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Flashcards in Building construction Deck (1287):
1

The combustibility of the interior finishes effects the behavior of fire and what several ways:

-It can contribute to the fire extension by flame spread over the surface of walls and ceilings
- It affects the rate of growth (which can lead to flashover).
- it add to the intensity of fire because that contributes fuel
- it can produce smoke and toxic gases that contribute to the live hazard

2

The term interior finish is:

-Generally applied to the materials used for the exposed face of the walls and ceilings of a building
-Including but not limited to fixed or movable walls and partitions, columns, and ceilings
-Commonly refers to finish on the walls and ceilings and not for coverings

3

Interior finishes can include such materials as:

Plaster, gypsum wallboard, wood paneling, ceiling tiles, plastic, fiber board, and other wall coverings

4

Term used in the international community for interior finish?

Interior lining

5

Building codes usually exclude surface treatments such as paint and wallpaper that are no thicker than?

1/28 inch

6

During a fire , thin materials tend to behave in a manner similar to

The material to which they are attached because the heat is transmitted to the material beneath the surface material

7

If there are multiple layers of surface material, however, such as several layers of vinyl, the surface material acts as

An insulator and will contribute to the spread of fire

8

At one time, floor coverings were not considered to contribute significantly to the development of fires because heat naturally rises. What increased awareness of a need to regulate floor coverings?

The introduction of various deep pile floor Carpets

9

What are surface burning characteristics of the material?

The degree to which fire can spread over the surface of a material

10

The speed of flame spread over an interior finish is influenced by what factors?

-The composition of the material
-Ventilation
– The shape of the space in which the material is installed
– Whether the finished material is applied to the ceiling or wall

11

Are an inexact science and cannot precisely duplicate the wide variety of real-life situations in which interior finish materials are found

Standardized fire test methods

12

When air is in motion, it possesses Kinetic energy. We feel this Kinetic energy as____

Wind


E= 1/2mv2

E=energy
M=mass of a body
V=velocity

Pg73

13

When the wind encounters a fixed object, it exerts a force. Wind exerts the following basic forces on a building:

Direct pressure-the impact effect the wind has on surface. This force may be reduced by streamlining the surface encountered.

Aerodynamic drag-when wind encounters an object, it's fluid nature causes it to flow around the object. This exerts a drag effect on the object.

Negative pressure-a suction effect produced on the downwind side of the building resulting in an outward pressure.

14

When wind exerts force on a building there are 3 secondary effects that may be produced:

Rocking effects- a back and forth effect due to variations in the velocity of the wind.

Vibration-wind passing over a surface such as a roof may cause vibration on the surface depending on the velocity of the wind and the harmonic characteristics of the surface.

Clean off effect-the tendency of wind to dislodge objects from a building.

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15

The energy possessed by a moving object

Kinetic energy

16

In designing buildings to withstand the force of wind, the primary effect considered is the:

Force due to direct pressure.

*This force increases with the velocity of the wind and can be evaluated by the basic equation:

P=Cv(2)

V=velocity
P=static pressure
C= .00256 a numerical constant that accounts for the Air mass and simplifying assumptions of building behavior

17

When speaking about the effects of wind, the actual design pressure used by engineers must be adjusted to account for:

Building height

Surrounding terrain

Specific features relating to the shape of the building

*In addition, designers must consider the combined effects of wind forces and localized conditions, such as closely spaced buildings in an urban area.

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18

The force resulting from wind is particularly dangerous when it occurs against an ______

Unbraced wall

19

Fire personnel should also be alert for unbraced walls at:

Demolition sites and at fire damaged buildings where interior structural supports have collapsed or been destroyed.

20

The vibrational motion of the surface subjects buildings to forces known as _____ that can be very destructive, as history has shown

Seismic forces

21

Forces developed by earthquakes. Seismic forces are the some of the most complex forces exerted on a building.

Seismic forces

22

Earthquakes can occur anywhere on earth; however, major earthquakes occur most frequently in parts of the world known as:

Fault zones or zones of high probability

*Zones of high earthquake probability include the Pacific coast of the United States and Canada, Hawaii, Central Utah, and southern Illinois.

23

The vibrational motion produced by earthquakes can be:

Three dimensional

24

The force produced in a structural member when it is twisted

Torsional forces

25

Movements of relatively large amplitude resulting from a small force applied at the natural frequency of a structure

Resonant forces

26

The magnitude of the forces developed within a building during an earthquake depends on several factors, including the following:

-Magnitude of the vibratory motion

-Type of foundation

-Nature of the soil under the building

-Stiffness of the structure

-Presence of damping mechanisms within the building

27

Building codes may require that materials with greater surface burning rates be installed

Over a non-combustible material

28

Why do building codes make use of the flame spread rating of materials?

To establish some control over interior finishes

29

The classification of interior finishes are used to restrict the materials in vertical exits and exit corridors to those with

Low flame spreads

30

Materials with a class A interior finish

(0 to 25) rating are required in the vertical exits and most occupancies

31

Interior finish material with class B rating

(26 to 75) rating are required in corridors that provide exit access

32

Building codes generally allow an increase in the flame spread rating of interior finish materials in buildings equipped with

Automatic sprinkler system

33

Interior finish class C flame rating

(76-200)

34

What is the maximum flame spread rating allowed?

200

35

What is fire load?

Measure of the total fuel available to a fire, therefore, the total heat that can be released in a fire

36

The severity of a fire is determined by:

The fire load plus the rate at which the fuel burns

37

What is the heat release rate (HRR)?

Total amount of heat produced or released to the atmosphere from the convective – lift fire phase of a fire per unit mass of fuel consumed per unit time

38

The rate at which a fuel burns is determined by several factors. The most significant is:

The combination of fuel and available oxygen

39

Why is the combustibility of interior finish materials a significant factor in the development of fires and buildings?

In the case of interior finishes used on walls and ceilings, the combustible material always has a large area exposed to the surrounding oxygen

40

Interior finishes are tested to derive several measures of the materials flammability:

the flame spread rating and the smoke developed rating

41

Most commonly used method for evaluating the surface burning characteristics of materials

Steiner tunnel test

42

ASTM standard E 84 and UL 753

Steiner tunnel test

43

NFPA 255

Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning characteristics of building materials

44

What is the flame spread rating?

Numerical rating assigned to a material based on the speed and extent to which flame travels over its surface

45

Examination of the role of interior finishes is directed at materials applied to the

-Ceiling of a room or the upper portions of a room
-It is assumed that the most critical application of a material would be on the ceiling

46

Size of the"tunnel" used in the tunnel test

The tunnel consists of a horizontal furnace 25 feet long with a removable top. The interior furnace is 17 5/8 inches wide and 12 inches high

47

What are the Steiner tunnel test procedures?

-The sample material to be tested is attached to the underside of the top of the furnace and the assembly is lowered into place.
-A gas burner located at one end of the tunnel produces a 4 1/2 foot flame that is projected against the test material.
-The flame is adjusted to produce approximately 5000 BTUs per minute.
-The test is then continued for 10 minutes, during which time to travel of the flame along the test sample is observed

48

To derive the numerical flame spread rating, the flame travel along the test material is compared to two standard materials. Name them and describe process

-Asbestos cement board and red Oak flooring
-According to the test protocol, the flame will travel along the oak flooring 24 feet and 5 1/2 minutes.
-The flame spread of other materials during the test is compared to that red Oak.
-Obviously, the higher the flame spread rating, the more rapidly flame will spread

49

What is the flame spread rating of Asbestos cement board

0

50

What is the flame spread rating of red Oak

100

51

What is the significance of the flame spread rating?

-The flame spread rating developed in the tunnel test as a means of comparing the surface flammability of a material to standard materials under controlled test conditions.
-It is not an absolute measure of spread of fire travel.

52

The flame spread rating may not produce an accurate correlation with the actual behavior of a material in a fire. This is due to the effect upon

surface burning of such factors as room shape and dimensions and fuel load in a room

53

The thickness of the test specimen has an effect on the flame spread rating because a thicker material

-Has different thermal insulating properties than a thin material
-When interior finish materials are intended to be used in varying thicknesses, they must be tested in those thicknesses

54

For flame spread test results to be accurate, test specimens must be attached with the

Same materials and methods used in actual installations

55

What is smoke develop rating?

Is a measure of the relative visual obscurity created by the smoke from a tested material.
-The results are from the tunnel test

56

smoke developed rating procedure

-It is measured by a photo electric cell and a light source located at the end of the tunnel furnace.
-As with the flame spread rating, red Oak is used as a standard test material and has been assigned a smoke developed rating of 100. -Therefore, under test conditions, a material with a smoke developed rating of 200 produces smoke that is twice as visually obscuring as red Oak.
-it is very important to remember that the smoke developed rating is not an indication of the toxicity or volatility of the products of combustion of the interior finish materials

57

Codes limit the maximum smoke develop rating to be

450

58

What is volatility?

Ability of a substance to vaporize easily at a relatively low temperature

59

The flame spread rating of some interior finishes, most notably wood materials, can be reduced through the use of

Fire retardant coatings
-fire retardant coatings only affect the coated surface. They do not affect the untreated backside of a panel.

60

Several types of fire retardant coatings that may be available include:

-Intumescent paint's
-mastics
-gas forming paints
cementitious and mineral fiber coatings

61

How do intumescent paint perform as fire retardant's?

Expand upon exposure to heat to create a thick, puffy coating that insulates the wood surface from heat and excludes oxygen from wood

62

How do mastic coatings work as a fire retardant?

Forms a thick, noncombustible coating over the surface of the wood

63

How are fire retardant coatings used incorrectly?

-They must be applied at a specific rate of square feet per gallon and may require more than one coat.
-They also may not have a permanent effect if used in exterior applications or environments with humidity.
-In any case, products that have not been tested by a reputable laboratory should not be trusted

64

What does the ASTM E 84 test measure?

The surface burning characteristics of materials (the tunnel test).
It is useful because it provides reproducible results and is a widely recognized standard

65

Some materials will produce a fire hazard greater than indicated by the tunnel test when they are installed in an environment that approximates a real room. There are two reasons for this increased hazard:

1) flame spread is generally different over a vertical surface than across a horizontal surface
2) The walls and ceiling of a room provide for re-radiation of heat between the intersecting surfaces

66

Test developed that incorporates the size and shape of real rooms

Corner test

67

Early corner consisted of

A ceiling and 2 intersecting walls
The walls and ceiling of the assembly were aligned with the material to be tested

68

NFPA 265

Standard methods of fire tests for evaluating room fire growth contribution of textile coverings on full height panels and walls

69

NFPA 286

-More recently developed large scale test for wall and ceiling finish
-Fire tests for evaluating contribution of wall and ceiling interior finish to room fire growth
- Developed to handle materials that may not remain in place during the tunnel test, such as plastic materials that may melt and drip

70

NFPA 265 and NFPA 286 test procedure

-The material to be tested is placed on three of the walls. (The surface of the wall containing the door opening is not covered).
-In the 286 test, the material is placed on the ceiling if it is intended to be used in that manner.
-The materials are subjected to two different size gas flames

71

NFPA 265 and NFPA 286 results

These tests do not provide a numerical test results such as the flame spread rating derived from the tunnel test.
-Instead, the test material is charged either satisfactory or unsatisfactory depending on the extent of fire growth that occurs within the test room upon exposure to the two gas flames

72

Rooms In a healthcare facility will require class – – – interior finish materials

Class A or B interior finish materials

73

The international building code establish a specific acceptance criteria for interior finish materials to include:

Noting whether or not the flame spread to the ceiling of the test chamber
– the flame cannot spread to the outer extremity of the sample
– flashover cannot occur
– the peak rate of heat release cannot exceed 800 kW
– a maximum amount of smoke released

74

What is active fire protection?

Consists of equipment such as an automatic sprinkler system or fire alarm system that requires a power source for operation

75

What is passive fire protection?

-Relies on building construction in materials to contain fire or products of combustion.
-Firewalls or stair enclosures are examples of passive fire protection

76

What is compartmentation?

Subdivision of a building or floor levels of the building by fire rated walls or partitions

77

A lack of compartmentation can result in

Rapid spread of fire horizontally and vertically through a building

78

What does shelter in place mean?

-Having occupants in a structure or vehicle in order to provide protection from the rapidly approaching hazard
-

79

Fire rated partition building compartmentation

-Fire rated partitions can provide areas of refuge for occupants when immediate or rapid evacuation is not possible, such as in the hospital
-Codes typically require fire rated partitions to subdivide patient floors so patients can be moved From the area of fire origin to a protected part of the floor
-occupants of high-rise residential buildings have survived fires simply by remaining in another apartment separated from the fire rated partitions.
- this protection requires that intervening doors be closed

80

Floor and ceiling assembly required compartmentation

Almost any floor and ceiling assembly or wall construction will act as a barrier to fire to some degree, but not every wall or a partition in a building is fire rated.
-Partition separating individual rooms within an apartment, are not fire rated.
-The degree of fire resistance required of a wall or partition will depend on its purpose.
-Building codere quirements are changing and requirements for compartmentation are seen less and less

81

What are firewalls?

-Also called area separation walls, are corrected to limit the maximum spread of fire.
-It's a fire rated wall with a specified degree of fire resistance, built of fire resistive materials and usually extending from the foundation up to and through the roof of a building, that is designed to limit the spread of a fire within a structure or between adjacent structures
-firewalls subdivide a building into smaller pieces so that a fire and one portion of the building is limited to that area and does not destroy the entire building

82

Let's see how this works____tabDrop downs and shenext line

– What a drop-down know I don't know because I guess would be saying I guess yeah you said you seen is that I am recording everything text Dylan no

83

____ is only one of many considerations for the building designer and architect

Fire safety

84

To design an adequate structure, the engineer must first determine the _____ and _____ of the forces to which the structure will be subjected.

Type and magnitude

*Making this determination is the most critical aspect of engineering design

85

With regards to buildings, the interest of the firefighter is necessarily focused on the____

Way a building reacts when it is involved in a fire.

86

If a building is to be located in a region where it will be subjected to hurricanes, the force of hurricane wins must be determined so that...

Adequate roof anchoring can be designed

87

It is necessary to understand the _____ of the loads exerted on a building before they can be evaluated.

Nature

88

Any effect that the structure must be designed to resist.

Load

*Forces of loads, such as gravity, wind, earthquakes, and soil pressure, our exerted on a building

89

Loads arise from several sources such as:

Gravity
Wind
Earthquakes
Soil pressure

90

_____ Creates a force on a building through the weight of the building components and all of its contents.

Gravity

*in addition, gravity can exert a force (added weight) if snow, ice, and water accumulate on the roof or water accumulates inside the building due to flooding.

91

Force acting to draw an object toward the earth's center; force is equal to the objects weight

Gravity

92

What are the benefits to having a firewall?

Greatly reduces potential economic loss and can enable a stricken industry to recover more quickly

93

Why are firewalls not popular with designers?

-Because they increase structural costs and may interfere with the free movement of materials through a factory or warehouse
They can also be architecturally unattractive and occupancies such as shopping malls or airline passenger terminal where an expansive interior is desired.

94

How many developers circumvent requirements for firewalls?

By resorting to freestanding structures, like single family residences, that are separated but built very close to one another
-some single-family homes can be as close as 18 inches apart

95

When do building codes allow elimination of firewalls?

-When a building is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system and meets criteria for occupancy, height, and other code requirements
-it is not unusual, therefore, to find very large industrial, warehouse, and mercantile facilities constructed without firewalls

96

What is a freestanding firewall?

-Freestanding walls are self-supporting and are independent of the building frame.
-Freestanding firewalls are usually found in buildings of wood- frame or wood joist and masonry (type III or IV construction, although they may also be used in noncombustible buildings.
-Freestanding walls must be designed to resist and lateral load of at least 5 pounds per square foot and are self-supporting with respect to vertical it.
-They are independent of the building frame although the building frame may provide some horizontal support

97

What is a tied firewall?

Erected at a column line in a building of steel frame or concrete frame construction.
In a steel frame building, any steel members, such as columns, that may be incorporated into the firewall must be provided with the same degree of fire resistance required for the firewall itself.

98

Fire resistance rating of firewalls

-Originally firewalls were required to have a fire resistance rating of 4 hours, but recent building current permit firewalls with fire resistive rating of two, three, or four hours, depending on the occupancy. A 4hour rated firewall usually must be constructed of masonry or concrete and have 3 hour rated openings.
-In most buildings firewalls must be constructed of noncombustible materials

99

How far must firewalls extend?

-Firewalls must extend extend beyond walls and roofs to prevent the radiant heat of flames on one side of a firewall from igniting adjacent surfaces.
-This is accomplished by continuing the firewall through the roof with a parapet.
-The parapets height above a combustible roof is determined by the building code and varies from 18 to 36 inches
Some buildings contain exceptions that permit the illumination of parapets under certain conditions.

100

What is a fire partition?

Interior walls used to subdivide a floor or area of a building and do not qualify as firewalls.
-Fire partitions may not extend continuously throughout the building.
- A partition is usually a erected from a floor to the underside of the floor above.
-Fire partitions are typically not required to have as much fire resistance as a firewall.

101

What materials are fire partitions constructed of?

-Wide variety of materials including lath and plaster, gypsum wallboard, concrete block, and combinations of materials.
-The material chosen depends on the required fire resistance and construction type of the building.

102

A partition wall separating adjacent units in an apartment building may be required to have a fire resistance of

One hour

103

A common method to accomplish the one hour partition fire rating in a fire resistive structure is to

use 5/8 of an inch fire rated gypsum wallboard applied to both sides of 2 1/2 inch steel studs

104

How can you achieve the one hour fire resistance for partition and type III or type V building construction using wood studs

If the 5/8 inch gypsum wallboard were applied to both sides of a 2 x 4" wood studs

105

When is fire rated glazing used?

For partitions where visibility is desired and a fire rating is required.

106

What is and enclosure wall?

Used to enclose such vertical openings at stairwells, elevator shafts, and pipe chases that extend from floor to floor in a building.

107

The purpose of enclosed walls is to

block the vertical spread of fire through a building and, in the case of stairwells, to protect a means of egress.

108

What is the main difference between an enclosure wall and a fire partition?

The main difference between the two designations is their function

109

Fire resistance rating enclosure walls?

One or two hours depending on the height of the building.
-Stairwells in buildings three stories or less are required to have a 1hour enclosure
- In buildings taller than three stories, they are required to have 2 hour enclosures

110

What is glazing?

-Glass or Thermo plastic panel in a window that allows light to pass.
-The use of fire rated glazing provides a fire barrier while permitting observation of the stair enclosure, which can enhance security

111

What are light shafts?

-Windows from interior rooms would open into a light shaft to facilitate ventilation.
-Light shafts could be provided in an individual building but were frequently provided between adjacent buildings.
-Designed to let in natural light

112

Problems with firefighting in structures with light shafts?

-Like other vertical shafts, they can serve as an avenue for the spread of fire
-provide a means of vertical communication of fire from window to window

113

What is a curtain wall?

-Non-bearing exterior wall attached to the outside of the building with a rigid steel frame.
-Usually the front exterior wall of the building intended to provide a certain appearance

114

What is the design function of the curtainwall?

-Is to separate the interior environment from the exterior environment.
-To that extent, the curtainwall must resist wind, rain, and snow. -Curtainwalls must also be designed to control heat loss, noise transmission, and solar radiation

115

How did the curtainwall come into existence?

-With the development of the steel framed high-rise building.
-Because the main structural support was provided by the frame, the extra wall did not need to be loadbearing.

116

What are curtainwalls most often constructed of?

-Combination of glass and steel, stainless steel, or aluminum
-Can also be constructed with lightweight concrete, plastic, fiberglass, and a variety of metal panels with core materials such as expanded paper honeycombs and compressed glass fiber

117

Two aspects of curtainwalls that are significant to firefighters

Their degree of fire resistance and extent to which they permit vertical communication of fire

118

Fire resistance curtain wall

Because a curtain wall is non-loadbearing, it lacks the inherent fire assistance provided by a more massive load bearing wall.
-Some curtain wall assemblies, such as those made of aluminum and glass, have no fire assistance.
-Nonetheless, building codes may require the exterior walls – including curtain walls have some degree of fire assistance to reduce the communication of fire between buildings

119

What is a fire door?

A specially constructed, tested, and approved fire rated door assembly designed and installed to prevent fire spread by automatically closing and covering a doorway in a firewall during a fire to block the spread of fire through the door opening

120

The most common means for protecting openings through fire rated walls is by the use of

Fire doors

121

How do fire doors different from ordinary doors?

In their construction, their hardware, and the extent to which they may be required to close automatically

122

Fire door rating

A fire door is rated for its fire assistance in a manner somewhat similar to that used for fire system of structural assemblies. Fire doors are rated as 4 hours, 3 hours, 1.5 hours, 1 hour, 3/4 of an hour, 1/2 hour, and 20 minutes

123

Letter designation used to classify fire doors

Were meant to describe the type of opening for which a door wasn't tendon, but historically the letters have been used to describe the door itself
There are five classes A, B, C, D, and E

124

Class A fire door opening

Openings in firewalls

125

Class B fire door openings

Openings in vertical shafts and openings in two hour rated partitions

126

Class C fire door openings

Openings between rooms and Corridors having a fire resistance of 1 hour or less

127

What is a class D fire door opening

Openings in exterior walls subject to severe exposure from the outside of the building

128

Class E fire door opening

Openings in the exterior wall subject to moderate or light exposure from the outside

129

Building codes typically require 4 or 3 hour rated doors in firewalls of greater than – – – hour rating

2

130

One phenomenon associated with earthquakes is_____. It occurs where the soil is of a loose, Sandy nature and is saturated with water.

Soil liquefication

*This action results in a reduction of the strength of the soil leading to shifting of foundations and serious structural damage.

131

The tendency of a body to remain in motion or at rest until it is acted upon by force.

Inertia

132

Although the movement of the ground beneath a building can be three dimensional, the_____motion is the most significant force

Horizontal

133

As the ground moves under a building,_____tends to keep the upper portion of the building momentarily in it's initial position.

Inertia

134

If an earthquake generates additional ground motion, this motion can produce a_____motion in a building.

Swaying

*Low buildings are less susceptible to this type of motion then tall buildings.

135

Buildings with _____ are inherently more susceptible to damage from earthquakes than buildings having a symmetrical design.

Geo metric irregularities

136

Because the tall and short sections of a building have a different heights, their responses to the vibrations of the surface will be different. This difference in their responses can produce damaging forces at the junction of their two parts.to overcome this difference, a _____ can be designed into the structure between the two sections.

A seismic joint

The required width of the seismic joint increases based on the height of the building.

137

Maintaining the_____of seismic joints can be difficult and has been ruled as a main contributor of fire spread in the 1980 fire at the MGM grand in Las Vegas

Fire rating

138

In earthquakes, the severity of the force developed depends on the acceleration of the ground beneath the building, not necessarily the total movement. Building codes contain provisions for seismic design based on the:

Duration and magnitude of the ground acceleration for the geographic area in which the building is located.

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139

With earthquakes, some buildings are more critical than others and require stronger seismic bracing such as:

Large places of public assembly, large office buildings, schools, and institutions.

140

With earthquakes, buildings essential for community recovery after an earthquake that also must be designed for greater seismic loads include the following:

Fire and police stations

Hospitals

Communication centers

Emergency preparedness centers

Generating stations

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141

One method to protect buildings against the forces of earthquakes is to increase a buildings:

Stiffness through the use of shear walls and cross bracing

142

Buildings designed with_____are less likely to collapse if one member fails.

Redundant structural frames

143

A fire door may be found with a combination classification, such as a class B 1 1/2 hour rating. This designation means:

The door is intended to protect an opening in a vertical shaft(class B) and has a 1 1/2 hour rating

144

What is the criteria for acceptability (passing all required testing) for a fire door?

1)The primary criteria for accessibility is that the fire door must remain remain in place during the test. Some warping of the door is permitted as well as intermittent passage of flames after the first 30 minutes of the test. There is also no maximum surface rise on the unexposed side of the door for most of the doors tested. In fact, metal doors may actually glow red from the heat of the test fire. If an opening through a firewall is no longer needed for passage, the opening should be filled in with construction materials equivalent to the wall.
2) The second criterion for acceptability is that the fire door assembly must remain in place when subjected to a hose stream immediately following the fire test. The use of a hose stream subjects the door assembly to cooling and impact effects that might accompany firefighting. Doors with a 1/3 hour rating may not be subjected to the hose test depending on their intended application.

145

Underwriter laboratories Inc. publishes a list of fire doors that have passed the test and what directory?

Fire resistance directory

146

How do you identify fire rated doors?

-Fire rated doors are identified with a label indicating the Door type, hourly rating, and the identifiable label of the testing laboratory.
-The fire door labels facilitate the identification of fire doors by building and fire inspectors in the field.
-It is not uncommon for labels to be painted over during building maintenance and there also has been at least one case of counterfeit laboratory labels appearing in the field.

147

For a fire door to effectively block the spread of fire, it must remain closed and:

Attached to the firewall under fire conditions.

148

A fire door must be equipped with hardware that holds

The door closed under the stresses of fire exposure

149

When fire doors are installed in a frame, the frame must

Also withstand exposure to a fire

150

The testing of fire doors includes the frames as well as the

Hardware

151

The hardware used on fire doors is referred to as either

Builders hardware or fire door hardware

152

Builders hardware is applied to swinging doors and includes such items as:

Hinges, locks and latches, bolts, and closers

153

Fire door hardware is used on both – – – and – – –fire doors

Sliding and swinging fire doors

154

The vision panels enhance safety and security by permitting observation through

A closed door

155

Fire door glazing is often not provided by the door manufacture and may be installed at the job site by a

Glazing contractor

156

NFPA 80

Standard for fire doors and fire windows

157

NFPA 80 requires that each piece of glass installed in a fire door have a – – – – – – that is visible after installation. 2 words

Listing Mark

158

What is wired glass?

-A sheet of glass in which a steel wire net has been embedded.
- at one time the only fire rated glazing available was wired class

159

What is the purpose of the steel net in wired glass?

-The steel net distributes the heat throughout the glass and helps hold the glass in place.
-

160

What happens to wired glass when exposed to fire?

wired glass will crack when exposed to a fire but will remain in place until it begins to soften and fall out

161

Recent changes to fire rated glazing

-In recent years fire rated glazing has been developed that does not rely on embedded steel wire.
-These products can provide higher hourly fire ratings than wired glass.
-They are somewhat more visually appealing to and can be used as windows or sidelights in fire rated walls as well as in fire doors.
-Some of the recent developed fire rated glazing is impact resistant so can also be used for security purposes

162

What are the restrictions on the allowable area of glass in fire doors?

-Fire doors with ratings of 1, 1 1/2, and 3 hours can have glass panels up to 100 in.² in area per door
-fire doors with ratings of 3/4 hour can have a total glass area consistent with their listing, but an individual piece cannot exceed 1296 in.².
Fire doors with the ratings of 1/2 or 3/4 hour can have fire rated glass up to the maximum area to which they were tested

163

Describe louvers in a fire door

-It is sometimes desirable to install louvers in a fire door to permit ventilation while the door is closed
-The louvers in a fire door must close in case of fire to protect the opening.

164

Usually, louvers are closed by means of

Fusible link

165

Which doors can have louvers?

-Louvers cannot be arbitrarily installed in fire doors.
- Only those fire doors that are listed for the installation of louvers can have louvers installed

166

What are the two ways that fire doors can be closed?

Automatic and self-closing

167

What is an automatic fire door?

Door normally held open and closes automatically under fire conditions when an operating device is activated

168

What is a self closing fire door?

Door that is normally closed and will return to the closed position if it is opened and released

169

Type of doors that fire door closers are used for

Swinging or sliding

170

The two devices that fire door closers use

It can incorporate a hold open device or can be self closing
-

171

A fire door closer that uses a hold open device, uses what device?

It incorporates a fusible link device that holds the door open and releases the door under fire conditions

172

Self closing doors are commonly used for what applications?

Stairwell doors and doors that separate hotel rooms from corridors.

173

One commonly used self closer uses a ----- ------ to close the door when released.

spring hinge

174

Types of fire doors that a door holder can be used with

Swinging, sliding, or rolling fire doors

175

The devices that operate fire doors include

Door closers, door holders, and door operators

176

A door holder is intended to be used with

A suitable door closer

177

Describe an electromagnetic door holder

-Can be used in conjunction with a smoke detector that releases the holder.
- This arrangement is very useful in areas with a large volume of traffic such as school stair enclosures. They are often used in healthcare occupancies where they can be released by operation of a fire alarm system
-Having fire doors held open prevents the practice of blocking the doors in an open position

178

What is a door operator?

Consists of an electric operator that opens and closes the door for normal use. A door operator is intended for use with sliding fire doors that are mounted on either a level or inclined track.
Under fire conditions, a fusible link disconnects the door from the operator and allows it to be closed by means of a spring powered door closer or a system of suspended weights

179

What are the advantages of using a fusible link in a door operator?

It is inexpensive, relatively rugged, and easy to maintain

180

What is a disadvantage of using a fusible link with a door operator

-A disadvantage is that it is slower to operate and devices that react to smoke or rise in the rate of temperature.
- A significant amount of smoke my flow through a door opening before a fusible link can release a door

181

What is an advantage of using a smoke detector as opposed to a fusible link with a door operator?

The door closes more quickly and also permits easy testing of the fire door.

182

Disadvantage of using smoke detector with a door operator

A smoke detector costs more and requires periodic cleaning. They also must be properly position with respect to dead air spaces or ventilation ducts

183

There are a number of types of fire doors designed for use in a particular setting. Among them are

Rolling doors, overhead doors, horizontal doors, as well as other types

184

Rolling steel fire doors are constructed of interlocking steel slats with other operating components including

A release device, governor, counterbalance mechanism, and wall guides

185

Where are rolling steel fire doors used in a building?

-And overhead rolling steel fire door is used to protect an opening in a firewall and an industrial occupancy.
- It is also frequently used at the opening in a wall separating buildings. -An overhead rolling steel fire door may be used on one or both sides of a wall opening.

186

What is one architectural advantage of an overhead rolling fire door?

It is relatively inconspicuous and out-of-the-way

187

How does and overhead rolling door ordinarily close?

Under the force of gravity when a fusible link melts but motor driven doors are also available

188

Dangerous conditions caused by overhead rolling doors

The overhead door may create a dangerous dead- end corridor when it closes.
--Overhead doors can also create a dangerous condition for firefighters who may not be able to see the door installation through the heavy smoke.
-Firefighters advancing on a fire must use care when moving through an opening protected with overhead rolling fire doors to avoid being struck by a closing door.
- In addition, a door that closes after firefighters have passed through it can trap firefighters in the fire area, cutting off their escape path, restricting water through pinched hose lines, and this orienting members who do not realize that the door came down across the corridor behind them

189

Where are horizontal sliding doors normally found?

Older industrial buildings

190

How are horizontal sliding doors held open?

By a fusible link and slides into position along a track either by gravity or by the force of a counterweight

191

What type of materials is the normal horizontal sliding door constructed?

Metal – covered, wood – core door

192

Describe the wood- core door

-They wood core provides thermal insulation while the sheet metal covering protects the wood from the fire.
-Because wood undergoes thermal decomposition when exposed to heat, a vent hole is usually provided in the sheet-metal to prevent gases of decomposition

193

What type of metal is used to cover the wood core in the horizontal sliding door

Steel, galvanized sheet metal, and terneplate, which is a metal composed of tin and lead.

194

In horizontal sliding doors, smooth galvanized sheet metal is used on wood core doors known as

Kalamein doors

195

Horizontal sliding Fire doors made with galvanized steel or terneplate are commonly referred to as

Tin clad, although strictly speaking the metal used is not pure tin

196

Swinging fire doors are available with ratings of

3 hours to 20 minutes

197

Where are swinging fire doors often used?

Stairwell enclosures and corridors. Although a swinging fire door has the disadvantage of requiring a clear space around the door to ensure closure, it is a good choice where the door is frequently closed and provision must be made for pedestrian traffic

198

When is it necessary to use a vestibule between the doors that is a fire resistive construction?

Where it is necessary to provide a fire door on either side of a wall and the swinging doors are in and exit path so that they are required to swing in the direction of exit travel.
- A pair of fire doors may be installed to close off a corridor at a firewall, with one door swinging in each direction to accommodate exit travel in both directions

199

What are common facilities that make use of a vestibule between fire doors?

Some healthcare facilities, apartment buildings, and schools

200

Horizontal folding fire door operation

-This door is motor driven and requires electrical power for operation.
-A signal from a smoke detector or fire alarm system initiates the door closing.
- A battery powers the motor if the regular power supply is interrupted.

201

In what situation might a horizontal folding fire door be used?

This type of door is frequently used where a fire rated partition is required and the designer does not wish to provide a fixed wall to create an unobstructed floor plan.

202

What is a common reason for failure of fire doors in actual fires?

Failure of fire doors to close properly

203

What is a common reason for failure of fire doors to work properly?

Damage to the door closer, the door itself, or door guides

204

Proper fire door operation requires that the doors be

Properly maintained
Therefore, inspection, testing, and proper maintenance, are always important

205

What is the function of a foundation?

To transfer the structural load of a building to the ground

206

A structural element designed to control vibration.

Damping mechanism

207

Damping mechanisms are typically installed at:

The connections between columns and beams, they absorb energy as the structure begins to move

208

The basic concept of base isolation is to isolate the building from the:

Horizontal movement of the earth's surface.

The following to isolation methods have been used:

Elastomeric bearings

Sliding systems

209

The force generated by soil pressure must be evaluated in the_____

Design process

210

The forces associated with soils are difficult to:

Determine accurately and may only be estimated

211

Soil exerts a horizontal pressure against a foundation. The magnitude of the pressure depends on:

-The type of soil

-It's degree of cohesion

-It's moisture content

212

The pressure exerted by the soil against the foundation is known as the:

Active soil pressure

213

The force of the foundation against the soil is known as the:

Passive soil pressure

214

In determining the force created by the active soil pressure, the soil is assumed to behave like a:

Fluid

215

The basic equation used to determine soil pressure is:

P=Cwh

P=pressure
H=depth of the soil
W=density of the soil
C=numerical constant that depends on the physical properties of the soil.

216

Firefighters frequently become involved in rescue operations because of_____or_____, so building foundation shifts have real life application.

Trench collapses or construction excavation accidents

217

In addition to the forces already discussed these three forces may also be exerted on a building:

-Temperature: as the temperature outside a building changes, the structural members at the periphery of the building expand and contract.

-vibration: vibration can arise from sources within a building such as rotating machinery.

-Shrinkage: shrinkage can occur in wood structural members as the lumbar dries overtime. This can result in tensile forces at connections between the members.

218

Weight of the structure, structural members, building components, and any other feature permanently attached to the building that is constant and immobile. Load on a structure due to its own weight and other fixed weights.

Dead load

219

The forces on a building resulting from gravity, which were described earlier, are classified into two types:

Dead loads and live loads

220

The weight of any permanent part of a building. This includes the weight of the buildings components such as roofs, floor slabs or decks, interior walls, stair systems, exterior walls, and columns it also includes permanent equipment such as heating plants, elevator hoist, pumps, and water supply tanks in earthquake zones.

Dead load

Page 81

221

Although dead loads usually remain the same, they can change, such as when:

An air-conditioning unit is installed on the roof of a building.

It can also increase over time when additional layers of roofing material are added in the course of resurfacing

222

Supports that shift or settle will alter the forces on structural members

-Above the foundation of the building
-In severe cases, the frame of a building maybe distorted, floors may slope, walls and glass make crack, and doors and windows may not work properly

223

Various types of surface materials are found throughout different regions of the world. They may range from – – – space – – – at one extreme to – – – – – – at the other

Loose sand at one extreme to solid granite and the other

224

Body of local law, adopted by states, counties, cities, or other governmental bodies to regulate the construction, renovation, and maintenance of building.
ch1

Building Code

225

Although jurisdictions can write and adopt their own codes, they typically adopt all or a portion of a ______ package as their building and fire code.
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“model code”

226

Different types of soil may be found at different depths in a given location. Before planning of a building can proceed, civil engineers must determine the properties of the soil that lies beneath the site. This is done by taking a------- or by using-------

By digging a test pit or by using test borings

227

Test pits are usually used up to a depth of about

8 feet

228

The use of a test pit permits the – – – of the soil to be observed and measured

Strata

229

Some jurisdictions may adopt and use codes developed by the National Fire Protection Association (such as __________, and ___________ and _______ .
ch1

NFPA® 1, Uniform Fire Code
NFPA® 5000, Building Construction
Safety Code

230

When using a test boring, what method is used to get information about the soil strata?

The number of impacts of a standard driving hammer, required to drive the boring tube a given distance provides information about the soil Strata

231

Line, area, or zone where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped _____ or vegetative fuels.
ch1

Wildland/Urban interface
wildland

232

What determines the type of foundation required for a project?

Depends on the type of building (structural configuration) and soil conditions at the site

233

A foundation must support the dead load of a building and live load of its contents. In addition, a foundation may need to be designed to resist what other forces

Wind loads that may apply lateral or uplifting forces to a building
– soil pressure
– uplifting forces from underground water
– thrusts resulting from the support of arches, domes, and vaults - seismic forces

234

The main factors that determine the type of foundation to be used for a building are the soil conditions and the structural configuration. Other factors include:

– The working space available
– Environmental factors
– Impact on adjacent property
– Building codes and regulations

235

Foundations are divided into two types:

Shallow and deep

236

A-----foundation transfers the weight of the building to the soil at the base of the building

-Shallow
-A shallow foundation can be used where the loadbearing ability of the soil directly under the building is adequate to support the building

237

The actual construction process requires ____ and ______.
ch1

coordination and scheduling

238

One method of managing a construction project is a technique known as _____
ch1

“fast tracking"

239

What is a footing?

That part of the building that rests on the bearing soil and is wider than the foundation wall

240

Wall footings can take several forms, such as:

– Increased thickness of a floor slab at its edges (known as a monolithic floor); aka reinforced slab
-A widened strip of concrete under a wall that supports a raised floor with a crawl space; aka craw space
A widened strip of concrete under full story high walls that create a full or partial basement; aka basement

241

Is a square pad of concrete that supports a column

Column footing

242

Type of footing that consists of layers of beams placed at right angles to each other that are usually encased in concrete

-Grillage footing; is used when a column footing is supporting a large load
-The beams that make up the grillage footing distribute the load of the column over the area of the footing

243

There are several ways tactical firefighters can develop knowledge of building construction in their jurisdiction:
ch1

One way is to obtain information through the building permit process.(This method is particularly useful in the case of large structures such as hospitals, shopping malls, exhibition halls, and high-rise buildings)

A second means of developing knowledge of building construction is through pre-incident (pre-fire) planning.

Geographic information systems (GIS) are another means of obtaining, analyzing, and using data based on location.

244

Pre-incident plans include information regarding
ch1

occupancy, industrial process, hazardous materials, fire protection systems, building access, and utilities.

245

— Act of preparing to handle an incident at a particular location or a particular type of incident before an incident occurs.
ch1

Pre-incident Planning

Also called Pre-fire Planning, Preplanning, Pre-fire Inspection, or Pre-incident Inspection

246

Fundamental to the pre-incident planning process is information about a building’s construction. This includes the
ch1

construction type (i.e., wood frame, fire-resistive), location of fire walls, vertical openings, roof construction, exits, and any smoke control systems that may be provided.

247

A floating foundation is the same as a mat foundation except

The floating foundation is located beneath a building at a depth such that the weight of the soil removed is equal to the weight of the building

248

Inspection of the construction takes place ______ and _________ of a project. Inspections are performed by the ____________ and by the building department.
ch1

during and upon completion
architect or the architect’s representative

249

As construction nears completion, the _______ makes a final inspection.
ch1

architect

250

In _____, the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) was signed into law in the US.
ch1

1990

251

The following impairments qualify as disabilities under the Act: (ADA)
ch1
(My Nuts Have Very Little Sperm)

• Vision impairments • Hearing impairments • Learning
• Speech • Neuromuscular impairments • Mental illness

252

The use of timber for piles is limited by what several factors?

The possibility of decay and the length of available trees from which timbers are cut

253

What are piles?

Used to support loads, piles are driven into the ground and develop their load carrying ability either through friction with the surrounding soil, or by being driven into contact with rock or a load bearing soil layer

254

What are Piers?

Load supporting member constructed by drilling or digging a shaft, then filling the shaft with concrete

255

2 examples of an Area of refuge is:
ch1

(1) Area where persons who are unable to use stairs can temporarily wait for instructions or assistance during an emergency building evacuation.
(2) Space in the normal means of egress protected from fire by an approved sprinkler system, by means of separation from other spaces within the same building by smoke proof walls, or by virtue of location in an adjacent building.

256

Where required, the areas of refuge must be equipped with __________ so individuals can call for assistance.
ch1

two-way communication

257

Foundation design issue sloping ground

And unusual problem arises when a building is to be built on sloping ground. This situation often occurs with beachfront property or property located on the side of the canyon or steep slope. As the slope of the ground increases, the foundation design becomes more critical. When the ground slopes angle is severe, piles or piers are placed in more dense lower soils.These deep elements act as a vertical cantilevers to resist the lateral force exerted by the building. The vertical elements are connected with a tie beam

258

Concerns with energy efficiency, for example, result in buildings with dual-pane windows and tighter fitting doors and seals. These affect the speed with which firefighters can _____ a ______and the ______ of _____ within a building.
ch1

ventilate a building
rate of combustion

259

These _____ ______ affect building design in such fundamental matters as building height and in determining whether or not a basement is practical.
ch1

soil properties

260

Indications of a shift in the foundation wall?

-Any vertical or horizontal misalignment along the length of a crack in the foundation wall indicates a movement or shift in the structure
-When a structure is inspected for stability, any change in size or extension of cracks or fissures should be given close attention

261

What is the significance if there is a shift in the structure?

It may mean a change in the imposition of loads on structural members

262

Besides concrete, what other materials can foundation walls be constructed with?

Concrete block, stone, or brick

263

If wood is to be used for foundation walls, what must it be treated with?

Preservatives to resist decay

264

What type of buildings are wood foundations used with

Wood foundations are used with wood frame buildings

265

The overall design of a building, as well as the individual details, is determined by
ch1

available funds

266

What are the advantages of expanded polystyrene(EPS)

The expanded polystyrene conserves he in cold climates and reduces the energy needed for air-conditioning in warm climates. The use of EPS also permits foundations to be dug to shallower depths resulting in a cost savings. This is due to the fact that the reduced heat transfer through the EPS to the surrounding soil results in a frost line that is closer to the surface

267

After buildings are constructed, they will move either because of

Various unforeseen factors or as a result of construction defects

268

What are the three types of movements that a building can suffer?

Downward as in the case of settlement, upward as in the case of heaving, or outward as in the case of lateral displacement

269

What is the most frequent type of building movement?

Settlement- downward movement

270

What are the two types of Settlement foundations

Uniform or differential

271

What is uniform settlement?

Parts of a foundation settle at the same rate and misalignment between structural members is minor

272

What is differential settlement?

Takes place when different parts of the foundation settle by different amounts and is more troublesome than uniform settlement, because it can result in significant misalignment of structural members

273

Differential settlement of a foundation can result from what several conditions?

-Non-uniform soil conditions under the foundation
– Footings a different size
– Footings placed a different elevations
– Unequal loads on footings

274

Process of strengthening an existing foundation and refers to permanent supports

Underpinning

275

The need for underpinning can result from what several causes

-Excessive settlement because of an in adequate foundation
- An increase in the load on a foundation because of the construction of additional stories
– Erosion of soil from under or around the foundation

276

What is shoring?

-General term used for lengths of timber, screw jacks, hydraulic and pneumatic jacks, and other devices that can be used as temporary support for formwork or structural components or used to hold sheeting against trench walls.
- Individual supports are called Shores, cross braces, and struts
-shoring an existing structure is frequently necessary to support the structure until underpinning can be put into place

277

Why is the placement of shoring and underpinning difficult and dangerous?

It frequently involves excavation by hand because it may not be possible to position power equipment when the work is done in limited spaces such as basements. If a collapse occurs in connection with this work, the fire department typically is called upon to conduct a rescue operation. Such rescue operations always require extreme caution and coordination

278

Group of people, usually five to seven, with experience in fire prevention, building construction, and/or
code enforcement legally constituted to arbitrate differences of opinion between fire inspectors and building officials, property owners, occupants or builders

Ch.1

Board of Appeals

279

A building permit is obtained from the local

ch1

building department

280


________ is such an important concern to an architect that it frequently clashes with fire safety concerns.

ch1

Aesthetics

281

the possibility of communication of fire should always be included in _____ _____.
ch1

pre-incident planning.

282

Currently the most widely used model building code in the US is the _______ published by the ____________.
ch1.

International Building Code (IBC)
International Code Council Incorporated

283

The International Building Code is the successor to three earlier model codes:
ch1

•The Uniform Building Code (UBC) published by the International Council of Building Officials (ICBO).
•The Standard Building Code published by the Southern Building Code Congress International.
•The BOCA National Building Code published by the Building Officials and Code Administrators International.

284

The International Building Code has a companion fire code, the ________.
Both the fire and building codes must be used together during ___________.
ch1

International Fire Code
facility design

285

Some jurisdictions may adopt and use codes developed by the National Fire Protection Association (such as __________, and ___________ and _______ .

NFPA® 1, Uniform Fire Code
NFPA® 5000, Building Construction
Safety Code

286

Distance from the street line to the front of a building
ch1.

Setback

287

Line, area, or zone where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped wildland or vegetative fuels.

Wildland/Urban interface

288

In the wildland/urban interface, fire communication to exposures can be from:
ch1

shake (wood) roofs, open vents, exterior sidings, and vegetation

289

Transfer of heat by the movement of heated fluids or gases, usually in an upward direction.
ch1

Convection

290

The desire to renovate older buildings in some urban areas can result in unique efforts at change of occupancy. A few typical examples include:

• A church converted into _____
• A storm window manufacturing plant into a _______
• Parking facility converted to a ______
• Two-story factory converted to a
• Multistory industrial buildings converted to _____
ch1

condominiums
community theater
flea market
shopping mall
condominiums with parking

291

Branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste.
ch1

Aesthetics

292

Without oversight by a building department, buildings can be weakened if work is performed without regard to proper methods. Examples of these structural problems include the following:
ch1

• Removal or penetration of bearing walls • Modification of beams or trusses • Structural overloading of roofs • Creation of mezzanine floors in attic spaces • Rooftop additions
• Remodeling that creates additional voids, such as suspended ceilings
• Illegal remodeling or overloading that poses extreme hazards

293

The actual construction process requires ____ and ______.

coordination and scheduling

294

In a fast-track project, the _____ and _______phases overlap

design and construction

295

A commonly adopted NFPA® code is
ch1

the Life Safety Code (NFPA® 101)

296

Specific fire safety provisions include requirements for the following elements:
ch1

• Structural fire resistance
• Flammability of interior finishes
• Adequacy of means of egress
• Enclosure of vertical openings
• Fire protection systems
• Exposure protection
• Occupancy separation

297

Occupant safety must also be considered in the following areas:
ch1

• Design of stairs and walking surfaces
• Balcony railings
• Overhead obstacles
• Electrical wiring
• Elevator operation

298

There are several ways tactical firefighters can develop knowledge of building construction in their jurisdiction:
ch1


One way is to obtain information through the building permit process.

299

Preincident plans include information regarding
ch1

occupancy, industrial process, hazardous materials, fire protection systems, building access, and utilities.

300

— Act of preparing to handle an incident at a particular location or a particular type of incident before an incident occurs.
ch1

Preincident Planning

Also called Prefire Planning, Preplanning, Prefire Inspection, or Preincident Inspection

301

Fundamental to the preincident planning process is information about a building’s construction. This includes the
ch1

construction type (i.e., wood frame, fire-resistive), location of fire walls, vertical openings, roof construction, exits, and any smoke control systems that may be provided.

302

Building built without a tenant or occupant
ch1

Spec Building — (short for speculation).

303

Inspection of the construction takes place ______ and _________ of a project. Inspections are performed by the ____________ and by the building department

during and upon completion
architect or the architect’s representative

304

In _____, the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) was signed into law in the US.

1990

305

The following impairments qualify as disabilities under the Act: (ADA)
ch1
My Nuts Have Very Little Sperm

• Vision impairments • Hearing impairments • Learning
• Speech • Neuromuscular impairments • Mental illness

306

Some of the specific building elements that must be designed to accommodate individuals with restricted abilities include the following:
CH1

• Building entrances • Parking and passenger loading zones • Elevators
*Drinking fountains • Toilet facilities
• Alarms (visible and/or audible) • Telephones • Automated teller machines • Means of egress

307

Manual fire alarm stations must be not more than __ feet and not less than ____ feet above the floor level so they can be reached from a wheelchair.
ch1

41⁄2
31⁄2

308

People who are unable to use the stairs for emergency evacuation must be provided with alternate protection such as an _____ of _____.
ch1

area of refuge

309

Term used to describe the incorporation of such environmental principles as energy efficiency and environmentally friendly building materials into design and construction.
ch1

Green Design

310

Concerns with energy efficiency, for example, result in buildings with dual-pane windows and tighter fitting doors and seals. These affect the speed with which firefighters can _____ a ______and the ______ of _____ within a building.

ventilate a building
rate of combustion

311

These _____ ______ affect building design in such fundamental matters as building height and in determining whether or not a basement is practical

soil properties

312

The transmission or transfer of heat energy from one body to another body at a lower temperature through intervening space by electromagnetic waves.
ch1

thermal radiation

313

________ communication of fire is mainly due to thermal radiation.
ch1

Horizontal

314

Fire spread is often the result of ____ ____.
ch1

radiant heat

315

In earlier times, the appearance of a building was determined by the ____ _____ in its construction.
ch1

materials used

316

When a decision is made to design and construct a building, the designer has many factors to consider in reaching a satisfactory result. These include the following:
ch1

• Fiscal resources (cost) • Building use • Aesthetic tastes • Building codes
• Safety • Accessibility
• Climate • Infrastructure • Soil conditions • The physical laws of engineering • The owner’s needs and desires

317

The ______ usually functions as the prime designer who has the responsibility and control to choose major aspects of the building and to eliminate alternatives.
ch1

architect

318

The erection of buildings involves several branches of engineering and all of the building trades. In addition to architecture, the major technical specialties and their functions include the following:


ch1

Civil engineering, Structural engineering, Mechanical engineering, Electrical engineering, Fire protection engineering

319

• Civil engineering
ch1

— Water supply — Sanitary sewers — Surveying— Site preparation and excavation
— Roadways — Storm water drainage

320

• Mechanical engineering
ch1

— Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning — Pumping systems — Elevators — Plumbing systems

321

• Structural engineering
ch1

— Determination of loads — Foundation design — Structural behavior
— Structural members
— Structural erection

322

• Electrical engineering
ch1

— Lighting — Power — Communications

323

• Fire protection engineering
ch1

— Automatic sprinklers — Standpipes — Fire alarm — Smoke control — Code compliance

324

The finishing touch in the design process is
ch1.

landscaping

325

Testing is performed on certain materials, systems, and components such as ____, _____ and _____ ____. The _____ ___ is usually involved in the testing of the fire protection systems in new construction.
ch1

concrete, fire pumps, and emergency generators
fire department

326

The primary role of the ___ _____is to ensure proper installation and operation of the fire protection systems
ch1

fire inspector

327

The actual system tests are carried out by representatives of the _____ _____.
ch1

installing contractor

328

______ ______ alone is not the only factor in determining if a fire can communicate to an exposed building. The area, namely the _____ and ______, of the exposing flame is also a factor.
ch1

Flame temperature
height and width

329

Flames emitting from a window in a masonry wall can expose an adjacent building. As the area of the opening increases in size, the amount of ____ ______increases
ch1

thermal radiation

330

NFPA ___ Recommended Practice for Protection from Exterior Fire Exposure, describes three levels of exposure based on the potential severity of the exposing fire. The standard classifies the levels of exposure as

80A
light, moderate, or severe

331

There are a number of methods used to protect buildings from exposing fires, including the following:
ch1

• Clear space between buildings • Fire suppression systems such as water-based sprinkler systems and fire-
retardant distribution systems • Blank walls of noncombustible construction • Self-supporting barrier walls between the fire building and the exposure • Parapets on exterior masonry walls • Automatic outside deluge systems • Elimination of openings in exterior walls • Glass block panels in openings • Wired glass in steel sash windows • Automatic fire shutters or dampers on wall openings • Automatic fire doors on door openings

332

the possibility of communication of fire should always be included in _____ _____.
ch1

preincident planning.

333

In engineering, _____ is said to occur when a structure or part “is no longer capable of performing its required function in a satisfactory manner.” Depending on what a structure is designed for, failure could mean:

failure
excessive vibration, deflection, noise, or wear.

334

Potential sources of building failure under fire conditions can include some or all of the following:
ch1

• Structural integrity • Building systems • Design deficiencies

335

The collapse of a building under fire conditions is a result of the loss of a building’s _____ _______
ch1

structural integrity

336

_____ ______materials possess the ability to maintain structural integrity
ch1

Fire-resistive

337

Specific building systems include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); _____ __; communications; _____; and transportation such as _____ and ____.
ch1

electrical power
plumbing
elevators and conveyors

338

The term ____ ____ in this text refers to a failure to provide a level of fire safety appropriate to the ultimate use of the building.
ch1

design deficiencies

339

One very basic aspect of building safety is the provision of an adequate number of ____. This number is determined by the number of persons likely to occupy a building, subject to building code provisions for occupancy classifications.
ch1

exits

340

A building’s _____ must facilitate its end use.
ch1

design

341

The desire to renovate older buildings in some urban areas can result in unique efforts at change of occupancy. A few typical examples include:

• A church converted into _____
• A storm window manufacturing plant into a _______
• Parking facility converted to a ______
• Two-story factory converted to a
• Multistory industrial buildings converted to _____
ch1

condominiums
community theater
flea market
shopping mall
condominiums with parking

342

Branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste.
ch1

Aesthetics

343

Aesthetics is such an important concern to an architect that it frequently clashes with fire ____ _____.
ch1

safety concerns

344

If the existing water mains cannot supply the required flow, it would be necessary to either ____ ____ __ of the mains or provide for ___ _____and fire pumps.
ch1

increase the size
on-site storage

345

If ____ ____ ____ are not readily accessible, a well and storage tank may be necessary.
ch1

public water mains

346

The final building design always involves a balance of :
ch1

what is desired, what is needed, and what is practical

347

Minor renovations such as adding an _____ ______ also need to be performed by licensed contractors.

electrical receptacle

348

Any load that is not fixed or permanent. Can include wind and seismic loads, the term is usually applied to building contents, occupants, and the weight of snow or rain on the roof.

Live load

*Another definition is: force placed upon a structure by the addition of people, objects, or whether.

349

A load that is applied at one point or over a small area

Concentrated load

350

Building codes require that a specified_____be used in the structural analysis when it creates greater load effects than the uniform load.

Minimum concentrated load

351

The load exerted on a roof from the weight of snow is known as the:

Snow load

Can vary from virtually none in the southern states to 60 pounds per square foot in some areas such as northern Michigan. The amount of snow that accumulates on the roof also depends on the slope or shape of the roof and the effect of adjacent structures.

352

_____Roofs are especially vulnerable to the accumulated weight of snow.

Poorly maintained

353

_____Is used as a starting point in calculating the snow load on a roof.

The snow load expected on the ground

354

Frequently, the snow load calculated for a roof may be on the order of:

20 or 30 pounds per square foot

Page 84

355

Water from firefighting operations can add an additional:

Live load

Most of the water will drain from upper floors by way of elevator shafts and stairwells

356

In addition to their origin, the loads applied two buildings may be classified as:

Static or dynamic

Static load-loads that are steady, motionless, constant, or applied gradually. The dead load of the building, the snow load, and many live loads are static loads.

dynamic load-loads that involve motion. they include the forces arising from wind, moving vehicles, earthquakes, vibration, falling objects, as well as the addition of a moving load force to an aerial device or structure, also called shock loading.

Page 84

357

Dynamic loads different from static loads in that they are capable of:

Delivering energy to a structure in addition to the weight of an object.

358

The basic equation for kinetic energy is:

E=1/2 mv2

359

Dynamic loads have the ability to cause failure after

Repeated cycles

An example of this is the deterioration of a garage floor because of the repeated impact loads created by the movement of heavy vehicles.

360

When the support provided by a structural system is equal to the applied loads, a condition known as_____exists:

Equilibrium

A building collapses or partially collapses when the applied loads exceed the ability of the structural system to support them. The collapse represents a loss of equilibrium. In a sense, when the building becomes a pile of debris on the ground, equilibrium is reestablished.

361

The forces that resist the applied loads are known as:

Reactions

Page 86

362

The loads and forces applied to a structural member create_____within the member.

Internal forces

Proper design requires an evaluation of the internal forces to prevent failure in the form of cracking, crumbling, bending, or breaking.

363

A beam that is supported at one end is known as a:

Cantilever beam

Another definition is: projecting beam or slab supported at one end.

364

In addition to the vertical force, the support bracket must also resist a bending force. This bending force is known as a_____and is equal to the force multiplied by the distance at which the_____is applied.

Bending moment

That is the answer for both blanks

Page 87

365

Exterior loads can create different kinds of interior forces in materials. The interior forces are classified according to the direction in which they occur in the material. There are three of them:

Tension, compression, shear

Tension-tends to pull the material apart

Compression-tends to squeeze the material

Shear-tends to slide one plane of a material past an adjacent plane

366

Those vertical or horizontal forces that tend to pull things apart; for example, the force exerted on the bottom cord of a truss.

Tension

367

A material such as concrete has good compressive strength but little_____strength.

Tensile strength

368

A measurement of force intensity and is expressed as force units divided by the area over which the force is applied:

Stress

Page 87

369

The magnitude of the interior forces that occur in structural members is evaluated by a quantity known as:

Stress

370

Loads are classified according to the:

Direction in which they occur in the material.

Page 88

371

Point at which material ceases to perform satisfactorily. Depending on the application this can be breaking, permanent Deformation, excessive deflection, or vibration.

Failure point

372

Because many factors used in design cannot be known precisely, a_____is used. They provide for variations in the properties of the construction materials, the workmanship, and the live and dead loads.

Factor of safety

A factor of safety is the ratio of the failure point of the material to the maximum design stress

Page 88

373

Exterior loads can be classified as ____,____, or____ according to the manner in which they are applied.

Axial, eccentric, or torsional

Axial load-load applied to the center of the cross-section of a member and perpendicular to that cross-section. It can be either tensile or compressive and creates uniform stresses across the cross-section of the material.

Eccentric load-is a load that is perpendicular to the cross-section of the structural member but does not pass through the center of the cross-section. An eccentric load create stresses that vary across the cross-section and maybe both tensile and compressive.

Torsional load-is offset from the center of the cross-section of the structural member and at an angle to or in the same plane as the cross-section. A torsional load produces a twisting effect that creates shear stresses in a material.

374

Under fire conditions, loads can change because of the_____released by the fire.

Thermal energy

Firefighters must understand that structures and individual structural members are designed to support specific loads

Page 89

375

Compression forces cause a_____effect:

Squeeze

376

Axial loads are applied along the members axis. Eccentric loads are applied to one side of the cross-section, creating a bending tendency. Torsional loads are applied at an angle to the cross-section creating a twisting tendency.

There is no answer for this note card. It was just a tidbit of info

377

Structural members can expand, SAG, twist, or simply Burn away. As the structural components become distorted, the loads with in a building can shift and exert additional forces on adjacent members. Loads that were originally axial can become either eccentric or torsional. These shifting loads increase:

The probability of failure

Page 90

378

Larger structural systems can be constructed from several basic components. Including some of the following: there are seven of them

Beams

Columns

Arches

Cables

Trusses

Spaceframes

Connectors

379

Structural member subjected to loads, usually vertical, perpendicular to its length.

Beam

Another definition: a beam is a structural member that can carry loads perpendicular to it's a longitudinal dimension.

380

A beam that is supported at each end and is free to rotate at the ends.

Simply supported beam

A wood joist resting on a masonry wall is an example of a simply supported beam.

381

A beam that is supported at one end:

Cantilever beam

These beams are often used to support balconies

382

Beams can also be continuous across several supports or restrained at both ends. Restrained beams are rigidly supported at each end. Under fire conditions, a rigidly supported beam will tend to:

Retain its load bearing ability longer than a simply supported beam.

Page 90

383

Beams can be made of:

Wood, steel, or reinforced concrete

384

The primary design consideration of beams is their ability to:

Resist bending from the applied the loads

385

In a beam the maximum tension or compression stresses are in the:

At the middle of the beam, a point known as the_____, the tension and compression stresses are actually zero.

Top and bottom. The top is under compression and the bottom is under tension.

Neutral axis

The top and bottom portions of the beam do most of the work resisting the bending movement.

Page 92

386

Some of the material can be removed from the middle of the beam cross-section without greatly affecting:

The strength of the beam

This increases the fishing use of material and reduces the weight of the beam. It is this engineering principle that results in many beams being constructed in the shape of the letter I.

387

In an I-beam, the top and bottom portions of the beam are known as the top and bottom:

Flanges

Because the top and bottom flanges of an I-beam support most of the load, any alteration of the flanges, such as cutting the top flange of a wooden I-beam, can have the effect of greatly reducing its strength.

Page 92

388

Tall beams are capable of supporting greater loads and short beams, even if they have the same:

Cross-sectional area

389

Structural members designed to support an axial compressive load. They are not primarily designed to withstand stresses due to bending.

Columns

The stresses created within a column are primarily compressive

Another definition: vertical supporting beam

390

Columns can be made of: there are five of them

Wood, steel, cast-iron, concrete, or masonry

In cases of failure, tall, thin columns fail by buckling and short, squatty columns fail by crushing.

Page 93

391

A curved structural member in which the interior stresses are primarily compressive. They produce inclined forces at their end supports, which the supports must resist.

Arches

392

Arches are used to carry loads _______, and have application as support for roofs and entrances in masonry buildings.

Across a distance

393

Vertical loads applied to an arch create inclined reactions at there:

Supports

If the end supports of an arch are removed, the arch becomes unstable

394

To provide for minor adjustments, arches are sometimes designed with:

Hinges

395

Arches can be constructed of: there are four of them

Masonry

Steel

Concrete

Laminated wood

396

Can be thought of as flexible structural members that can be used to support roofs, brace tents, and restrain pneumatic structures.

Cables

Although cables can be used in applications where they are a sensually Street, a cable used to support loads over a distance will assume the shape of a para bola.

397

The stresses and cables are:

Cables are usually made of:

Tension stresses

Steel strands, although aluminum may be used where weight is a critical factor

398

Structural member used to form a roof or floor framework. They form triangles or combinations of triangles to provide maximum load bearing capacity with a minimum amount of material; often rendered dangerous by exposure to intense heat, which weakens gusset plate attachment.

Trusses

Only compressive or tensile stresses will affect the members of the trusts

Another definition: framed structural units made up of a group of triangles in one plane.

399

A true truss is made only of:

Straight members

Page 95

400

Some types of roof trusses, such as the bowstring truss, have a:

Curved top chord

These curved members are unavoidably subjected to bending forces

401

The_____of an arch roof allows the roof to make minor adjustments while bending.

Hinge

402

When a cable is used to support loads, it will assume the shape of a:

Parabola

Pg95

403

The top members of a truss are called:

The bottom members of a truss are called:

The diagonal members of a truss are called:

Top cords

Bottom chords

Diagonals or web members

The joints may be formed by pin connections, welding, gusset plates, strap connectors, or structural adhesive.

404

Trusses may be made of:

Would

Steel

A combination of wood and steel

405

Geometrically speaking, the triangle provides an:

Inherently rigid frame

406

Names of common roof trusses:

King post, inverted king post, inverted queen post, howe, Pratt, fink, camebered fink, scissors, hammer beam trus, Warren truss, saw tooth, bowstring, K truss, truss with monitor

407

Typical truss shapes are available to span distances of____to____.

22 to 70 feet

But in today's construction truss spans in excess of 100 feet or not uncommon

408

Trusses are a commonly used:

Most trusses are:

Structural member

Pre-fabricated

Page 97

409

Trusses also have the advantage of being able to span an equal distance using less material and:

Being lighter than a comparable beam

410

Lightweight wood or metal trusses, known as_____, have become very common in floor construction, taking the place of solid joists.

Truss joists

Lightweight wood trusses are also commonly used in roof construction.

411

From the firefighting standpoint, trusses have the potential for:

Early failure under adverse conditions.

This is due to the fact that failure of any portion of the top or bottom chords result in a failure of the truss. Lightweight steel trusses, known as bar joists, are also used for floor and roof construction and fire resistive and noncombustible construction.

Page 97

412

What kind of trusses are especially prone to failure?

Lightweight trusses

413

Roof trusses that are even lighter in weight than steel bar joists are available. In effect, these trusses are made of:

Galvanized steel studs or channels similar to them, and assembled with self drilling screws.

Page 97

414

Truss structures that are developed in three dimensions:

Space frames

Space frames are well-suited to support uniformly distributed loads

415

Would truss members can be connected by pins or bolts, gusset plates, adhesives, brackets, and metal straps. The members of steel trusses can be joined using:

Steel gusset plates

Rivets

Or welds

416

The____in truss assemblies are a critical part of the truss.

Connectors

Failure of a connector will result in failure of the truss. Quality control and manufacture of trusses can affect the behavior of trusses under fire conditions.

417

An almost infinite number of structural designs can be created. As with building types,____and____result in a number of commonly encountered structural systems.

Practical necessity

Economics

418

Wall that supports its self and the weight of the roof and or other internal structural framing components such as the floor beams above it.

Bearing wall

419

A common method of construction uses the walls of the building to support spanning elements such as: there are three of them

Beams

Trusses

Precast concrete slabs

These are appropriately known as bearing wall structures.

420

The bearing walls are usually the____walls with interior support system consisting of columns and beams.

Exterior walls

However, it is possible to use interior walls for structural support.

421

Bearing walls provide____support to the structure along the direction of the wall.

Lateral

422

And a bearing wall structure, the walls are subjected to _____ loads.

Compressive

The walls may be continuous or they may be interrupted for door and window openings.

423

Materials used for bearing walls include: there are four of them

Concrete masonry units

Bricks

Stone

Concrete panels

A log cabin is an example of the use of solid wood for a bearing wall

424

In a frame structure, structural support is provided in a manner similar to the way the:

Skeleton supports the human body

The walls act as the skin to enclose the frame. The walls may also provide lateral stiffness but provide no structural support

Page 99

425

In addition to the framing associated with wood construction, other types of structural frame construction include the following: there are five of them

Steel stud wall framing

Post and beam construction

Rigid frames

Slab and column frames

Truss frames

Page 99

426

Steel stud wall construction uses relatively closely spaced __________________ connected by top and bottom horizontal members.

Vertical steel studs

Historically, stud wall frame construction has been associated with the use of 2 x 4" wood studs although the use of steel studs has become more common in recent years

427

When the exterior and interior of a stud wall are covered with paneling or sheathing a_____results.

Rigid wall panel

Page 99

428

Post and beam construction uses a series of vertical elements (the posts) to support the horizontal elements (the beams) that are subject to:

Transverse loads

429

The distinctive characteristic of post and beam framing is the spacing of the vertical posts in the cross-sectional dimension of the members. The vertical posts maybe spaced up to____inches apart, unlike stud wall construction where the studs are___to___Inches apart. The minimum dimensions used for wood posts and beams are larger than the studs instead wall construction.

24in

12 to 16in

Typical dimensions for the posts are 6 x 8in when supporting roofs only. Post and beam construction requires the addition of other members such as diagonal braces to withstand lateral loads.

Page 100

430

When the joints between a column and a beam are reinforced so bending stresses can be transmitted through the joints, the structural system is known as a:

Rigid frame

The most easily recognized rigid frame structure is the single-story, gabled roof and rigid frame building

This type of rigid frame can be constructed of steel, laminated wood, or reinforced concrete.

Page 100

431

Because the joints are intended to transmit bending stresses, firefighter should pay particular attention to their design. The joints usually must be reinforced and will be the ____ portion of the assembly to fail under fire conditions.

Last

432

It is possible to build components of a frame using a series of trusses, as with the:

Arch and the rigid frame

Page 100

433

Slab and column frames are most frequently encountered in:

Concrete structures.

The floors of a multi story, reinforced concrete building are concrete slab. These floor slabs are supported by concrete columns. The intersection between the slab and column is a region of high stress and usually is reinforced by additional material in the form of a capital or a drop panel.

Page 101

434

System of construction in which the building consist primarily of enclosing surface and in which the stress resulting from the applied loads occur within the surface bearing wall structures.

Surface system

Page 101

435

Structure within an enclosing surface of a thin stretched flexible material. Examples of these are a simple tent or an air supported structure.

Membrane structure

Page 101

436

A membrane structure can be distinguished from a simple tent by its:

Permanence

Tents are used for short periods; membrane structures are permanent. Building codes typically address membrane structures with a life of 180 days or more, while fire codes address those to be used for less than 180 days.

Page 101

437

Membrane structures possess several design advantages. The fabrics used for roofs on membrane structures weigh less than other roof systems. Fabric roofs weigh only about___pounds per square foot.

2lbs

Membrane structures can usually be erected in less time than a rigid structural system. In addition, the fabrics used can flex and absorb some of the stresses caused by seismic and wind forces.

Page 102

438

Rigid, three-dimensional structure having an outer skin thickness that is small compared to other dimensions.

Shell structure

439

Shell structures lend themselves to regular geometric shapes such as: there are four of them

Cones

Domes

Barrel vaults

And folded plates

440

Shell structures are most commonly constructed of:

Concrete

Although it is possible to construct them using plywood or fiberglass.

Page 102

441

A power station cooling tower is an example of a:

Shell structure

442

A variety of structural components are available to the engineer to support the applied loads. These components, which include____,____,____,___, support loads in different ways.

Beams

Arches

Trusses

And columns

It must be emphasized that under fire conditions, the loads and stresses exerted on the structural system are subject to change in magnitude and direction resulting in structural failure.

Page 103

443

To the firefighter, the most significant characteristic of a building is not its architectural style but how it behaves ____ _______ ________.
ch2

under fire conditions

444

All _____ ____ classify buildings by construction type. These classifica- tions are based on two attributes of building construction: _______ and ______.
ch2

building codes
fire resistance and combustibility

445

_____ ________ determines the likelihood of structural collapse under fire conditions. ____ ______ nature of a building’s structural system will impact the rate of fire growth.
ch2

Fire resistance
The combustible

446

Fire-resistive buildings permit firefighters to make a more aggressive ______ _______ than they can make in non-fire resistive buildings. Fire-resistive buildings also provide an increased degree of ___ ______.
ch2

interior attack
occupant safety

447


— Rating assigned to a material or an assembly after standardized testing by an independent testing organization that identifies the amount of time a material or assembly of materials will resist a typical fire as measured on a standard time-temperature curve.

Fire resistance rating

448

From a fire protection standpoint, one of the most basic properties of building materials is their degree of ___ ____.
ch2

fire resistance

449

Fire resistance is a function of the properties of all materials used, including combustibility, ______ ____, chemical composition, ____, and dimensions.
ch2

thermal conductivity
density

450

_____ ____ is the ability of a structural assembly to maintain its load-bearing capacity and structural integrity under fire conditions.
ch2

Fire resistance

451

The fire resistance of structural components can be evaluated quantitatively and is known as the:
ch2

fire resistance rating

452

Building codes will have requirements for the fire resistance of structural elements such as the following:
ch2

• Beams
• Columns
• Walls and partitions
• Floor and ceiling assemblies
• Roof and ceiling assemblies

453

A building code will typically require that columns supporting the floors in a fire-resistive building have a fire resis- tance rating of __ hours
ch2

3

454

The walls enclosing an exit stairwell, which may or may not be load bear- ing, typically must have a fire-resistive rating of __ or __hours to protect the stairwell
ch2

1 or 2

455

There are three means by which the fire resistance of structural assemblies can be determined:
ch2

• Conducting standard fire resistance testing in a laboratory
• Performing analytical calculations to determine the resistance to a standard fire test exposure
•Employing analytical structural fire engineering design methods based on real fire exposure characteristics.

456

the most commonly used method of determining fire resistance is by _____ ______.
ch2

laboratory test

457

The earliest known fire tests on building materials were conducted in _______ in _______. (2) In the United States the first known fire tests were conducted in _____, ______ in ______.
ch2

Germany in 1884-86
Denver, Colorado in 1890

458

_______, Standard Method of Tests of Fire Endurance of Building Construction and Materials. It is also designated as ASTM E-119.

NFPA® 251

459

In the standard fire test, the furnace temperature is regulated to conform to a standard ___ _____ _____.
ch2

time-temperature curve

460

In the test furnace a temperature of _____ is reached at five minutes and ______ after 30 minutes. At one hour the temperature is ______.
ch2

1,000°F
1,550°F
1,700°F

461

The fire resistance ratings for floor and ceiling assemblies are developed for both ________ and ____ assemblies.
ch2

restrained and unrestrained

462

______ affect the extent to which an assembly may expand or rotate at its ends when exposed to high temperatures, affecting its ability to support a load.

Restraints

(restrained assemblies)

463

When a structural specimen is tested, the test is continued until the specimen ___ or the specified ____ _____ for which the specimen being tested is reached.
ch2

fails
fire endurance

464

Normally, assemblies are not tested beyond ___ hours because this is the maximum time required by the building codes.
ch2

four

465

The primary points of failure for the test are as follows:
ch2

(The specific failure criteria depend on the specimen being tested )

• Failure to support an applied load
• Temperature increase on the unexposed side of wall, floor, and roof assemblies of 250°F above ambient temperatures
• Passage of heat or flame through the assembly sufficient to ignite cotton waste
• Excess temperature on steel members*

466

Independent fire research and testing laboratory with headquarters in Northbrook, Illinois that certifies equipment and materials. Equipment and materials are approved only for the specific use for which it is tested.
ch2

Underwriters Laboratories, inc. (UL) —

467

Although an assembly may fail at any point during the test, fire resistance ratings for test specimens, including fire doors and windows, are expressed in standard intervals such as 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 1 hour, 11⁄2 hours, 2 hours, 3 hours, and 4 hours. Thus, if a given assembly failed one hour and ten minutes into a test, its fire rating would be __ ___.
ch2

one hour

468

It must be clearly understood that the fire-resistance ratings are established using a ____ ____ ___ ____.
ch2

standard laboratory test fire

469

ASTM Standard ___, Standard Test Methods for Determining Effects of Large Hydrocarbon Pool Fires on Structural Members and Assemblies.
ch2

(This test would be useful for evaluating the structural members used in such occupancies as petroleum refineries.)

1529

470

The ____test is the only method currently universally accepted by building codes.
ch2

E-119

471

Solid materials, such as wood blocks, used to prevent or limit the vertical and horizontal spread of
fire and the products of combustion in hollow walls or floors, above false ceilings, in penetrations for plumbing or electrical installations, in penetrations of a fire-rated assembly, or in cocklofts and crawl spaces.
ch2

Fire stop

472

It is important to remember that the standard test evaluates the ability of structural assemblies to carry a structural load and to act as a fire barrier. The test does not provide the following information:
ch2

• Information about performance of assemblies constructed with components or lengths other than those tested
• Evaluation of the extent to which the assembly may generate smoke, toxic gases, or other products of combustion
• Measurement of the degree of control or limitation of the passage of smoke or products of combustion
• Fire behavior of joints between building elements such as floor-to-wall or wall-to-wall connections
• Measurement of flame spread over the surface of the tested material
• The effect on fire endurance of openings in an assembly such as electri- cal outlets and plumbing openings unless specifically provided for in the construction tested.

473

Joint systems for floor-to-wall and wall-to-wall connections are tested in accordance with UL Standard ____, “Standard for Fire Tests of Joint Systems.”
ch2

2079

474

It is not uncommon over time for fire-resistive assemblies to be penetrated, which often occurs when buildings ____ ______.
ch2

undergo renovation

475

The following are some of the organizations that perform fire-resistance testing:
ch2

• Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
• Underwriters Laboratories of Canada
• Building Research Division of the National Research Council of Canada
• Southwest Research Institute
• Intertek Testing
• University of California at Berkeley, Forest Products Laboratory
• Armstrong Cork Company
• National Gypsum Company

476

______ _______ annually publishes a Fire tested and given fire-Resistance Directory, which lists assemblies that have been tested and their fire-resistance ratings.
ch2

Underwriters Laboratories

477

ASCE/ SFPE ____, Standard Calculation Methods for Structural Fire Protection, provides the methods for calculating fire-resistance ratings that are equivalent to the results obtained from the standard fire test.
ch2

29

478

are limited to use with:
ch2

structural steel, plain and reinforced concrete, timber and wood, concrete masonry, and clay masonry

479

ASCE/ SFPE 29 calculation methods not provide accurate results when applied to materials that have not been used in the ___ ____.
ch2 p52

actual tests

480

In 1997, the ____ _____ _____ ___ (ASCE) and the ____ ____ _____ ____(SFPE) jointly developed a standard for the calcula- tion of fire resistance of structural elements.
ch2

American Society of Civil Engineers
Society of Fire Protection Engineers

481

The _____ ____ standard time-temperature test is the most commonly used method of satisfying building code requirements for structural fire resistance.
ch2

NFPA® 251

482

Incapable of supporting combustion under normal circumstances.
ch2

Noncombustible

483

A _____ structure is classified as noncombustible; the lightweight wood construction that makes up the fast-food structure is classified as ________.
ch2

concrete
combustible

484

Fundamentally, a ________ material is one that “in the form in which used and under the conditions anticipated, will not ignite, burn, support combustion, or release flammable vapors, when subjected to fire or heat.”
ch2

noncombustible

485

The most commonly used test for determining combustibility is ____ ___, Standard Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical Tube Furnace at 750°C.
ch2

ASTME 136

486

Buildings are grouped into five major classifications. These classifications are commonly designated as follows:
ch2

• Type I, Fire-Resistive
• Type II, Noncombustible or protected noncombustible
• Type III, Exterior protected (masonry)
• Type IV, Heavy timber
• Type V, Wood frame

487

_____ ______ do not make use of the descriptive terms fire-resistive, noncombustible, masonry, or wood-frame because they do not fully define the construction types. The codes make use of the _____ ______ only. The descriptive terms are included here because they were used in the past and may still be used to describe buildings.
ch2

Building codes
numerical designations

488

Bricks, blocks, stones, and unreinforced and reinforced concrete products.
ch2

Masonry

489

The _______ _______ used in the building codes are based on the materials used in construction and the hourly fire-resistance ratings required for the structural components.
ch2

building classifications

490

With the exception of ___ ____ ____ ___, the major classifications are further divided into two or three subclassifications.
ch2

Type IV, Heavy Timber

491

NFPA® ____ , Standard on Types of Building Construction, details the require- ments for each of the classifications and subclassifications.
ch2

220

492

In NFPA® 220, each classification is designated by a three-digit number code. For example, Type I construction can be either 4-4-3 or 3-3-2. The digits are explained as follows:
• The first digit refers to the fire-resistance rating (in hours) of ____ ____ ___.
• The second digit refers to the fire-resistance rating of ______ ______ or _____ and ______ that support loads of more than one floor.
• The third digit indicates the fire-resistance rating of the _____ ______.
ch2

exterior bearing walls
structural frames or columns and girders
floor construction

493

In Type IV construction the designation ___ is used.
ch2

2HH

494

Building codes use the types of construction and building occupancy, in connection with sprinkler systems and separations, to establish limits on the ____ and ____ of buildings.
ch2

heights and areas

495

Steel is a _________ material but it is not fire-resistive and must be ______ to attain fire resistance.
ch2

noncombustible
protected

496

Type I construction is divided into two subclassifications:
ch2

I-A and I-B.

497

Generally, bearing walls, columns, and beams are required to have a fire resistance of __ to ___ hours, depending on the code and the construction classification. Floor construction is required to have a fire resistance of ___ or ____ hour.
ch2
Type I

two to four
two or three

498

The roof deck and construction supporting the roof must have a fire resistance of ___ to ____hours.
che
type I

one to two

499

Some building codes contain a provision to omit the fire- resistive rating for a roof construction for some occupancies when the roof is located more than feet above the floor.
ch2
Type I

20

500

The fire-resistive compartmentation provided by partitions and floors tends to ____ the ____ of fire through a building. These features provide time for ______ ____ and interior fire fighting.
ch2

retard the spread
occupant evacuation

501

As a practical matter, building codes usually per- mit a limited use of combustible materials in Type I construction.Combustible materials typically are permitted for such uses as the following:
ch2

• Roof coverings
• Interior floor finishes
• Interior wall finishes and trims
• Doors and door frames
• Window sashes and frames
• Platforms
• Nailing and furring strips
• Light-transmitting plastics
• Foam plastics subject to restrictions

502

_____ concrete increases its structural strength.
ch2

Reinforcing

503

The two most common methods of constructing Type I buildings are by using:
ch2

reinforced concrete or a protected steel frame

504

________ is an inherently noncombustible material with good thermal insulating properties.
ch2

Concrete

505

Unprotected steel has no ___ ____. When steel is used in fire-resistive designs, it must be protected by an _____ ______.
ch2

fire resistance
insulating material

506

The thickness of the _______ material can be varied to achieve dif- ferent fire ratings.
ch2

insulating

507

_____ ____ can be either protected or unprotected.
ch2

Type II construction (noncombustible)

508

The use of ______ ______ is the most common characteristic of unprotected, noncombustible construction
ch2

unprotected steel

509

In Type II construction, structural steel is frequently provided with a degree of fire resistance that is less than that required for Type I construction. This has sometimes been referred to as protected ______ _______.
ch2

noncombustible construction.

510

Type II construction has two subclassifications, designated ______ ______ .
ch2

II-A and II-B

511

In II-A construction the structural components are required to have __ ___ fire resistance. In II-B construction structural components are ______.
ch2

one-hour
unprotected

512

An unprotected, noncombustible building cannot be expected to provide _____ ______ under fire conditions
ch2

structural stability

513

The point at which unprotected members will fail, however, depends on the following factors:

• Ceiling height of the building
• Size of the unprotected steel members
• Intensity and duration of the exposing fire

514

____ construction has been commonly referred to as “ordinary construc- tion.”
ch2

Type III

515

Type III construction is frequently constructed with exterior walls of masonry, but from a technical standpoint any ________ material with the required fire resistance can be used for the exterior walls

noncombustible

516

Interior structural members including walls, columns, beams, floors, and roofs are permitted to be partially or ____ _____.
ch2
type III

wholly combustible

517

The interior structural members of Type III construction may be ______ or ______.
ch2

protected or unprotected

518

Type III construction has two subclassifications:

• Type III A construction is required to have a ____ ___ _____ rating for interior members
• Type III B construction has ___ ____ ___ requirements for the interior members.
ch2

one-hour fire-resistive
no fire resistance

519

When the structural components of Type III con struction are required to have a fire ratingthey can be protected by several means. Probably the most common are the use of _____ in older buildings and ___ ____ in newer buildings
ch2

plaster
gypsum board

520

The dimensions of the wood used in Type III construction are permitted to be smaller than those required in Type IV construction. In Type III construction it would not be uncommon to use nominal __ __-inch joists for floor construction. But in Type IV construction, the minimum dimensions would be nominal __ __ inch for floor construction.

2- x 10
6 x 10

521

A fundamental fire concern with Type III construction is the combustible concealed spaces that are created between ___ and ___ _____ and between _____ ___ _____ walls when they are covered with interior finish materials.
ch2

floor and ceiling joists
studs in partition

522

It is essential, therefore, that the concealed spaces in Type III construction be properly ______.
ch2

fire-stopped

523

Dropped ceilings can facilitate ___ ____and make it difficult for firefighters to find the seat of a fire.
ch2

hidden fires

524

When combustible materials become involved in a fire they will be _____ and ____.
ch2
type III

consumed and collapse

525

Type ___ construction is commonly known as heavy-timber or “mill” construction.
ch2

IV

526

Like Type III construction, the exterior walls are normally of _______ construction and the interior structural members are ________.
ch2
Type IV

masonry
combustible

527

There are two important distinctions between Type III and Type IV construction:
• In Type IV construction the beams, columns, floors, and roofs are made of ____ or ______ wood with dimensions greater than in Type III construction.
• ______ ______ are not permitted between structural members in Type IV construction.
ch2

solid or laminated
Concealed spaces

528

_______ construction was used extensively in factories, mills, and warehouses in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Itisnotcommonlyusedinnew construction for multistory buildings.
ch2

Type IV

529

Today, heavy-timber wood frame construction is encountered primarily where it is desired for ______.
ch2

appearance

530

The primary fire hazard associated with Type IV construction is the ______ _____ _____ ______ by the large structural members in addition to the building contents.
ch2

massive amount of fuel presented

531

The greater mass of the heavy-timber components provides greater ______ ______ under fire conditions than the structural members used in Type III buildings.
ch2

structural endurance

532

If the members have not been exposed to a prolonged fire, it is possible to sandblast away the _______ and continue their use after a fire.
ch2
Type IV

charring

533

In Type V construction, also commonly known as ____ ____ ___, all major structural components are permitted to be of _________ construction.
ch2

wood-frame construction
combustible

534

. Many Type V structures are required to have a ____ fire resistance for the structural members. This is typically accomplished by protecting the combustible frame members with _____ or fire-rated _____ ____.
ch2

1-hour
plaster
gypsum board

535

Method for construction of wood-frame buildings. Replaced the use of heavy timber wood framing.
ch2

Light-Frame Construction

536

A fundamental problem posed by Type V construction is the creation of combustible concealed ____ and ____more extensive than are found in Type III construction.
ch2

voids and channels

537

Because it is inherently combustible, a __ ___building can become totally involved and completely destroyed in a fire .
ch2

Type V

538

Several different methods can be used to construct a Type V building. In modern practice, wood-frame buildings are most often constructed using a method known as ____ ___ _____.
ch2

light-frame construction

539

“the common currency of small residential and commercial buildings in ___ ____ ____.”

North America today

540

Some buildings are allowed to have a mixed use and a ____ _______ type. This situation may be found where a different type of structure is built on top on an existing one.
ch2

mixed construction

541

In some jurisdictions it is permissible to have Type V construction over Type I construction up to a height of __ __.
ch2

70 feet

542

Building codes contain height limitations for the different construction _______.
ch2

classifications.

543

The amount of fuel within a compartment expressed in pounds per square foot obtained by dividing the amount of fuel present by the floor area.
ch2

Fire Load

544

Fire load is used as a measure of the____ ____release of a fire within a compartment. Also known as fuel load.
ch2

potential heat

545

The ___ ____ is the product of the weight of the combustibles multiplied by their heat of combustion. It is typically expressed in terms of ____ _____ _____ ___. The fire load will vary depending on the heat of combustion of the ____.
ch2

fire load
pounds per square foot
fuel

546

Ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, and similar materials have heats of combustion between ____ and ____ ____ per pound.
ch2

7,000 and 8,000 BTU

547

Buildings with combustible structural components (Types __, __ and __) have an inherently greater ___ ___ than Types I or II because the structural framing materials contribute a significant amount of fuel to a fire.
ch2

III, IV, and V
fire load

548

A fire load does not translate into an equivalent _____ ___.
ch2

structural load

For example, a warehouse of Type IV (heavy-timber) construction containing iron radiators would have a light fire load but a very large structural load. Conversely, a toy store would have a moderate structural load but a high fire load because most toys are combustible with combustible packaging

549

Building codes classify buildings according to their _____ as well as their ______ type. The occupancy classifications assign building occupancies into groups with broadly similar fire risks.
ch2

occupancy
construction

550

International Building Code (Ibc) Classifications
The building codes group building occupancies into occupancy classifications. The International Building Code (IBC) contains ten major occupancy classifications:



ABE Father Hx Is, MI, Renal, Stroke, Uti

• Assembly Group A
• Business Group B
• Educational Group E
• Factories Group F
• High Hazard Group H
• Institutional Group I
• Mercantile Group M
• Residential Group R
• Storage Group S
• Utility and Group U.
Miscellaneous

551

As an example, in the IBC, residential occupancies (occupancy group R) are subdivided into four subgroups:
ch2

R-1, R-2, R-3, and R-4.

552

Occupancies with primarily transient occupants including hotels and motels.
ch2

R-1

553

Occupancies with primarily permanent occupants and more than two dwelling units, such as apartment buildings, dormitories, and non transient hotels.
ch2

R-2

554

Occupancies with primarily permanent occupants and not more than two dwelling units. In addition, adult facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours and child care facilities for five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours.
ch2

R-3

555

Occupancies used as assisted-living facilities with five to sixteen occupants.
ch2

R-4

556

Occupancies are subdivided into ___ subgroups:
ch2

five
A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4, and A-5

557

Assembly occupancies, usually with fixed seating such as motion picture theaters and concert halls.
ch2

A-1

558

Assembly occupancies used for consuming food and drink such as night clubs and restaurants.
ch2

A-2

559

Assembly occupancies intended for viewing indoor sporting events such as tennis courts and arenas.

ch2

A-4

560

Assembly occupancies used for worship, recreation, or amusement such as bowling alleys, churches, dance halls, and exhibition halls.
ch2

A-3

561

Assembly uses for outdoor activities such as bleachers,
grandstands, and stadiums.
ch2

A-5

562

The IBC contains a total of __ ______ within the 10 major occupancy classifications. The IBC also makes separate provision for one-and two-family dwellings not more than ____ _____ high.
ch2

26 subgroups
three stories

563

NFPA® 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code, and NFPA® 101 Life Safety Code®, make use of 12 major occupancy classifications:
ch2

• Assembly
• Educational
• Day care
• Health care
• Ambulatory health care
• Detention and correctional
• Residential
• Residential board and care
• Mercantile
• Business
• Industrial
• Storage

564

The different occupancies will pose different ______ to each other. A mercantile occupancy could endanger the occupants of a nightclub.
ch2

hazards

565

Required separations can vary from ___ to ____ hours and not all occupancies would require a separation.
ch2
Mixed Occ

one to three

566

The specific requirements for occupancy separation will depend on the ___ ____ ___.
ch2

local building code

567

Three manuals that you can use to find more information on building systems:

IFSTA plans examiner

Fire detection and suppression systems

Fire inspection and code enforcement

568

Unprotected openings are often found around: there are two of them

Pipes and cables

Lack of protection can allow fire to spread between floors and compartments

Page 108

569

Whose responsibility is it to ensure that the necessary building systems initially provide the intended level of fire and life safety.

The building design team

Subsequently, it is the responsibility of the building owner and or management to maintain these systems overtime

570

Safe, continuous path of travel from any point in the structure to a public way; It is composed of three parts: the exit access, the exit, and the exit discharge.

Means of egress

571

A stair that usually connects to floors in a multistory building

Convenience stair

572

Vertical distance between the treads of a stairway or the height of the entire stairway.

Rise

573

The horizontal measurement of a stair tread or the distance of the entire stair length

Run

574

Most stairs provide a dual role as a building system:

They enable occupants to access various levels of the structure

They serve as a basic component of building egress during an emergency

575

Stairs that are part of the required means of egress must meet strict requirements of the applicable building code, and generally are either fully enclosed or:

Protected open exterior stairs

In either case, the building code specifies the fire resistance rating of the enclosure or separation when exterior stairs are utilized.

Page 109

576

Exit stairs must resist____and____to ensure safe passage during building evacuation.

Fire and smoke

This level of protection also provides firefighters a safe route to access and attack a fire.

577

Stairs that are not part of the means of egress are often referred to as:

Convenience stairs

Typically, these stairs are open and limited by code to connecting only two levels

Page 109

578

It is not unusual to find_____provided to access mechanical spaces, roof hatches at the top of stairways, and between roof levels with portions at different elevations.

Ships ladders

Page 109

579

In buildings____or more stories in height, one stairway is generally required to extend to the roof unless the slope of the roof is especially steep. This stair is required to be identified by signage in the stairway.

4 or more

Page 109

580

All stair types have components in common. A key component is the step itself, which consists of the tread and the riser, commonly referred to as the "____and____"

Run and rise

For safety purposes, the code requires that the run and rise be consistent throughout the same stair.

Other important features are the handrails and guards required when the stairs have open sides. The guards are intended to prevent objects from falling onto adjacent space.

Page 109

581

Stairs that extend in a straight line for their entire length. Landings may be found, breaking up the stairs vertical travel it at intervals specified by codes.

Straight run stairs

582

When talking about the components of stairs, the run may also be called the:

Tread

Page 110

583

Stairs that have an intermediate landing between floors and reverse direction at that point. They may have more than one landing where the height between floors is greater than normal. This type of stair design is common in modern construction.

Return stairs

584

Two separate sets of stairs constructed in a common shaft. They are less expensive to build than two separate stair enclosures and also use less floor space. Not found in recent design practices.

Scissor stairs

The newer design arrangement for scissor stairs allows for ingress and egress at each floor landing, this feature is not only less confusing but it also is used to provide additional exit capacity.

Page 110

585

Stairs that can be confusing. Older designs exit on every other floor; newer designs have exits on each floor:

Scissor stairs

Page 111

586

The six most common types of stairs:

Straight run

Return

Scissor

Circular

Folding

Spiral

587

Two sets of crisscrossing stairs in a common shaft; each set serves every floor but on alternately opposite sides of the stair shaft. For example, once that would serve the West Wing on even numbered floors and the East wing odd-numbered floors, while the other set would serve floors opposite to the first set.

Scissor stairs

Page 112

588

Stairs that are often found as grand stairs or convenience stairs serving only two levels. The minimum width of the run is usually 10 inches.

Circular stairs

589

A special requirement of this type of stair is that the small radius is not less than twice the width of the stairway.

Circular stairs


Circular stairs must remain a certain width

Page 112

590

Stairs that are typically found in dwellings where they are used to provide access to an attic space that does not have a permanent access stair.

Folding stairs

Usually made up of wood in sections, the main section that hinges from the frame and to articulating sections. Most often located in a hallway.

591

Under fire conditions the springs in the stairs lose tension rapidly when exposed to heat, and the stair assembly may swing down into the structure during a fire, striking a firefighter working in the area.

Folding stairs

Firefighters must also be cautious when using folding stairs due to weight limitations.

Page 112

592

Stair with code required fire rated enclosure construction. Intended to protect occupants as they make their way through the stair enclosure.

Protected stair enclosure

Page 113

593

This type of stair allows stairs to be placed in a very small space. They consist of a series of steps spiraling a round a single column. Each tread is tapered and connects to the column at the treads narrow end.

Spiral stairs

They are typically custom-made, spiral stairs are not enclosed and are usually found in private homes, however, they may also be found in commercial occupancies for limited use.

Page 113

594

This type of stair is generally allowed as part of the means of egress only within residences.

Spiral stairs

Page 113

595

Studies show that even a minor impairment in visibility significantly reduces the occupants ability to:

Safely egress

596

Exterior stairs provide a means of egress that is:

Open to the elements

Page 114

597

Exterior enclosed stairs are a good means of egress because:

They can be protected from the fire and smoke that develop inside a building

Page 114

598

Generally, stair enclosures are required to be separated from the rest of the building. The only penetrations permitted in the enclosure are for: there are 3 of them

Light

Fire protection

Environmental control

Self or automatic closing fire rated doors are required

Page 114

599

For details on stair enclosure constructions consult:

The applicable billing code

Page 114

600

As defined by codes, these stairs are exterior to a building and are open to the air. They are naturally ventilated but may be partially enclosed from the weather. They will have at least one side open to provide natural ventilation.

Exterior stairs

Enclosed stairs on the exterior of a building are considered the same as interior enclosed the stairs.

Page 114

601

Open metal stairs and landings attached to the outside of a building:

Fire escape

The lowest flight may consist of a swinging stare section to limit unwanted access. Stairs that have been exposed to weather must be continually inspected and maintained. Open exterior stairs that are not supported at the grade level but are supported only from one side of the building must be used with extra caution.

Page 115

602

Codes have not permitted fire escapes in new construction for:

Many decades

So the fire escapes that do exist have been in place for many years. Many older fire escapes have failed when loaded with people during an emergency.

Page 115

603

Fire escapes are usually anchored to the building and are not supported at the ground level. These anchor points are subjected to:

The freeze thaw cycle

Corrosion from pollution and whether

And temperature changes.

The mortar and which the anchors are set may have deteriorated or may have originally been in adequate for their load potential.

Page 115

604

Warning!!! Because the structural soundness of a fire escape may not be apparent, firefighters must use extreme caution during an emergency response. The fire escape structure itself may be severely weekend due to constant exposure and lack of maintenance over a period of years. Firefighter should keep these factors in mind when deciding whether a fire escape is usable.

There is no answer for this card. It was a big warning sign on the side of the page in a Redbox it looked important

605

Means of escaping from a building in case of a fire; usually an interior or exterior stairway or slide independently supported and made a fire resistant material. Traditional term for an exterior stair, frequently incorporating a movable section, usually of noncombustible construction that is intended as an emergency exit. It is usually supported by hangers installed in the exterior wall of the building.

Fire escape

There were several definitions for fire escapes so I added all of them to make sure we covered all of our bases.

The info is on page 115

606

Stairways that are designed to limit the penetration of smoke, heat, and toxic gases from a fire on a floor of a building into the stairway and that serve as part of a means of egress.

Smoke proof enclosures

Page 116

607

Building codes have traditionally required a minimum of one smoke proof stair enclosure for stairs serving buildings_____stories or higher, and more recently stairs serving floor levels more than 30 feet below the level of exit discharge.

5

Stair enclosures may be classified as smoke proof using either active or passive smoke control. Typically, smoke proof stair enclosures are on the exterior perimeter of the building and are entered through ventilated vestibules or open exterior balconies.

Pg116

608

A common alternative approach over the past 25 years to provide a smoke proof enclosure is to pressurize stairwells when the building is in a fire mode. Activated by automatic fire or smoke detection equipment, a dedicated mechanical air handling system it's designed to keep smoke out of the stair enclosure by:

Pressurizing the shaft

The mechanical pressurization system keeps the stair enclosure free of smoke, even when a door is open to the fire floor.

Page 116

609

A pressurized stairwell incorporates a ventilation system that pushes air into the stairwell, which:

Helps keep smoke from a fire out of the stairwell.

Page 117

610

This type of stair enclosure is accessed by using a vestibule or an exterior balcony. The design protects the stairway enclosure from smoke by providing a means for the smoke to be vented to the outside before it enters the stair enclosure.

Passive smoke proof enclosures

Page 117

611

Because they are not enclosed with fire rated construction, this type of stair will likely serve as a path for spread of fire and smoke and will not protect anyone using them from exposure to the products of combustion.

Open the stairs

Building codes typically allow the use of open stairs in buildings only when they connect no more than two adjacent floors above the basement level. The stairs are sometimes referred to as convenient stairs and can be used as part of an exit system and a two-story building.

Page 118

612

________ __________ is key to survival on the fireground.
ch10

Situational awareness

613

Concrete has many applications in building construction. It is used for _____, ______,____,_____,_____and concrete masonry units. Its advantages are that it can be produced from raw materials that are usually locally available and are low in cost. Like masonry, concrete does ___ ____. It also resists _____ and the effects of contact with soil.
ch10

pavement, foundations, columns, floors, walls,
not burn
insects

614

In almost all structural applications concrete is reinforced with ____. Only in a few applications such as sidewalks or driveways would concrete be used without ______.
ch10

steel
reinforcement

615

Concrete is produced from:
The ____ used in concrete are inert mineral ingredients that reduce the amount of cement that would otherwise be needed.
ch10

Portland cement, coarse and fine aggregates, and water
aggregates

*The aggregates make up a large percentage of the total volume of concrete.

616

Gravel, stone, sand, or other inert materials used in concrete. These materials may be fine or coarse.
ch10

aggregate

617

Maintaining conditions to achieve proper strength during the hardening of concrete.
ch10

Curing

618

Curing fresh concrete requires correct ____ and _________control. Improper curing methods will negatively affect the finished surface of concrete as well as its _______ .
ch10

hydration and temperature
strength

619

Maintaining conditions to achieve proper strength during the hardening of concrete.
ch10

Curing

620

________ of concrete involves a chemical process known as hydration. In hydration, water combines with the particles of cement to form a microscopic gel.
ch10

Hardening

621

As the concrete hardens, this gel gives off heat, which is known as the:
ch10

heat of hydration

622

Concrete initially hardens ____ _____ but then begins to harden more ______. Because hydration involves water, proper curing requires that the concrete be kept ______ until it reaches its desired strength.
ch10

fairly quickly
slowly
moist

623

It can be seen that the moist curing of concrete,
ch10

produces a stronger concrete

624

Concrete can be kept moist by several techniques including:
ch10

sprinkling it with water, ponding, or covering it with a plastic film

625

Concrete that is curing must be maintained at the correct temperature, ideally between ___ - ___. Concrete that is cured at or above ___ will not reach its proper strength; concrete cured near freezing temperatures will ____ ____ ____. In ____ concrete structures, the heat of hydration generated can adversely affect the final strength of the concrete.
ch10

50°-70°F
100°F
harden more slowly
massive

626

Concrete can be cooled by using during curing ___ ___or using ___ ____ in the mixing process. If concrete is to be placed near freezing temperature it can be protected with a _____ enclosure.
ch10

cold water
chilled water
heated

627

During the curing process concrete will ____ slightly. Theoretically, properly cured concrete continues to harden indefinitely at a gradual rate; however, normal design strength is reached after __ ___.
ch10

shrink
28 days

628

Three methods of passive smoke containment:

A vestibule

A balcony

A smoke shaft

All can be used to prevent smoke from traveling into a building and or contaminating a stairwell.

Pg118

629

Convenience stairs connect different areas of a building but do not lead to:

An exit

Page 118

630

Elevators are a key building system for providing access to above or below grade stories. They can be a_____or_____factor for firefighters during a fire response.

Positive or negative

Problems with the elevators themselves or the loss of electrical power can create potentially dangerous rescue situations.

Page 118

631

Because of their importance and the obvious need for safety and reliability, elevators have developed into safe and reliable modes of transportation. Elevator____,____,and ____are stringently controlled and monitored by all levels of government.

Design

Construction

And operation

Most elevator regulations are based on the safety code for elevators, published by the American Society of mechanical engineers.

Page 119

632

A federal statute intended to remove barriers-physical or otherwise-that limit access by individuals with disabilities.

Americans with disabilities act of 1990

Page 119

633

Each jurisdiction is urged to establish its own set of____and____on the use of elevators during fires and to practice these procedures during drills.

Policies and procedures

Page 119

634

An elevator is a____and____mechanism equipped with a car or platform that moves in guide rails and serves two or more levels or landings.

Hoisting and lowering

Page 119

635

Elevators can be classified according to their use as either_____or_____.

Passenger or freight

Service elevator is another term used to describe elevators and often is defined as a passenger elevator that has been designed to carry freight.

Page 119

636

Elevators use some form of power to perform the hoisting and lowering operations. The two most common types are:

Hydraulic and electric

Page 119

637

The operating principle of hydraulic elevators involves:

A fluid being forced under pressure into a cylinder containing a piston or RAM.

As the fluid is pumped in the ram rises in the attached elevator car moves upward. As the fluid drains out the car is lowered by gravity.

Page 120

638

Hydraulic elevators do not have:

Brakes

Cars are slowed and stopped by controlling the flow of hydraulic fluid back into the reservoir.

Page 120

639

The practical upper limit for hydraulic elevators is about:

Six stories

However, some hydraulic elevators installed and taller buildings now use a multistage hydraulic cylinder rather than a single stage RAM. This reduces the overall length of the cylinder as well as the depth of the well that needs to be provided.

Page 120

640

Electric elevators are subdivided into two categories:

Drum or traction devices

Drum elevators-older style elevators employ a drum on which the hoisting cable is wound. The car is connected to a set of moving counterweights to reduce the effort the motor must produce to raise the car. This type of elevator is obsolete and is found only in very old structures. However, drum elevator still may be found in use as freight elevators.

***Traction elevators-the most common type of elevator and buildings over six stories because it is very fast and does not have a height limitations of either hydraulic or drum type elevators. Like drum elevators they use counterweights. The hoist cables do not wind around the drive sheave-they merely pass over it.

Pg120

641

***NOTE*** historically, elevator cables have utilize conventional wire cables. However, recent designs use:

Flat polyethylene coated steel belts

The increase energy efficiency

Page 120

642

The height to which electric elevators operate may require them to have as much as a_____volt power supply.

500 V

The drive motors may be either direct current or alternating current

Page 121

643

And electric elevators, traction motors have a braking system that operates during both normal operation and malfunctions. The system employs a brake drum located on the:

Drive motor

Under normal conditions the spring operated brake shoes are held away from the drum by electromagnets. In the event of a power failure, the electromagnets release and the brake shoes are forced against the drum. This results in the car being stopped where ever it was when the power failed.

Page 121

644

The excellent safety record of elevators can be attributed to strict regulation, rigorous engineering to reduce the likelihood of failure, and numerous safety devices designed to limit the effects of any failures that do occur. These safety devices include:

Terminal switches

Buffers

Speed reducing and overspeed switches

Car safeties

Page 121

645

In an elevator, and electric switch designed to stop the car by removing power before it reaches the upper or lower limits of the hoistway.

Terminal device

Page 121

646

In an elevator, large springs or hydraulic cylinders and pistons located at the bottom of the pit that act as a shock absorbers should be terminal switch fail. They cannot safely stop a free falling car. They only stop one traveling at a normal rate of speed.

Buffers

Page 121

647

In elevators, this is also known as the speed governor. This switch slows the drive motor when an elevator starts to exceed a safe speed. If the car continues to accelerate, it applies the car safeties and trips the overspeed switch.

Speed reducing switch

Page 121

648

In elevators, this is also connected to the speed governor. This switch is activated if the speed reducing switch fails to slow the car sufficiently.

Overspeed switch

Page 121

649

In elevators, these are tapered sets of steel jaws that wedge against the guide rails and bring the elevator to a stop. They are designed to stop a FREE FALLING CAR.

****Car Safeties****

Page 121

650

Tendency of heat, smoke, and other products of combustion to rise until they encounter a horizontal obstruction. At this point they will spread laterally until they encounter vertical obstructions and begin to bank downward.

Mushrooming

Page 122

651

The vertical shaft in which the elevator car travels and includes the elevator pit:

Elevator hoistway

Hoistways are required to be constructed of fire resistive materials and are equipped with fire rated door assemblies. Some hoistways, such as those located in an atrium, are not required to be enclosed

Page 122

652

Elevator hoistway enclosures usually are required to be a fire rated assembly with a___or___hour rating, depending on the particular situation.

1 or 2

No wiring, ductwork, or piping should be run within the hoistway unless it is required for the elevator itself.

Page 122

653

Elevator hoistways present a potential for acting as a vertical chimney to spread fire and smoke throughout a building. To prevent mushrooming, Building codes require:

Venting at the top of practically every hoistway built today

Page 123

654

If a building contains_____or fewer elevators, the codes permit them to be placed in one hoistway.

3

When four or more elevators are provided, there must be a minimum of two separate hoistways.

Page 123

655

When more than one hoistway is provided, up to____elevators may be located in one hoistway.

4

Elevators within a given hoistway usually are not separated by any sort of partition.

Page 123

656

Single elevator hoist ways that serve only upper levels have access doors for rescue purposes every____floors or so in that portion without normal hoistway doors.

3 floors

Page 123

657

In very tall buildings, elevators are divided into zones, with one zone serving the lower floors and another zone serving the upper floors. A zone usually serves___to___floors.

15-20 floors

Page 123

658

Used for express elevators that serve only upper floors of tall buildings. There are no entrances to the shaft on floors between the main entrance and the lowest floor served.

Blind hoistway

Page 123

659

Doors in elevator installations include both car doors and hoistway doors. The two are usually designed to open:

In the same direction and to open and closed together.

Page 123

660

Passenger elevator car doors are powered by an _____ mounted on top of the elevator car. The car door does not have locks and can be pushed open at any time.

Electric motor

Page 123

661

_____Will not allow an elevator car to move when the car doors are open and a moving car will stop immediately if the doors are pushed open.

Electric interlocks

When the elevator stops at the correct level, the hoistway doors are held open by a driving being attached to the car door.

Page 124

662

If the elevator car is stopped in a blind hoistway, the emergency exits from the car must be used. These exits consist of either a hinged access hatch on the top of the car or hinged or removable panels on the sides of the car. This should be done:

Only as a last resort

Page 124

663

On hydraulic elevators, a top exit may or may not be provided depending on the weather the system is equipped with a:

Manual lowering valve

The valve permits the lowering of the car in the event of a malfunction. Some top panels are designed to be open from the inside of the car, but all can be open from outside and all open outwards.

Page 124

664

In multiple elevator hoistways, most elevator cars are equipped with side exits to allow passengers to be:

Transferred laterally from a stalled car to a functioning car next to it.

Page 124

665

Commonly called escalators, these are stairways with electrically powered steps that move continuously in one direction.

Moving stairs

Older escalators usually operate at speeds of either 90 or 120 ft./m.

However, speeds now have been standardized at 100 ft./m. Each individual step ride to track. The steps are linked and move around the escalator frame buy a chain called the step chain.continuous handrails also move at the same speed as the steps.

Page 125

666

Typically, the vertical openings created by escalators need to be protected when serving more than:

Two floors

The most common method of protecting the vertical opening is to use closely spaced sprinklers in conjunction with draft stops around the opening. This approach consists of an 18 inch deep draft stop with a row of automatic sprinklers on all sides outside the draft stop.

Page 125

667

Vertical opening protection and escalators can also be provided by a:

Rolling shutter at the top of the escalator.

Page 125

668

Moving escalators should not be used during emergency operations but should be stopped to be available as:

Fixed stairs

An emergency stop switch is available that will stop the escalator and set the brake.

Page 125

669

These are similar to escalators but are only used to move people horizontally or up a slight inclines.

Moving walkways

They are commonly found in airports

Page 126

670

A conveyor system is typically found in_____or____and is used to transport items and materials. They are also found in airport baggage handling facilities.

Conveyor system

Conveyor systems often pass through fire barriers. These penetrations are usually protected by either providing a fire door or shutter or by utilizing a Waterspray method. A primary concern for conveyor penetrations during a fire is incomplete door or shutter closure.

Page 126

671

Vertical shafts also include stairways and elevator and dumbwaiter hoistways, which have been previously discussed.

There is no answer for this card just some information.

Page 126

672

This is a term generally applied to the vertical pathway in a building that contains utility services. The services include plumbing, electrical raceways, telecommunications, data cables, and ductwork for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. They are also provided for refuse chutes, laundry chutes, and light shafts. Knowledge of these shafts is critical because they can provide a vertical path for smoke and fire as well as serve as the area of origin for fires.

Utility Chase

Page 126

Vertical shaft enclosures are built using fire rated construction methods but may contain combustible materials.

673

This is a type of utility Chase used to contain piping needed for building services such as hot and cold potable water, drain lines, steam, hot and chilled water for heating and air-conditioning, and sprinkler piping.

Pipe chase

Another definition is: concealed vertical channel in which pipes and other utility conduits are housed. Pipe chases that are not properly protected can be major contributors to the vertical spread of smoke and fire in a building. Also called Chase.

Page 126

674

Pipe chases must be surrounded by:

Fire resistive construction to ensure fire safety.

Page 127

675

A vertical shaft with a self closing access door on every floor; usually extending from the basement or ground floor to the top floor of multi story buildings.

Refuse chute

Provides for the removal of trash and garbage from upper floors. Extend through the building and have openings on each floor for depositing trash or linen. These chutes and rooms create a frequent fire response.

Page 128

676

In a refuse chute sprinklers are required:

At the top of the chute and in its termination room.

Page 128

They pose a significant fire hazard because of combustibles placed in them

677

Installed as part of an exhaust system for commercial cooking appliances that produce grease laden vapors. They are typically installed over deep fat fryers and grills. They travel vertically and carry grease vapors to the outside of the building, often utilizing in-line fans or fans on the roof.

Grease duct

Some design applications include horizontal ducts

Page 129

678

Provided in buildings primarily to maintain a comfortable environment for occupants.

HVAC systems

The functions provided by an HVAC system include heating, cooling, filtering, humidifying, and dehumidifying.

They also regulate the intake of outdoor air and the recirculation of indoor air to provide acceptable air-quality.

Page 129

679

HVAC systems have the potential to significantly impact any fire event. With the trend toward green building design, HVAC systems of the future may incorporate such natural ventilation features as:

Openable windows and vents in roofs.

Page 129

680

Usually a single, integrated unit with a complex system of ducts throughout the building.

HVAC system

Also called air handling system

Page 129

681

In a one story convenience store, heating and air conditioning might be provided by:

A single rooftop unit

In a high-rise office building, the total HVAC system could include hundreds of feet of ductwork, heating equipment, refrigeration equipment, motors, and blowers-all monitored and controlled by computers.

Page 129

682

Many years ago,_____were a common way to facilitate ventilation.

Cupolas

Page 130

683

Today, many buildings have windows that:

Do not open or have no windows at all.

The consequence has been near total dependence on the HVAC system to provide not only a comfortable environment but also a livable environment. In many complex building is the HVAC system has become in effect a LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM.

Page 130

684

A distinction should be made between an HVAC system and a simple ventilation or exhaust system. An HVAC system provides_____to building occupants. A ventilation or exhaust system may only provide for the removal of contaminated air.

Conditioned air

Page 130

685

It is possible to provide heating and or cooling in a building without the use of ducted systems. Systems that make use of water as the heat transfer medium are known as:

Hydronic systems

Many HVAC systems involve the distribution of conditioned air through a building from one or more mechanical equipment rooms. Such systems are generally known as forced air systems.

Page 130

686

NFPA____is the standard for installation of air conditioning and ventilation systems.

90A

In general, a fire and or smoke damper may be required when ever a duct penetrates a fire rated assembly.

Page 131

687

NFPA 90A requires that the HVAC enclosure shafts be___hour rated for buildings less than four stories in height and___hour fire rated for buildings for stories or greater.

1

2

Page 132

688

The advantage in placing an HVAC equipment room on the top floor is that is easy to take in_____and eject_____to the atmosphere.

Make up air

exhaust air

Page 132

689

Fans move the air throughout the HVAC system, But will also move smoke and heat if it is introduced into the system._____are typically provided for fans with capacities exceeding 2000 cubic ft per minute, to shut down the systems under fire conditions and minimize unwanted smoke movement.

Duct detectors

Page 134

690

In HVAC systems, air can be cleaned with____, or____, or both.

Filters or electrostatic equipment

Electrostatic equipment can present a significant electrical equipment hazard.

Page 134

691

In HVAC systems, heating equipment can be fuel fired, such as natural gas or oil burner, or the heat may be produced using:

Electricity or steam

Page 134

692

Natural gas is:

LPG (Propane) is:

Lighter than air and rises

Heavier than air and collects in low areas

Page 134

693

Is the air distribution component of the HVAC system:

Air duct

Another definition is: channel or enclosure, usually of sheet metal, used to move heating and cooling air through a building. Hollow pathways used to move air from one area to another in ventilation systems.

Page 134

694

The space between the suspended ceiling and the roof deck is called:

The interstitial space

They are used as a return air Plenum

Another definition is: in building construction, refers to generally inaccessible spaces between layers of building materials. May be large enough to provide a potential space for fire to spread unseen to other parts of the building.

Page 134

695

What is the primary sheltering element for the interior of the building?

The roof

696

What are the fundamental safety points that must always be kept in mind regarding roofs?

-Roofs are usually not as strong as floors because they are typically designed to support lighter live loads.
– Many types of roof construction have inherent concealed spaces between the ceiling and the roof deck, making it difficult to determine the extent to which fire has developed overhead
-Over time, loads may be added to Roofs for which they were not originally designed.
– Roofs are subject to wear and tear ration from elements

697

Because the roof is waterproof, affects fires in what way

-The fact that a roof is waterproof covering for a building can frustrate efforts to control a fire from above.
- The waterproof nature of a roof tends to limit the penetration of streams from ladder pipes and platform apparatus into the seat of the fire.
- If the roof collapses into a structure, it will form a waterproof covering over buried fire.

698

To prevent the recirculation of smoke through the HVAC system and to facilitate removal of the smoke, and HVAC system can be switched from its normal operating mode to:

Fire mode

The transfers can be accomplished either automatically or manually.

Page 135

699

HVAC systems can be automatically transferred into fire mode by:

Smoke detectors

Sprinkler water flow switches

Heat detectors

When the system goes into fire operation, dampers can be opened or closed, depending on the location of the fire, to redirect the flow of air and to exhaust the smoke.

Page 135

700

In an HVAC system in fire mode, the supply of air to the fire floor has been stopped by closing a damper while air continues to be supplied to adjacent floors. Continuing the supply of air to the non-fire floors creates a_______of higher air pressure on floors above and below the fire floors.

Pressure sandwich

This reduces the migration of smoke into those areas

Page 135

701

The advantages of automatic transfer of an HVAC system into smoke control mode:

It is relatively fast and will be activated during nighttime hours when occupants are asleep

Page 136

702

The design of a smoke control system requires extensive engineering analysis. In the design of the system, the designer must take into account such factors as the:

Anticipated fire size

Outside weather conditions

The volume of a fire zone

The maximum pressure differences across barriers such as stairwell doors

Page 137

703

The advantages of manually transferring and HVAC system into fire mode:

The elimination of system disruption due to false alarms and more specific system control.

Page 137

704

When an HVAC systems fire mode has both automatic and manual capability the_____shall take priority over the______control.

Manual over the automatic

Page 137

705

An obvious disadvantage to the manual operation of an HVAC's fire mode is:

It is slower than automatic operation.

Manual activation usually occurs after arrival of the fire department and may not occur until late in the fire development when a danger to life may have already developed.

Page 137

706

A smoke control system in an HVAC system should not be activated by using:

Manual pull stations on the building fire alarm system.

This is to avoid the possibility of occupants seeing a fire but not operating a pull station until they have fled another area of the building.

Page 137

707

There are two methods that can be used to protect and enclosed stairwell from smoke:

Use of a smoke proof tower

Provide for stairwell pressurization

The pressure in the stairwell must be high enough that it will prevent the flow of smoke into the stairwell, but not so high that people cannot open the door into the stairwell.

Page 138

708

NFPA 92A, standard for smoke control systems utilizing barriers and pressure differences, requires a minimum pressure difference of ___ inches, water gauge across a smoke barrier in a sprinklered building.

.05

Page 138

709

There are two general design methods used for pressurize stairwells:

Single injection method

Multiple injection system

Page 139

710

The simplest means of controlling the exhaust dampers is to use dampers with:

Adjustable counterweights

The dampers open when an overpressure condition in the stairwell is reached.

Page 140

711

The type of heat and smoke vents typically encountered are individual small area hatchways (a minimum of____feet in either direction is typical) with a single or double leaf metal lids or plastic dome designed to open automatically or manually.

4ft

Page 141

712

These are used in conjunction with smoke vents to increase their effectiveness. They reduce the dissipation of the heated air currents from a fire and increase the speed of operation of the vents.

Curtain boards

The depth of the curtain board will vary depending on the nature of the hazards within an occupancy, but should not be less than 20% of the ceiling height. Curtain boards should be spaced so that they are not farther apart than eight times the ceiling height.

Page 141

713

Vertical boards, fire resistive half walls, that extend down from the underside of the roof of some commercial buildings and are intended to limit the spread of fire, heat, smoke and fire gases.

Curtain boards

Page 141

714

Theaters are required to have smoke vents:

Above the stage

Page 141

715

The electrical force that causes a charge (electrons) to move through a conductor. Sometimes called the electro motive force.

Voltage

Page 142

716

High-voltage equipment is defined as operating at____volts or higher; low-voltage equipment operates at less than____volts.

600

Page 142

717

Transformers are used to:

Convert high-voltage electricity, as supplied by the electric utility service, to an appropriate voltage for use in the building.

Page 142

718

Transformers generate heat, and have a method that cools them. The two most common cooling message used are:

Air and oil

Air cooled transformers, also called dry transformers, use the surrounding air to cool the unit unit through fins and heat sinks installed on the body of the transformer.

Page 142

719

Many new buildings are now supplied by the electric utility with______volt services, which carry the same amount of energy in smaller wire and conduit when compared to traditional______volt services.

480/277

120/240

The electricity is used at 480V by HVAC equipment, refrigeration, and other motors; and at 277V by light fixture ballasts.

Page 143

720

Nonconductor of direct electrical current. Term usually applied to tools that are used to handle energized electrical wires or equipment.

Dielectric

Page 143

721

When transformers are inside, the transformer rooms or vaults are required by code code to be enclosed in a___hour fire rated construction if not protected by automatic sprinklers, or___hour fire rated construction if they are protected by sprinklers.

3

1

Page 143

722

Some power utility companies may not allow sprinkler protection for their equipment. In these instances, utilities may permit a______system. Fires involving electrical equipment usually denergize the equipment early in the event.

Carbon dioxide

Page 143

723

Back up power supplies for building systems dependent on electrical power may consist of:

Generators

Batteries

Or a combination of both

Page 143

724

Buildings that are required to have smoke management systems, are also required to have:

Emergency backup generator systems

Page 144

725

Auxiliary electrical power generating device.

A generator

Generators may be either permanent or portable

Portable generators are powered by a small gasoline or diesel engine and generally have 110 and or 220 V capacities

Page 144

726

At a minimum, the generator will need to supply the required:

Life safety systems plus critical needs of the occupancy.

In a hospital, for example, power is required at all times for life-support systems and monitoring equipment.

Page 144

727

Code specify the minimum required fuel storage for diesel or gasoline driven generators. The amounts are stated in terms of the expected duration of operations which may vary from___to___hours. Operational requirements for hospitals and other critical facilities, however, maybe up to___hours or longer.

2-8

48

When generators are located in buildings current codes require that the generator and the main fuel storage be installed in separate fire rated rooms.

Page 144

728

An exception to the fuel storage separation is a __________ located in the same room or mounted directly on the generator. This Tank is typically limited by fire codes to 60 gallons for diesel fuel.

Day Tank

Day tanks are usually kept full by pumping fuel from the main tank.

Page 144

729

Emergency power supplies that require batteries commonly use what type of batteries?

Lead acid type storage batteries

Lead acid batteries contain Sulfuric acid and lead. The sulfuric acid is hazardous to humans: skin contact causes injury and inhalation of the acid vapors can cause serious injury or death.

Page 144

730

Sulfuric acid reacts with the other chemicals and can cause a fire through:

Chemical chain reaction

The batteries can undergo unusual electro chemical reactions such as a thermal runaway or a battery fire, which may require an emergency response.

Page 145

731

The metallic lead and batteries is a:

Toxic heavy-metal

Page 145

732

Lead acid batteries have many different names that include the following:

Wet cell

Gel cell

Starved electrolyte cell

Sealed cell

Maintenance free cell

Flooded cell

The presence of lead acid batteries should be documented during pre-fire incident planning.

Page 145

733

****WARNING**** Standard firefighting personal protective gear is not designed to protect the wearer against acid exposure. Walking, crawling, or falling into an acid pool can result in serious injury.

No answer for this card

Pg 145

734

Hey building consists of the exterior____and the interior____. This inner portion contains the usable space to satisfy the occupant use intended for the building.

Shell

Core

Pg 146

735

Wood is never dimensionally _____. In addition, weather condition can change the _____ and _____ and wood does not shrink or swell uniformly.

True

size and shape

736

Wood can also have such defects as ______, ______, _______, ______ , _______, and _______.

Knots
knotholes
decay
inset damage
splits
warping

737

The strength of wood varies significantly with _____ , ______, and direction of load with _______________.

species
grade
respect to grain

738

In fact , on the basis of strength to unit weight, wood has a tensile strength comparable to _________.

steel

739

The allowable tensile strength of wood is about ________

700 psi

740

The strength of wood is also affected by its moisture content.
Through drying the wood begins to shrink in size and ______ in strength

increase

741

Most structural lumber has a moisture content of _____% or less

19

742

Lumber can be defined as lengths of squared wood ( also known as ________ _____) used for construction

Also( lumber - a length of wood cut and prepared for use in construction)

dimensional wood

743

Lumber is graded for both _______ and _______.

The higher the grade the more costly
Only a few key structural columns or beams may require high structural grade.

strength
appearance

744

A large variety of wood products is available for use in the constructions industry. Name some specific forms

Solid lumber
laminated wood members
structural composite lumber
panels
Manufactured components

745

Boards have a nominal thickness of ___ inches or less

Dimensional lumber has a nominal thickness of ___ to ___ inches or more.

Timbers have a nominal thickness of ___ inches or more

2

2 to 4

5

746

Dimensional lumber is available in lengths from ____ to _____ ft in 2 foot increments. In addition members use as rafters can be supplied in lengths up to ____ ft

8 to 18

24

747

The actual dimension of a finished piece of wood will be _____ than the nominal dimension.

Smaller

2x4 will be 1 1/2 x 3 1/2

748

Laminated wood members are produced by joining _________ of wood with ______

flat strips

glue

749

The advantage to producing laminated pieced of wood are that _____ and _____ can be produced that are not available from _____ cut from logs

size and shape

solid pieces

750

Glulam beams can be formed into ______ or given varying _____ sections

( Glulam - short for glue laminated structural member)

curves

Cross

751

Laminated members can be produced in depths ranging from ____ to ____ inches

3 to 75 inches

752

Three types of joints can be used to join laminated members end to end:

( these joints are also used in standard lumber)

Butt joint - easy to produce but cannot be used when tensile strength forces are to be transmitted through the beam

Scarf joint - can be used to transmit tensile strength

Finger joint - can be used to transmit tensile strength

753

Surface layer of attractive material laid over a base of common material

Veneer

754

Wood sheet product made from several thin veneer layers that are sliced fro logs and glued together

Plywood

755

Structural composite lumber (SCL)

These products allow the use of the outer fibers of a log as well as the inner portions traditionally used. These products uncle _______, ________ and ______

LVL - Laminated veneer lumber

PSL - Parallel strand lumber

LSL - laminated strand lumber

756

LVL is produced by peeling sheets of veneer from the ______________

outer portions of a log

Finds application in I joist and beam sections

757

PSL is made from the outermost veneers peeled from a log that are not as uniform as those used in LVL.

PSL is the _____ of the three SCL products and can be used for _____ loaded columns and ____ spans

strongest

heavily

long

758

LSL is produced by taking long strands of wood up to ____ inches in length and bonding them with resin in a steam pressing process.

LSL is usually used in ______ beams and columns

12

short span

759

Wood panel products include 4 types

plywood
nonveneered panels
sandwich and composite panels

760

Plywood is produced in standard sheet measuring

4 x 8

761

Construction material made of many small wooden pieces ( strands) bonded together to form sheets, similar to plywood

Oriented Strand Board ( OSB)

762

Non veneered products include:

Oriented strand board
Particle board
Wafer board

763

Particle board is often referred as :

Flakeboard
chipboard
shavings board

764

Produced with parallel external face veneers bonded to a core of reconstituted fibers

Composite panels

765

Structural insulated panels are used when __________ is desired

energy efficiency

766

Wood panel products are graded for their _________ and their ______ durability.

A grade stamp appears on the back of the structural panel that indicates its intended structural suitability.

structural use

exposure

767

Metal or wooden plates used to connect and strengthen the intersections of metal and wood truss components into a load bearing unit

Gusset plates

768

Steel framing is found in buildings of all heights and is used in both __________ and _________ buildings. Steel is used in applications varying from ________ and _____ to door frames and nails.
ch9

fire-resistive and non-fire resistive
heavy beams
columns

769

The firefighter must understand that the behavior of steel under fire conditions depends on the ___ of the steel and the degree of ___ ____ provided.
ch9

mass
fire resistance

770

Wood trusses are categorized as ____ - _____ trusses, _______, or _______ trusses

light frame

heavy timber

split ring

771

One serious and fundamental drawback to wood as a building material is its ________

combustibility

772

Ignition point for wood are difficult to measure precisely because the ignition temperature of wood is affected by such variables as the following

Density of wood
Size and form of wood
moisture content
rate of heating
nature of the heating source
air supply

773

Thermal or chemical decomposition of fuel ( matter) because of heat that generally results in the lowered ignition temperature of the material. The pre ignition combustion phase of burning during which heat energy is absorbed by fuel, which in turn gives off flammable tars, pitches, and gases.

Pyrolisis

Pyrolysis of wood releases combustible gases and leaves a charred suface

774

Capable of being shaped, bent, or drawn out.
ch9

Ductile

775

Ignition point for wood are difficult to measure precisely because the ignition temperature of wood is affected by such variables as the following

Density of wood
Size and form of wood
moisture content
rate of heating
nature of the heating source
air supply

775

Pyrolysis of wood begins at approximately ________ degrees F ( _____ degrees C)

392
(200)

776

The ratio of the surface area of the fuel to the mass of the fuel

Surface to mass ratio

777

The rolling process consists of repeatedly passing ingots of steel heated to ________ between large rollers until the desired shape is achieved.
ch9
* ingots: steel oblong in shape

2,200°F

778

Thermal or chemical decomposition of fuel ( matter) because of heat that generally results in the lowered ignition temperature of the material. The pre ignition combustion phase of burning during which heat energy is absorbed by fuel, which in turn gives off flammable tars, pitches, and gases.

Pyrolisis

Pyrolysis of wood releases combustible gases and leaves a charred suface

779

The two main methods of fire retardant treatment are __________ and ________

Pressure impregnatation

surface coating

Surface coating is used primarily to reduce the surface burning of wood

780

Steel possesses two inherent disadvantages:
ch9

• Tendency to rust when exposed to air and moisture
• Loss of strength when exposed to the heat of a fire

781

Pyrolysis of wood begins at approximately ________ degrees F ( _____ degrees C)

392
(200)

782

The fires typically encountered by fire- fighters do not create temperatures hot enough to ____ _____.
ch9

melt steel

783

Note that at a temperature of around 1,000°F , the yield point of the steel has dropped from ______ to ____ _______. At ____°F , the yield point has dropped to approximately 10,000 psi a loss in strength of approximately ___ percent.
ch9

36,000 psi to approximately 18,000 psi
1,200
72

784

Because temperatures in excess of 1,200°F are regularly encountered in fires, failure of _____ steel to a greater or lesser degree can be anticipated.

unprotected

785

Wood like product produced from wood fiber and polyethylene or PVC

Thermoplastic lumber

Main application is outside decks and railings

It is a combustible product with a flame spread rating of 80

786

Although steel is a good conductor of heat, it is also a very heavy material, having a density of around ____ __ per cubic feet.
ch9

490 pounds

787

Members such as ____ ___or ____ _____ can be expected to fail early when exposed to a fire. By contrast, massive ___ ___ and _____ frequently remain in place under severe fire exposure.
ch9

bar joists or slender trusses
steel beams and girders

788

Finally, the steel breaks when the “_____ ____” is reached. Because excessive deformation of steel is undesirable, the maximum stress that develops within steel members under conditions of loading must be kept below the ____ ____.
ch9

ultimate stress
yield point

789

The load that steel members are supporting also affects the behavior of steel because the loads produce the _______ in the steel. When ______ _______ exist in the steel, it must be heated to a higher temperature for the ____ ____ to be reached.
ch9

stresses
lower stresses
yield point

790

When individual steel members are ____ _____ or _____ into a large structural system, they are better able to resist failure than if they are simply supported.
ch9
*The way steel members are attached affects their behavior during a fire.

rigidly welded or bolted

791

Most fire retardant material operate by:

Accelerating the formation of charring in the wood when wood is exposed to heat.

792

In fire situations, the heating of steel or other materials does not occur in a ____ ____.
____ ____ columns and staircases can still be found in older buildings.
ch9

uniform manner
Cast iron

793

Today cast iron has been completely displaced by steel. Because cast iron is a ____ material, it tends to fail by fracturing from impact loading rather than by yielding as in the case of steel.
ch9

brittle

794

Wood like product produced from wood fiber and polyethylene or PVC

Thermoplastic lumber

Main application is outside decks and railings

It is a combustible product with a flame spread rating of 80

795

Steel structural shapes can be used to construct a frame of ______, _____ and ______. Steel also can be used in heavy or lightweight trusses to support _____ and _____.
ch9

columns, beams, and girders
roofs and floors

796

___ ____ steel studs are being used to construct exterior walls.
ch9

Cold-rolled

797

Because steel is a strong but very dense material, it is not efficient to use it in the form of _____ ______ or ____ as is done with other materials such as wood or concrete. Steel in sheet form, however, is used for applications such as _____ _____ and _____ ______ ____. The exterior envelope of a steel-frame building can consist of ______, _______, and ______.
ch9

solid slabs or panels
floor decking and exterior curtain walls
concrete, masonry, or glass

798

Beams and columns in steel-frame buildings are connected by one of two methods: ______ or ______. _______ was used in the first half of the 20th century but is not practical to use today.
ch9

bolting or welding
Riveting

799

The design of the connections in steel-frame buildings is extremely important. The connection of a ______ and ____ not only transfers the loads between members but also determines the of the basic structure.
ch9

beam to a column
rigidity

800

Steel loses its strength gradually as its temperature increases. The speed with which unprotected steel fails when it is exposed to a fire depends on several factors, including the following:

ch9

• Mass of the steel members
• Intensity of the exposing fire
• Load supported by the steel
• Type of connections used to join the steel members
• Type of steel

801

Although steel is a good conductor of heat, it is also a very heavy material, having a density of around ____ __per cubic feet.
ch9

490 pounds

802

Because the mass of steel requires a large amount of heat to raise its temperature, the _____ of a fire directly affects the behavior of steel. In a structure with a light fuel load, unprotected steel may not fail if the fire does not supply enough _____ _____.
ch9

intensity
thermal energy

803

When individual steel members are ____ _____ or _____ into a large structural system, they are better able to resist failure than if they are simply supported.
ch9

rigidly welded or bolted

804

The amount of expansion for slender members, such as beams and columns, can be determined through a property known as the ___ _____ of ___ ___.
ch9

linear coefficient of thermal expansion

805

In a semi-rigid frame:
ch9

the connections are not completely rigid but possess enough rigidity to provide some diagonal support to the structure.

806

Beam and girder steel frames can be classified as ____, ____, or _______.
ch9

rigid, simple, or semi-rigid

807

The connections between the beams and the columns are designed to resist the bending forces resulting from the supported loads and lateral forces. This is know as:
ch9

rigid-frame connection

808

In a rigid-frame connection, ______ ______ exists between the beam and the column so that ___ ____ occurs in the angle between the beam and the column as the loads are applied.
ch9

sufficient rigidity
no change

809

In the case of a simple frame:
ch9

the joints are designed primarily to support a vertical force.

810

A degree of angular change between beams and columns can occur if some form of diagonal bracing is not provided . Steel beams and trusses are frequently supported by a masonry wall. These designs are examples of .
ch9

simply supported systems and simple frame connection

811

____ _____ ____ are mass produced and are available with depths of up to __ feet and span up to ___ feet. However, they are more frequently found with depths less than __ feet and spans of ___ feet.
ch9

Open web joists
6
144
2
40

812

The top and bottom chords of a ___ ____ can be made from two angles, two bars, or a T-shaped member. The diagonal members can be made from ___ ____ welded to the top and bottom chords or they can be a continuous ____ ____ bent back and forth and welded to the chords.
ch9

web joist
flat bars
round bar

813

_____ _______ provide a structural member that can carry loads across greater spans more economically than beams can. _____ ______ can be fabricated in a variety of shapes to meet specific applications.
ch9

Steel trusses

814

When round bars are used for the diagonal members, the open web truss is known as a
ch9

bar joist

*The bar joist is a common type of open web steel joist.

815

Two commonly encountered applications of the basic steel truss are:
ch9

open web joist and the joist girder

816

Bar Joist
ch9

Open web truss constructed entirely of steel, with steel bars used as the web members

817

When round bars are used for the diagonal members, the open web truss is known as a

bar joist

818

Bar joists are frequently used in closely spaced configurations for the support of _____ and _____.
ch9

floors or roof decks

819

Steel rigid-frame buildings with inclined (or gabled) roofs are widely used for the construction of :
ch9

one-story industrial buildings, farm buildings, and a variety of other applications.

820

____ ____ are used to support roofs on buildings where large unobstructed floors are needed. These include occupancies such as:
ch9

Steel arches
gymnasiums and convention halls

821

The top of the rigid frame is known as the ____ and the points where the inclined members intersect the vertical members are known as the ______. The crown and the knees are designed as ____ _____ with __ _____ between members. The vertical members may or may not be rigidly connected to the foundations depending on anticipated ____ _____.
ch9

crown
knees
rigid joints
no rotation
wind loads

822

____ ______ ___ structures must be braced diagonally to prevent deflections in the direction _____ _____ _______ of the frame sections. This is accomplished by providing diagonal ______ ______ in the plane of the roof and in the vertical plane of the walls between the rigid frame sections.
ch9

Gable roof rigid-frame
perpendicular to the plane
cross-members

823

Steel arches can be constructed to span distances in excess of ____ feet.
ch9

300

824

Steel arches can be designed as either _____ or _____.
ch9

girder arches or trussed arches

825

_____ _____ and _____ are sometimes used in suspension systems to support roofs. ______ _______ ______ can provide large unobstructed areas similar to arches without the reduction in vertical clearance at the sides of a building that occurs with an arch.
ch9

Steel rods and cables
Suspension roof systems

826

Steel suspension systems make some unique designs possible. One useful application of a suspension system ____ ____.
ch9

cantilever roof

827

The most common column cross-sections are the ____ ______, ______ and the _________ similar to the cross section of an I-beam
ch9

hollow cylinder,
the rectangular tube
wide flange shape

828

The possibility of buckling in an individual column is a function of its ______, its ____ _____, and the method by which the column is supported at its ______ and _______.
ch9

length
cross-section
top and bottom

829

A property of a given column, known as its “____ ____” is used in combination with the condition of the column end to determine the load that can be safely supported without buckling.
ch9

slenderness ratio

830

The _____ the numerical value of the slenderness ratio, the more likely it is that ______ will occur. In general, columns used for structural support in buildings should not have a slenderness ratio greater than ____.
ch9

higher
buckling
120

831

In evaluating a given design, the slenderness ratio is modified by the manner in which the:

Columns that are erected so they cannot rotate at their ends have _____ ________ to buckle than columns that are free to rotate at their ends.
ch9

ends are attached to the rest of the structure

less tendency

832

The stability of columns is critical to the structural integrity of buildings under circumstances such as:
ch9

earthquakes, impact, and/or the shifting of a foundation

833

There are three methods by which steel structural members can be used to support floors in multistory buildings. These include:
ch9

open web joists (bar joists) or trusses, steel beams, and light-gauge steel joists.

834

A very common floor design in steel-frame buildings uses a
______ _______ with a minimum thickness of ___ ___ supported by corrugated steel decking. The corrugated steel is, in turn, supported by ____ ____ ____. The steel joists can be supported by steel beams or directly supported on a ____ _______. The open web joists can also be used to support ___ ____ panels or wood decking.
ch9

lightweight concrete
2 inches
open-web steel joists
masonry wall
precast concrete

835

Where floor loads or spans dictate, ___ _____ are used to support flooring instead of the lighter open-web joists.
ch9

steel beams

836

The ___ ____ ____ are produced from cold-rolled steel and are available in several cross-sections. It can also be used to support metal decks or wood panel flooring systems.
ch9

light-gauge joists

837

The steel joists are produced with depths of ___ to ___ inches and can be spaced ___ to ____inches apart depending on the span and the load to be supported.
ch9

6 to 12
16 to 48

838

In general, although unprotected steel is not fire-resistive, the greater the mass of a steel member, the:
ch9

less likely it is to fail in a fire

839

Of particular importance to firefighters are the additional strength provided by ______ _________ and the weakness of ____ _________ construction.
ch9

certain connections
lighter-weight

840

____ _______ are frequently found intact after a fire even after other parts of a frame have failed. In contrast, a ____ _____ ____ may fail under fire conditions as loads shift.
ch9
*Mass of Steel.

Rigid connections
simply supported beam

841

Metal or wooden plates used to connect and strengthen the intersections of metal or wooden truss components roof or floor components into a load-bearing unit.
ch9

Gusset Plates

842

Although the primary purpose of a gusset plate is to strengthen the _________, the gusset plate also increases the steel mass at the connection, thereby decreasing its _____ of _____.
ch9

connection
possibility of failure

843

In gabled rigid-frame structures the knee joint between the _____ and the ______ will be the strongest part of the frame and the ____ _____ ___ ___.
ch9

roof and the wall
last part to fail

844

In a structure with a large beam and girder frame made of repeating sections, the adjacent sections of the frame tend to be mutually supporting. These adjacent sections provide a degree of __________ to the overall system that reinforces the structure’s strength.
ch9

redundancy

845

If steel trusses are constructed with ____ _____ and diagonal members and are simply supported on a bearing _____ or ______, they can easily ____ or ______ under fire conditions. As in the case of steel beams, failure will not occur unless the trusses are exposed to a:
ch9

slender chords
wall or beam
fail and collapse
large amount of heat

846

The light-gauge steel sheeting used in floor systems and in roofs has a:
ch9

large surface area compared to its mass

847

In order to be used in fire- resistive buildings, steel must be made more ____ ___.
ch9

fire-resistive

848

A steel column encased in 3 inches of concrete with a ______ aggregate would have a fire resistance of ____
hours. Structural designers prefer to use ________ materials for the protection of steel.
ch9
*. This method is effective but increases the weight and therefore the cost of a structure

siliceous
four
lighter-weight

849

In contemporary practice the most commonly used insulating materials are:

Lightweight concrete can also be used because it is a durable material. Some of these insulating materials are applied by spraying and are known collectively as:
ch9

gypsum, spray-applied materials, and intumescent coatings

spray-applied fire resistive materials (SFRMs).

850

Widely used interior finish material. Consists of a core of calcined gypsum, starch, water, and other additives that are sandwiched between two paper faces.
ch9

Gypsum Board
Also known as gypsum wallboard, plasterboard, and drywall

851

Gypsum board is available as _____ and ______.
ch9

regular or type X.

852

Regular gypsum board has:

Type X gypsum board:
ch9

no special additives to enhance its fire resistance, although it will provide some degree of fire protection

contains additives to increase its fire resistance and is usually required where a specified fire resistance is desired

853

The value of gypsum as an insulating material arises in part from the water that is _______ combined within the material. Gypsum consists of approximately ___ percent entrapped water. This water content enhances gypsum’s performance as a fire-insulating material.
ch9

chemically
21

854

The water turns to steam upon exposure to fire and, in doing so, ____ _____ _____. This process is known as ________ Once the moisture has been driven off, the remaining gypsum will act as an insulating material.
ch9

absorbs the heat
calcination

855

Gypsum can be used to protect both columns and beams, providing fire resistance ratings from ___ to ___ hours. Gypsum board is used in multiple layers to attain higher fire resistance ratings.
ch9

one to four

856

The most commonly used SFRMs are mineral fiber or expanded aggregate coatings such as _____ and _____. The degree of fire resistance provided will depend not only on the material but also on the ______ of the _______ .
ch9

vermiculite and perlite
thickness of the application

857

The applied fireproofing can vary from ___ to ___ inches to produce a fire-resistive rating of ___ to ____ hours.
ch9

7/8 to 1 7/8
1 to 4

858

___ _____ mineral fiber materials are relatively soft and can be easily dislodged from the steel. They are not suitable for ____ ____. High-density SFRMs that use magnesium oxychloride have densities rang- ing from ___ to ___ lb/cu ft.
ch9

Low-density
exterior use
40 to 80

859

Containing or composed of cement. Has cementlike characteristics.
ch9

Cementitious

860

Cementitious materials are produced in various formulations. Ingredients can include:
Some manufacturers use:
The cementitious materials have densities varying from ___ to ___ lb/cu ft.
ch9

Portland cement, gypsum, perlite, and vermiculite

magnesium oxychloride, or oxysulfate, calcium aluminate, phosphate, or ammonium sulfate.

15 to 50

861

The surface to which the ____ is applied must be clean of oil, dirt, loose paint, and any other substance that would prevent good adhesion.
ch9

SFRM

*Asbestos has not been used in SRFMs since the 1970’s.

862

It is very important that ____ and _____ be installed before application of the SFRM.
ch9

supports and hangers

863

Coating or paintlike product that expands when exposed to the heat of a fire to create an insulating barrier that protects the material underneath. The coating material will expand to ___ to ___ times its original volume.
ch9

intumescent Coating
15 to 30

864

____ ______ function in a manner similar to intumescent coatings except they are based on more complex organic materials and their reaction to heat is more complete.
ch9

Mastic coatings

865

______ _____ are applied as a paint. They have an applied thickness of ____ to ___ inches which is less than the thickness of the spray-applied materials.
ch9

Intumescent coatings
0.03 to 0.4

866

Both intumescent and mastic coatings are relatively expensive. Their advantages include:
In addition they are frequently the most aesthetically pleasing.
ch9

lighter weight, durable surfaces, and good adhesion

867

Usually refers to a suspended, insulating ceiling tile system.
ch9

Membrane Ceiling

868

Membrane ceiling is:

The most common method is to use ___ ____ in a steel framework suspended by wires.


ch9

A very commonly used method of protecting a steel floor or roof assembly.

mineral tiles

869

The mineral tiles are a lightweight insulating material and usually contain ______ for ______ purposes. .
ch9
*Gypsum panels are also used for membrane ceilings

perforations for acoustical

870

Membrane ceiling are frequently used in ____ ____ ____ . The use of a membrane ceiling can provide a floor and ceiling assembly or a ceiling and roof assembly with a fire rating of ____ to ____ hours depending on the specific details of the installation.
ch9

steel framing systems
one to three

871

Ceiling materials are never rated ________ . A ceiling is always rated as part of a ____ and ______ , so it is not accurate to speak of the fire resistance of a ceiling alone.
ch9

independently
floor and ceiling assembly

872

Any removal or penetration of the ceiling material reduces or even eliminates the ____ _____ of the total assembly.
ch9

fire resistance

873

Membrane ceilings are popular, in part, because building services such as ____, ______, and _________, can be concealed above the ceiling.
ch9

electrical wiring, automatic sprinkler piping and ventilation ducts

874

It may be necessary to provide ______ ______ on the back of lighting fixtures and to equip ventilation ducts with fire dampers so fire does not penetrate through the opening.
ch9

additional insulation

875

Although building codes specify the degree of fire resistance required for various structural members, they do permit reductions under certain circumstances. Several examples are as follows:
ch9

• Eliminating the fire-resistance rating for roof construction located more than 20 feet (6.6 m) above the floor below for some occupancies
• Allowing a reduction of the required fire resistance when an automatic sprinkler system is provided that is not otherwise required by the provisions of the code

877

Protected steel is one of the two common methods of providing fire-resistive construction, such as ___ ____ and ____. The other method is rein-forced concrete
ch9

Type IA and IB and Type IIA

878

Notch, hole or space cut into a piece of timber to receive the projecting part (tenon)of another piece of timber

Mortise

879

Projecting member in a piece of wood or other material for insertion into a mortise to make a joint

tenon

880

From the stand point if the IC , the values needed for an analytical solution are simply not available in the course of an event (fire). The conditions of __________, __________ , and __________ are not precisely known in the middle of a fire fighting operation. Therefore , the structural integrity of heavy timber framing in an actual fire situation must always be viewed ___________.

fire loading
actual fire growth
timber dimensions

conservitavely

881

In the design of connections for heavy timber construction, the engineer must take into account factors that are unique to wood. These include ;

-Specific gravity of wood
-shrinkage of the wood
-position of the fasteners, such as bolts, relative to the grain of the wood
-relative size of the wood members and fasteners

882

Older timber construction made use of a type of joint known as _________________

Mortise and Tenon joint

This method is highly labor intensive and therefore costly

883

United States Department of Agriculture indicates that heat of a fire has essentially _____________ on the adhesives that are used in contemporary Glulam boards

No effect

884

Post and beam framing is a form of wood frame construction in which the columns ( termed the posts) and beams are of dimensions less than those used in ___________ framing but greater than those used in _____________ construction. The post are usually _______inches or _______ inches. The post are usually spaced ___ to ___ ft apart

heavy timber

light frame

4x4

6x6

4 to 12

885

The most popular form of wood framing is known as ___________ frame construction

Light wood

886

The two basic types of light wood framing are _______ and ______ framing

balloon framing

Platform framing

887

Lightwood framing makes use of ___ inch nominal lumber such as _____ or _____

2

2x4 or 2x8

888

Type of structural framing used in some single story and multistory wood frame buildings wherein the studs are continuos from the foundation to the roof. There may be no fire stops between the wood.

Balloon fram construction

889

The term balloon frame came from ____ appearance of the thin, closely spaced studs compared to earlier timber construction

fragile

890

Balloon framing has not ben widely used since the ______, although many balloon frame buildings remain

1920's

891

Type of framing in which each floor is built as a separate platform and the studs are not continuous beyond each floor. Also called Western frame construction

Platform frame construction

892

Solid materials, such as wood blocks, used to prevent or limit the vertical and horizontal spread of fire and the products of combustion in hollow walls or floors

Fire stop

893

Dividers hung from the ceiling in large open areas that are designed to minimize the mushrooming effects of heat and smoke. Also called curtain boards

Draft stop

894

The extent to which the presence of a form insulation in a wood frame wall will increase fire spread within a wall depends on the _____________

existence of an air space

895

Noncombustible material can be used for insulation. These include _______ and ______ in the form batts, blankets or fiber glass

glass wool and rock wool

896

Insulation can also take the form of loose fill material such as __________, ________, _______ and ________

granulated rock wool
granulated cork
mineral wool
glass wool

897

When the area to be enclosed by the roof is circular, a dome roof can be used. A dome can't be thought of as an arch rotated

360°

898

Curved roofs are most frequently supported by

Arches and bowstring trusses
P308

899

Curved roof surfaces take their form from the

Structural system used to support them

900

The combustibility of a siding material can affect fire behavior of a building in two ways :

through the exterior communication of fire from window and door openings

being ignited by exposing fire

901

One frequently used rule to identify a brick veneer wood frame building from a load bearing brick wall is :

every sixth course of brick is a header course with the ends of the brick facing out (load bearing brick wall)
pg223

902

The interior walls of wood frame buildings can be left exposed with no interior finish. Such buildings are classified as

type 5 B

903

When the structural framing of a wood frame structure , including the floor and roof construction, is provided with protection to achieve a 1 hour fire resistance rating, the building can be classified as

Type 5 A

Typically reached with the use of 5/8 inch gypsum board

904

Ignition resistant construction should not be confused with the _________ construction. Ignition resistant construction is intended to decrease the vulnerability of structures to exposures from __________

fire resistive

Wildland fires

905

Requirements for ignitions resistant construction include features such as fire resistant _________ to protect against falling embers. They also require exterior wall that is either ________ or that has __________ when exposed from the outside

roof coverings

noncombustible

1 hour fire resistive rating

906

What would be the issue if a roof did not have a slope?

If the roof is not constructed with a method for drainage, pools of water will form, which leads to early deterioration. Therefore, many flat roofs are provided with a slight slope, typically from front to rear to facilitate drainage

907

What are the categories of roof slopes?

Low slope – have a slope of up to 3 to 12, meaning for each 12 units of horizontal dimension the roof slopes upward three units
Medium to high slope roofs have slopes of 4/12 to 12/12 (a slope of 12/12 is a 45 degree angle)

908

Consists of two inclined surfaces that meet at their high side to form a ridge

Gable roof

909

Slopes in four directions and has a degree of slope similar to the gable roof

Hip roof

910

Slopes in two directions, but there will be a break in the slope on each side.

Gambrel roof

911

A roof that has a break and the slope on all four sides.
This style forms a projection beyond the building wall that creates a concealed space through which a fire can communicate

Mansard roof

912

A roof style that slopes in two directions basically two shed roofs that meet at their low eaves

The butterfly roof

913

Ingredients or chemicals added to concrete mix to produce concrete with specific characteristics.
ch10

admixture

914

The density of concrete can be reduced by using a lighter-weight aggregate such as ___ or ____. An _______ known as a superplasticizer can be used to produce a mixture that flows more freely.
ch10

shale or clinker
admixture

915

Concrete types include the following:

ch10

*Coloring can also be added to concrete for aesthetic or safety reasons, such as coloring concrete when it is placed over buried electrical cables.

• Ordinary stone concrete
• High early-strength concrete
• Structural lightweight concrete
• Expansive concrete
• Insulating lightweight concrete
• Water-permeable concrete
• Gypsum concrete

916

Safety concerns the pitch of a roof

A pitched roof is designed to Shedwater and snow. The pitch of the roof presents a major hazard to firefighters because the steepness of the roof result in a lack of secure footing. This hazard is increased when the roof is wet or covered with ice but also exists when the roof is dry because of the loose or regular texture of some roof coverings

917

What is a lamella arch?

Special form of arched roof that is constructed from short pieces of wood known as the melons. Lamellas vary from 2 x 8" to 3 x 16 and lengths varying from 8 to 14 feet.

918

How and with what are the short Lamellas bolted together with

Bolted together in a diagonal pattern with a special plate known as a Lamella washer

919

The lamella technique can be adopted to form a dome as well as

An arch

920

The lamella Roof has been used for what types of occupancies?

Gymnasiums, exhibition halls, and auditoriums

921

What is a Dome created using spherical triangulation?

A geodesic dome
Triangles are arranged in three dimensions to form a nearly spherical surface

922

when working on the roof, firefighters should view any indication of advanced or heavy fire development as a warning sign that

The roof is weakening

923

What are the common methods used to support flat roofs?

The simplest system uses ordinary would joists supported at either end by a load bearing wall
-The wood joists function as beams to support the roof deck just as for beams for a four system.
-Solid or laminated beams and columns may be used to support the wood roof joists
-In modern practice box beams and I-beams manufactured from plywood and woodtruss joists are often used to support flat roofs

924

Like masonry, concrete is strong in ____ but weaker in _______. The ultimate compressive strength can be varied from _______ to _____ with the allowable stress used in design reduced by a factor of safety.
ch10

compression
tension
2,500 psi to 6,000 psi

925

• The techniques that are used to reinforce concrete are:
ch10

• Ordinary reinforcing
• Prestressing reinforcing (pretensioning or post-tensioning)

926

With ordinary reinforcing:

ch10

steel bars are placed in the formwork and the wet concrete is placed in the formwork around the bars

927

It is the job of the ______ _______ to specify the number of reinforcing bars to be used, their size (diameter), and the depth of concrete cover around the bars. The diameters of standard-size reinforcing bars vary from ______ to _________.

ch10

design engineer
.375 inches to 2.257 inches

928

The vertical reinforcing bars are known as _______ and are provided to resist the ______ _______.
ch10

stirrups
diagonal tension

929

Concrete beams are frequently cast in the shape of a ___. The wider cross-sectional area at the top of the tee beam permits the concrete to support a ____ _____. At the same time, it reduces the dead load that would result with a simple rectangular beam. Reinforcing steel is placed in the _____ of the tee to resist the tensile force.

ch10

tee
greater load
bottom

930

Although the primary function of placing reinforcing steel in concrete is to resist ____ ____, the steel can also be used to support some of the ________ forces.
ch10

tensile forces
compressive

931

The steel bars support some of the compressive load and also resist bending forces in the column from such sources as _____ ____ and ______.

wind load and settling

932

A ___ ____ concrete beam is a more efficient and _________ design because the concrete in the shaded area is eliminated.
ch10

tee-shaped
lightweight

933

The compressive forces in a column could be great enough to cause the ___ ____ ____ to buckle even though they are imbedded in the concrete. To avoid possible buckling, ____ ____ is provided around the vertical bars.
ch10

steel reinforcing bars
lateral reinforcing

934

The ______ of the steel creates compressive stresses in the concrete that counteract the tensile stresses that result when the loads are applied.
ch10

preloading

935

The prestressing process requires large loads to be applied to the concrete along the ___ of the _____. These loads can result in the _______ of the concrete over time.
CH10

axis of the beam
shortening

936

There are two methods of prestressing concrete. These are _______ and _________. Both processes use the same basic materials.
ch10

pretensioning and postensioning

937

Steel strands are stretched between anchors producing a tensile force in the steel. Concrete is then placed around the steel strands and allowed to harden.

Pretensioned reinforcing

938

When the steel strands are released, the concrete member usually takes on a slight _____ ______.
ch10

upward deflection

*As loads are applied to the pretensioned member, the deflection usually disappears and the member becomes flat

939

Technique used in post-tensioned concrete. Reinforcing steel in the concrete is tensioned after the concrete has hardened.

ch10

Post-tensioned reinforcing

940

Roof designed to provide light and ventilation.
-These roofs were once very commonly used on factory buildings.
- The raised central section of the roof extends several feet above the surrounding roof surface

Monitor roof

941

Modern ventilation and lighting systems have largely eliminated the need for what types of roofs?

Monitor and sawtooth roofs

942

-Roof that was once commonly used for industrial buildings for light and ventilation.
- Ideally the glass vertical sections should face north because the Northern light is more constant during the day and the glare of the sun can be avoided

Sawtooth roof

943

As a general rule, reinforcing steel should not be cut in the course of fire fighting operations unless it is necessary to _____ _____ _____.

ch10

rescue trapped victims

944

The reinforcing steel bars support ____ _____. Furthermore, the forces that are produced in the prestressing process remain locked in the steel for the ___ of the _____.
ch10

large loads
life of the assembly

945

Cutting through reinforcing steel with a saw or torch is particularly dangerous in _______ concrete because the steel is not bonded to the concrete. The steel strands are stretched like giant ____ _____. If they are cut, they are likely to spring out of the concrete, injuring emergency responders.
ch10

post-tensioned
rubber bands

946

A common type of concrete construction. Refers to concrete that is poured into forms as a liquid and assumes the shape of the form in the position and location it will be used.

ch10

Cast-in-Place Concrete

947

Concrete can be either cast in ____ or _____.

ch10

place or precast

948

Precast concrete is placed in:

ch10

forms and cured at a precasting plant away from the job site.

*Precast concrete structural members are then transported to the job site.

949

Cast-in-place concrete does not develop its design strength until

ch10

after it has been placed in the location where it will be used.

950

Great care must be exercised in the ____, _____, and ____ of concrete to ensure good quality.

ch10

mixing, placing, and curing

951

Using sand from an ocean beach as a shortcut introduces salt into the concrete. Eventually the salt will cause _______ and _______ of the reinforcing steel. If the concrete is vibrated excessively as it is placed in the forms, ________ of the aggregate results.
ch10

corrosion and deterioration

segregation *

*The heavy coarse aggregate settles at the bottom of the mixture and the water and cement rise to the top

952

The single most important factor in determining the ultimate strength of concrete is the:
ch10

water-to-cement ratio

953

Water is a necessary ingredient in concrete because it reacts with the cement powder in the _____ ______. An amount of water greater than required for curing is added to the concrete mix to increase its ________ as it is placed in the forms. Some of this excess moisture evaporates and leaves _____ ______ in the hardened concrete. A portion of the excess moisture remains locked in the concrete.
ch10

hydration process
workability
microscopic voids

954

The presence of excess moisture in the concrete also produces ______ in the concrete due to freezing conditions or the heat of a fire.
ch10

spalling

955

When the concrete arrives at the job site, its quality is checked by administering a test known as a ____ ___.

ch10

slump test

956

The slump test is used to check the ______ content of concrete by measuring the amount that a small, _____ ______ of the concrete settles or “slumps” after it is removed from a standard-sized test mold.
ch10

moisture
cone-shaped sample

957

Concrete with a high moisture content has a more liquid consistency and a ___ ____. Concrete with _____ ______ will fail the test and may be rejected by the structural engineer.
ch10

greater slump
excessive slump

958

Another method of testing concrete is to make small test cylinders of a concrete batch and subject them to ________ testing. This method is accurate but has the disadvantage of requiring that the concrete be permitted to _____ before the results are known. This test would be very _____ if the concrete were ultimately found to be unsatisfactory.
ch10

compression
harden
costly

959

Large cast-in-place structures cannot be cast in ___ ______. Construction joints unavoidably occur between successive pours. To provide for transfer of loads and forces from one placement to the next, the reinforcement steel will _____ the joints.
ch10

one operation
overlap

960

Concrete buildings are constructed with structural systems that use bearing walls formed from cast-in-place concrete. However, a more typical design is to construct a concrete frame. The following are common cast-in-place structural systems:
ch10

Flat slab
• Slab and beam
• Waffle construction

961

The _____ concrete frame is a simple system that consists of a concrete slab supported by concrete columns. The slab of concrete varies in thickness from __ to ___ inches
ch10

flat-slab
6 to 12

962

In a building that will have heavy live loads, the area around the _______ is reinforced with additional concrete in the form of ____ _____ or _______ capitals. If the building will support light loads, this additional reinforcing is not necessary. The system then is known as a ___ ___.
ch10

columns
drop panels
mushroom
flat plate

963

A ___ and ______ frame consists of a concrete slab supported by concrete beams. This framing system is extremely light weight and is best suited for buildings with light floor loads. Slabs in this type of construction can sometimes be as thin as ___ ____. Due to the ___ __, the concrete beams must be ____ _____ in order to provide adequate support. This spacing often gives an appearance similar to _____ ______ and is sometimes referred to as concrete joist construction.
ch10

slab and beam
2 inches
thin slab
closely spaced
wood joists

964

When the concrete beams run mainly in one direction, the framing is known as a ___ _____ _____ slab.
ch10

one-way reinforced

965

The two-way framing system is used where:
ch10

spans are short and floor loadings are high.

966

Buildings using slab and beam systems are often highly susceptible to fire damage due to their ___ ____.

________ of some sort is often necessary, especially when specific fire ratings must be achieved.
ch10

thin nature

Fireproofing

967

Waffle construction derives its name from the waffle- like pattern of the ______ of the concrete slab. The pattern results from the placement of square forms over which the wet concrete is placed. This design provides ____ slab while eliminating the _______ of unnecessary concrete in the bottom half of the slab. _______ _____ placed in the bottom of the formwork provides reinforcement in two directions. Slabs of this type, therefore, are also known as ____ ____.
ch10

bottom
thicker
weight
Reinforcing steel
two-way slabs

968

A poured concrete slab can be supported by ______ _____ ____ instead of concrete beams. If the assembly is intended for a Type I (fire-resistive) building the steel must be provided with some form of _______.
ch10

structural steel beams
fireproofing

969

Method of building construction where the concrete building member is poured and set according to specification in a controlled environment and is then shipped to the construction site for use.
ch10

Precast Concrete

970

An advantages to using precast concrete is
• Higher degree of quality control possible than with cast-in-place con- crete:
ch10


— Precasting forms can be located in a sheltered environment not exposed to the weather
— A high degree of quality control can be exercised over the ingredients
— Mixing and pouring the concrete can be more mechanized and efficient., which may result in additional costs.

971

An advantages to using precast concrete is
Work can proceed more quickly at the job site:

ch10

— Precasting is faster because there is no need to construct formwork at the job site.
— No need to wait for concrete to harden before work can proceed, as with cast-in-place concrete.
— No need to construct and remove forms

972

An advantages to using precast concrete is
• Precast concrete sandwich panels can be produced using a _______ ________ , which improves the _________ properties of the precast concrete.
ch10

polystyrene core
insulating

973

A major disadvantage to using precast concrete is the need to _________ the finished components to the job site.

Transportation increases _____ and ____ the size of the shapes that can be precast.

ch10

transport
costs
limits

974

Precast concrete buildings can be built using ____ ____ modular units but it is more common to assemble precast parts into a _______ for a building.
ch10

whole precast
framework

975

Precast concrete slabs for floor systems can be cast in standard shapes that include:
ch10

solid slabs, hollow-core slabs, single tee slabs, and double tee slabs

976

Solid slabs are used for short spans up to approximately ___ ___ , while the tee slabs can be used for spans up to __ ___ .
ch10

30 feet
120 feet

977

Type of construction in which concrete wall sections (slabs) are cast on the concrete floor of the building and are then tilted up into the vertical position.
ch10

tilt-Up Construction

Also known as Tilt- Slab Construction.

978

Tilt-up walls can support several types of roof including:
The integrity of the roof is critical under fire conditions. Failure of a roof can result in _____ _______ forces against the wall resulting in collapse.
ch10

timber beams, precast slabs, steel beams, and steel trusses

outward horizontal

979

Precast structural elements are usually lighter than corresponding ___ __ ____ components. However, the use of precast concrete results in a loss of _______ that is inherent with cast-in-place concrete frames. In a precast concrete structure, the connections between the _____ _______ are a critical aspect of structural engineering.
ch10

cast-in-place
continuity
individual components

980

A variety of techniques, such as _____, _____ and _______ can be used to connect precast structural elements. In the simplest of precast designs, precast slabs simply rest on a ____ ____ or ______. Simple designs of this type are not inherently rigid and the slabs need to be _______ tied together to resist horizontal forces.
ch10

bolting, welding, and posttensioning
bearing wall or column
laterally

981

When precast beams are to be supported by columns, the beams may be supported by _____ _____ into the column.

A corbel, also known as a bracket, is a :

ch10

corbels cast

ledge that projects from the column and supports the beam

982

______ _____ can also be supported by a short steel beam that is cast into the precast column.
ch10

Precast beams

983

Nonbearing exterior wall attached to the outside of a building with a rigid steel frame. Usually the front exterior wall of a building intended to provide a _______ appearance.

ch10

Curtain Wall
certain

984

The curtain wall is the building’s exterior enclosure and can be made of such materials as:
ch10

aluminum, glass, steel panels, and masonry

985

A curtain wall tends to _____ the structural details of a building and makes it difficult to accurately identify the structural system by observation alone.
ch10

conceal

986

It is difficult to know with certainty if a concrete frame building was constructed with _____ ____ or _____ _______. It may also be impossible to distinguish between ________ _______ and ______ ____ after a building is completed.
ch10

ordinary reinforcing or posttensioned reinforcing
cast-in-place concrete and precast concrete

987

Concrete structural systems can have fire-resistance ratings from one to four hours. The fire resistance of a concrete assembly is affected by such variables as the following:
ch10

• Concrete density
• Concrete thickness
• Concrete quality
• Load supported by the concrete
• Depth of concrete cover over the reinforcing bars

988

Structural lightweight concrete has a lower ________ than ordinary concrete and has a lower ______ _______. Therefore, it acts as a better _______ against the heat of a fire than does ordinary concrete of comparable thickness. However, structural lightweight concrete is not used for ____ _____members.
ch10

density
thermal conductivity
insulator
load bearing

989

Cast-in-place concrete buildings have an advantage over precast buildings because the continuity of the assembly provides an _____ ______ to movement of the intersecting members such as _____ and _______.
ch10

inherent restraint
columns and beams

990

Expansion of excess moisture within concrete due to exposure to the heat of a fire resulting in tensile forces within
the concrete, causing it to break apart. The expansion causes sections of the concrete surface to violently disintegrate, resulting in explosive pitting or chipping destruction of the material’s surface.
ch10

spalling

991

The extent to which concrete undergoes spalling depends on the amount of _____ ______ in the concrete and ___ ___ _____ that has passed the concrete was placed.
ch10

excess moisture
the length of time

992

Concrete absorbs heat when it is exposed to a fire. Because concrete has relatively good insulating properties, it tends to retain the heat of an exposing fire and release it slowly, similar to the manner in which a masonry oven releases heat. This general effect is referred to as the ___ ____ ____.

ch10

heat sink effect

993

The heat released from the concrete is not enough to ______ ______, but is enough to make the overhaul operation _______.
ch10

reignite combustibles
uncomfortable

994

Under certain conditions, building codes will allow the omission of structural fireproofing from roof supports in type – – construction

Type I

995

Fireproofing can be omitted from roof supports when the roof is located more than ------ ft above the floor in an assembly occupancy

20 feet, therefore unprotected steel roof supports may be encountered in a building in which the main structural supports are fire resistive

996

Why do flat roofs deflect or vibrate noticeably has personnel walk across them?

-Because roofs are designed for lighter live loads and floors are
-Nonetheless, flat roofs usually must be designed to support the weight of at least a few workers so they can be accessed safely for maintenance purposes
-Therefore, the flexion or vibration under the weight of firefighters may not signal imminent failure

997

The deflection and vibration of roofs are an indication of---------- roof construction, and firefighters should view such construction cautiously

Light weight

998

Inverted roofs differ from conventional roofs primarily in the location of

Their main roof beams

999

Describe the difference between a conventional roof system and an inverted roof system, as it pertains to the location of the main joists

-In a conventional roof system the main joists are located at the final roof level directly supporting the roof deck. A ceiling is attached to the underside of the joists or, more commonly, suspended below the joists.
-With the inverted roof, the main joists are located at the level of the ceiling and the framework is constructed above the main joists to support the roof deck

1000

From the outside, the inverted roof looks like

Any other flat roof

1001

What is the main concern of the inverted roof?

The design of the inverted roof creates a concealed space that may be several feet in height between the ceiling and roof deck

1002

Describe the location of forces on the arch and dome roof

Horizontal thrusts exist at the base and a compressive force exist at the top
However, the forces in a dome are exerted around a complete circle instead of just one plane.

1003

What is a rafter?

Inclined joists used to support some types of pitched roofs

1004

Rafters are the standard supports used and what type of roofs?

Shed, gable, hip, gambrel, and mansard style roofs, although trusses can also be used for these retards

1005

The basic design of a raptor results and what kind of thrust against the walls, similar to the action of an arch

Outward

1006

The outward thrust of rafters is resisted by what?

Resisted by ceiling or attic floor joists or collar beams that are in tension

1007

What happens if ceiling or attic floor joists are damaged or destroyed in a fire?

The roof can push out against the walls

1008

If the architect desires to leave the underside of the roof exposed without joists, what must be used to support the rafters?

A structural ridge beam
P314

1009

Describe the size and spacing of wood rafters

Would rafters vary in size from 2 x 4" to 2 x 14". They can be spaced from 12 to 24 inches apart, depending on the span and design load

1010

Trusses are a very common roof support system. Trusses use less material and are lighter than a comparable being or joist for an equal span. However, the reduced mass of their components and the interdependence of these components make them vulnerable to

Early failure under fire conditions

1011

Ceilings are often suspended from a roof truss, creating what between the top and bottom chords and throughout the ceiling to the roof

Concealed spaces

1012

Lightweight truss design noted by the bow shape, or curve, of the top chord

Bowstring truss

1013

What type of connectors are used on the joints of the bowstring truss

This assembly uses split- ring connectors at all joints except the heel plates located at the ends of the truss

1014

What is the most common type of trust used for pitched roofs?

Fink and Pratt style

1015

What can roof trusses be made out of

Typically wood and steel

1016

Where are both wood and steel trusses usually fabricated

Off-site and shipped to the job site

1017

What happens if a truss is too large to be transported as one unit?

It can be moved in sections and connected in the field

1018

The behavior of a roof supported by an arch is basically determined by

The material from which the arch is constructed.

1019

What is one characteristic of some arch support of roofs that can cause catastrophic failure under fire conditions?

Some arch roofs use a steel tie rod between the two ends of the arc to resist the outward thrust of the arch. The tie rods extend through the interior of the building and are usually unprotected. Failure of the tie rods will permit the arch to spread outward and the roof will collapse

1020

What is the deck of a roof?

The portion of roof construction to which the roof covering or roofing is applied

1021

What are the components of roof decks?

Sheathing, roof plank or slabs, and purlins

1022

Sometimes, as in concrete deck roof, the roof deck serves as the

Roof support

1023

Corrugated steel decking is frequently used in applications where it serves as both the---- and the------ roof covering

Deck and exterior roof covering

1024

What can roof decks be constructed of?

Plywood, wood planks, corrugated steel, precast gypsum or concrete planks, poor gypsum, poured concrete, and Seamit planks containing wood fiber

1025

Wood panel decking may have a thickness of

1/2 inch on supports 24 inches on center

1026

Minimum thickness of wood planks