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Block 5; Week 4 > Stroke-Lopez > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stroke-Lopez Deck (69):
1

What is the definition of a TIA?

A clinical syndrome characterized by an acute loss of focal brain or monocular function with symptoms lasting less than 24 hrs and which is thought to be due to inadequate cerebral or ocular blood supply, without ischemic changes in Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI)
***actually something lasting less than 15 minutes (def less than 1 hr).
**w/o evidence of acute infarction

2

What is a stroke?

death of brain tissue b/c of lack of blood flow

3

What is the definition (technical) of stroke?

Clinical syndrome characterized by an acute loss of focal brain or monocular function with symptoms lasting greater than 24 hrs and which is thought to be due to inadequate cerebral or ocular blood supply.

4

What are the 2 main types of stroke?

Ischemic (thrombosis-narrowed bv & embolism-traveling clot)
Hemorrhagic (intracerebral & subarachnoid aneurysm)

5

What % of strokes are ischemic? Hemorrhagic?

Ischemic (80%)
Hemorrhagic (20%)

6

Which % of ischemic strokes are thrombosis? Embolism?

Thrombosis: 50%
Embolism: 30%

7

What is a risk for an intracerebral stroke?

HTN

8

Where does stroke fall in terms of causes of death?

4th leading cause of death
leading cause of disability

9

What types of strokes do small vessels that are thrombosed v. large vessels that are thrombosed?

small vessels--smaller damage amount, called lacunar strokes
larger vessels--massive stroke more likely

10

What are the non-modifiable risk factors for strokes?

Age
Sex-M>F
Race (e.g., African-Americans)
Family history of stroke
Prior stroke/TIA

11

What are the modifiable risk factors for strokes?

Smoking
Hypertension Alcohol abuse
Diabetes Obesity
Hyperlipidemia Physical inactivity
Atrial fibrillation
Homocystemia
Carotid stenosis

12

What is the most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage? Spontaneous cause?

All subarachnoid hemorrhage: trauma
Spontaneous causes: aneurysm

13

T/F Up to approximately 10% of people who suffer transient attacks (TIAs) will develop a stroke within 5 years.

False. 30% of people. Huge deal.

14

What is the risk of stroke post-TIA at 1 mo? 1 year? 5 years?

1 mo: 4-8%
1 year: 12-13%
5 years: 24-29%

15

T/F Death rates from strokes are increasing since the 1900s.

False. the death rates are decreasing--we treat them better. But it will start to increase soon just b/c of the sheer number of people.

16

T/F In the elderly population, strokes are as common in males as females.

True.

17

If you supplement a patient w/ homocystemia with Vit B...are they at less risk for a stroke or MI?

No. sadly.

18

What is the stroke belt?

coordinates with the bible belt. Southern states.

19

What produces the death of the neurons in a stroke?

death of the sodium potassium pump
tissue starts to die within minutes
damage is irreversible, can't reverse this damage but can treat.

20

T/F Time=Brain.

TRUE! Reason for stroke units.

21

T/F The duration, severity, and location of focal cerebral ischemia determine the extent of brain function and thus the severity of stroke

True.

22

Lack of ______ and _____ deplete the cellular energy stores required to maintain electrical potentials and ion gradients.

The membrane that surrounds each affected neuron becomes "leaky," and the cell loses________ & _______ , the tissue's medium for energy exchange

glucose & oxygen

potassium and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

23

There are several drugs on the market that treat things related to stroke that are a part of the coagulation cascade. Which parts of the coagulation cascade are targeted?

Factor 10-3 drugs target
Thrombin Inhibitor--used for atrial fibrillation.

24

On contact with collagen, ______ become activated & aggregate at the site of injury. This surface is catalytic for several coagulation reactions that generate thrombin.

platelets

25

How does atherosclerosis begin?

begins in response to chronic minimal injury to endothelium of blood vessel
**involves many players: monocytes, lipoproteins, platelets, lymphocytes, smooth muscle cells

26

T/F with more plaque formation--the more likely to have a stroke.

True.

27

What does each of these levels of atherosclerosis consist of? Types I, II, III

Type I: minimal endothelial injury
Type II: intimal injury
Type III: thrombus formation

28

If you have a migraine with an aura...you could have what?

endothelial cell dysfunction
could put you at greater risk to have a stroke

29

Plaque builds up in the _____ layer of the blood vessel & then ____ infiltrate.

intimal layer of bv
inflammatory cells infiltrate

30

Along with macrophages, _______ cells make up a lot of the bulk of atherogenesis.

Smooth muscle cells. they grow in atherosclerosis.

31

T/F Some plaques ulcerate, leaving the deeper layers of the blood vessel open to blood cells.

True.

32

What makes plaques vulnerable to rupture?

stress on plaque cap during systole
reduction of collagen content with infiltration of foam cells

33

What are the 3 ways that oxidized LDL-cholesterol contributes to atherogenesis?

1. Cytotoxic properties that promote endothelial injury.
2. chemoattractant for monocytes
3. inhibits departure of macrophages from plaques

34

Describe how an MI could lead to a stroke in time.

MI weakens ventricle of heart.
blood falls in there & you get a clot.
a piece of clot breaks off & travels into general circulation
some emboli go to brain & produce a stroke

35

Where do cardiogenic emboli usu lodge?

80% of the time--middle cerebral artery
10% of the time--posterior cerebral artery
10% of the time--vertebral artery

36

How do large vessels sometimes lead to strokes?

thrombosis w/i the large vessel. Plaque formation. Narrowing of lumen.

37

How does small vessel occlusion usu happen?

via damage by HTN
leads to thickening of b.v. media
deposition of fibrinoid material
**small vessels often give lacunar strokes
**Called lipohyalinosis

38

Where do lenticulostriate arteries go?

to the basal ganglia

39

What's something scary to keep in mind when I get my hair cut after school gets out?

um...be careful when you put your head back in the tub b/c if you bang your neck too hard you could get arterial dissection & stroke out.

40

Aside from the things we have already talked about...what are some causes of stroke?

fibromuscular dysplasia: overgrowth of intima & media
Arteritis (Takayasu's & Giant Cell)
Arterial Dissection
Decreased systemic perfusion
Fabry's disease

41

In muscular dysplasia..you can get bleeding of _____ blood vessels.

extra cranial blood vessels

42

What are some important stroke warning signs?

Sudden weakness, paralysis, or numbness of the face, arm and the leg on one or both sides of the body
Loss of speech, or difficulty speaking or understanding speech
Dimness or loss of vision, particularly in only one eye
Unexplained dizziness (especially when associated with other neurologic symptoms), unsteadiness, or sudden falls
Sudden severe headache and/or loss of consciousness

43

What are the things on your differential diagnosis when you see a patient with stroke symptoms?

Ischemic Stroke
Hemorrhagic Stroke
Craniocerebral/cervical trauma
Meningitis/ Encephalitis
Intracranial Mass
Seizure with persistent neurological signs
Migraine with persistent neurological signs
Metabolic problem

44

What are 2 types of intracranial mass on your differential diagnosis?

tumor
subdural hematoma

45

What are some metabolic considerations when you see a patient with stroke symptoms?

Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Post-cardiac arrest ischemia
Drug/narcotic overdose

46

What do you associate with each of these stroke types?
Atherothrombotic?
Embolism?
Primary small vessel disease?

Atherothrombotic: occlusion of larger arteries
Embolism: cardiogenic
Primary small vessel disease: lipohyalonosis

47

Which brain tissue are you trying to save with stroke treatment?

the penumbra

48

When a person comes into the ER for stroke symptoms...which test do you usu order & why?

CT--good in times of emergency, won't be able to see stroke right away...but can see if it is a hemorrhagic stroke. Then DON'T give anti-thrombolytic therapy to the pt!

49

T/F Even in left-handed people the left hemisphere is often dominant.

True.

50

What are some signs of a left hemisphere stroke?

Aphasia
Right hemiparesis
Right-sided sensory loss
Right visual field defect
Poor right conjugate gaze
Dysarthria –slurred speech
Difficulty reading, writing, or calculating

51

What are some signs of a right hemisphere stroke?

Neglect of left visual field
Extinction of left-sided stimuli-move 2 hands & they only see 1.
Left hemiparesis
Left-sided sensory loss
Left visual field defect
Poor left conjugate gaze
Dysarthria
Spatial disorientation
Drowsy, sleep a lot.
**sometimes these pts don't realize that anything is wrong.

52

What are some signs of a Posterior Circulation (Vertebrobasilar Territory) Stroke?

Ataxia, gait abnormalities
Diplopia, oscillopsia, nystagmus, dysconjugate eye movements
Nausea & vomiting (center is in area post-rema)
Crossed hemiparesis, hemisensory deficits
Headache more common

53

What are some possible neurodeficits secondary to a lesion that you could see in the frontal lobe?

akinesia
apraxia
ataxia
behavioral changes

54

What are some possible neurodeficits secondary to a lesion that you could see in the parietal lobe?

sensory loss
hemianopia
apraxia
Gerstmann's syndrome

55

What are some possible neurodeficits secondary to a lesion that you could see in the temporal lobe?

Pure word deafness
Behavioral disturbances
Superior quadrant visual loss

56

What are some possible neurodeficits secondary to a lesion that you could see in the occipital lobe?

vision loss

57

Tests for the Emergent Evaluation of the Patient
with Acute Ischemic Stroke?

CT of the brain without contrast
Electrocardiogram
Chest x-ray
Hematologic studies
Serum electrolytes
Blood glucose
Renal and hepatic chemical analyses
National Institutes of Health Scale (NIHSS) score

58

Under special circumstances extra tests that may be necessary?

Cervical spine x-ray
Arterial blood gas
Lumbar puncture
Electroencephalogram (EEG)

59

What are some things to make sure you do with stroke patients?

maintain adequate tissue oxygenation & O2 inhalation
maintain optimal BP b/c autoreg is faulty during a stroke
maintain good blood glucose-hyperglycemia poorer outcomes.
management of fever--hyperthermia worsens ischemia

60

When should TPA be given?

hopefully w/i 1 hour.
but can be given up to 4.5 hours after stroke symptoms began.
**b/c of reperfusion injury

61

What are some good anti-platelet agents?

Aspirin
Plavix
Aggrenox
Statins
Atorvastatin

62

What are some known factors that cause stroke progression?

Hypotension
Hyperglycemia
Hyperthermia
Infection
Cerebral hypoperfusion

63

With brain edema, you see deviation of what?

the falx cerebri

64

How do you (generally speaking) treat brain swelling?

**fluid restriction
hyperventilation (lower PCO2)
osmotic diuretics
drainage of CSF (ventriculostomy)
surgery (lobectomy)
**peaks at 3-4 days following stroke

65

So a stroke patient had super high BP & they lowered it artificially to 130/80 mmHg. Then his stroke symptoms did not resolve after TPA. Why?

b/c his autoreg is out of whack b/c of stroke & lower his BP that drastically cause lack of perfusion to his brain tissue. Lost the penumbra.
**in stroke patients cerebral pressure directly related to cerebral blood flow

66

Med student who skiied & fell & then had stroke symptoms later on...what happened?

they had dissection of left vertebral artery

67

T/F No patient should be given dextrose solution who has had a stroke.

True. Could cause hyperglycemia if a diabetes pt too & could worsen stroke.

68

Why do you need to take a CT of a patient 24 hours after the stroke?

to see if the TPA has caused a hemorrhage

69

When can you use VTE prophylaxis?

36 hours after a stroke