fan.


In order for PPV to be effective, personnel must ensure that they:

a. Appropriately place the fans away from the point of entry on the unburned side of the fire so that crews can easily enter/exit the building.
b.Control the amount of PPV airflow into the building since too many openings or exit points will reduce air flow effectiveness.
b.Place two or more fans in "tandem" whenever additional air flow/fans are required.
c.Never direct a fire stream into an operating PPV exit point.
d.Close or seal off any/all windows, doors and openings that have already been opened in order to properly direct their air flow into
specific fire or densely affected smoke areas.


PPV operations within buildings with large square footage as well as multi-story buildings and highrises are complex in nature and often require the coordination of a designated

ventilation sector


Multi-story or highrise fires will require multiple fans at the ----- of the building as well as additional fans located on various stairway landings throughout the building and fans at the

fire floor entry point


Personnel should realize that a ----- -----effect of fire blowing out the far exit may occur and that this is normal and predictable.

"blow torch"
Adjacent exposures should be protected with concealed spaces checked for extension.


The presence of dense smoke coming from a structure, regardless of color, indicates a strong need for ventilation. Commonly referenced smoke colors include:
1. Whitish –
3.Black –
4.yellow/greenish under pressure -
5.Heavy, rolling, black under pressure -

1. Whitish – Incipient fire.
2.Brown – Wood or natural products.
3.Black – Hydrocarbons, plastics and other synthetics.
4.Yellowish/greenish under pressure – Indication of an oxygen deficient fire with backdraft potential.
4.Heavy, rolling, black under pressure – Conditions common with impending flashover. 5.


All ventilation operations shall be coordinated with

interior operations so that fire attack teams can rapidly advance to the seat of the fire


If the fire is vented before the attack teams are ready to advance, the fire can:

accelerate and spread rapidly throughout the structure thus endangering occupants and personnel working within the structure.


All ventilation openings must be-----in order to maximize effectiveness when “venting for fire”.

controlled Additional openings beyond those designated for ventilation must be kept to a minimum “Venting for life” may be accomplished to draw fire products away from occupants/victims.


All ventilation openings should be clear of .

obstacles. Drapes, curtains and any other impediments that could negatively affect airflow should be completely removed


Commercial occupancies may require (2 words). A very safe method of vertical ventilation is taking out a (1 word) from an aerial ladder. A (2 words) tied to a rope and dropped through a skylight also works well. Apartment buildings with common cocklofts may require a ( 2 words)

vertical ventilation
Halligan bar
trench cut


The --- --- ------- of the fire in the building must be determined. Officers should use all means available to make this determination. Thermal imagers should be booted prior to arrival and at the ready for the initial 360 degree lap of the structure. The location of the fire and current conditions will dictate the best location to attack the fire.

Locate the Fire – The location and extend



Initial Radio Reporting Benchmarks

A)Announce arrival on scene.

B)Building/area description (examples: “We have a small single family home”, “We have a small strip mall with fire showing in a compartment three units from the Delta end”, etc.).

C)Problem description (example: “Working fire with fire and smoke showing from the second floor, Bravo side”).

D)Initial Action Plan (IAP) (examples: “Rescue mode”, “Fast attack mode”, “Investigative mode”).

E)Declaration of strategy (example: “Offensive” or “Defensive”).

F)Assumption and naming of command (example: “Quint 17 will be establishing Southwest Second Street Command”).

G)Resource determination – Extra units, special units, second alarm, etc.


Slicers "L"

Locate the Fire – The location and extend of the fire in the building must be determined. Officers should use all means available to make this determination. Thermal imagers should be booted prior to arrival and at the ready for the initial 360 degree lap of the structure. The location of the fire and current conditions will dictate the best location to attack the fire.


A defensive strategy

may be employed initially at large or expanding fire operations where protection of exposures or containment of the fire is critical. Emphasis is placed on developing large water flows. Tactics compatible with these conditions might include positioning the apparatus for use of a large caliber stream, such as the deck pipe, and stretching a 2 ½” hose line for exposure protection. Officers may utilize a combination of offensive and defensive strategies to achieve fire control


Officers may utilize a combination of offensive and defensive strategies to achieve fire control. Examples include

Quick defensive knockdown of main body of fire followed by an interior offensive final attack – known as the transitional attack. The transitional attack is accomplished by placing a straight stream of water into a heavily involved fire compartment from the exterior of the structure at a high angle 65-80 degrees for approximately 15 seconds to achieve a quick knockdown. This must be followed up with a rapid entry into that fire compartment via the interior to complete fire attack and extinguishment.

Initial offensive – switching to defensive until main body of fire is knocked down – switching back to offensive for final interior fire extinguishment


Selection and implementation of any strategic plan and its supporting tactics is dependent upon

an accurate and ongoing size up of the fire situation


Size up starts with the ( 3 words) and continues until the fire is under control

receipt of the alarm


The responsibility for size up initially lies with the (4 words); however, all engine company firefighters must make a personal size up of the fire situation. As higher ranking officers arrive, the responsibility for size up is passed up the chain of command.

first officer on the scene


Actions that the officer of the first arriving engine company can implement to protect endangered occupants include:

Position a hose line between the fire and the endangered occupants.

Ventilate to draw fire, heat and smoke away from the endangered occupants.

Give verbal instructions and assurances to the occupants.
Close doors to limit the spread of smoke.

Ensure that incoming units are informed of the location of endangered occupants.