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Block 5; Week 4 > Regeneration-VonB > Flashcards

Flashcards in Regeneration-VonB Deck (43):
1

What happens after you get axonal injury in the PNS?

Wallerian degeneration
Chromatolysis (cell body response)
Axon Growth
Target Re-innervation

2

What is Wallerian degeneration?

this is degeneration of the distal stump of a lesioned axon
this is done so that the growth cone has a good substrate
it isn't a passive process caused by lack of nutrients.
allows for invasion of macrophages & schwann cells
doesn't mess with intact axon fibers

3

What stains in a Nissl stain? Why is this such a good way of visualizing a neuron?

the rough ER stains in a Nissl Stain
**good way to visualize b/c neurons need a lot of proteins & thus have a lot of Rough ER

4

What shows up in a Nissl stain pic before & after an axonal lesion?

Before: Lots of purple for Rough ER
**centrally located nucleus
After: Grey, much less rough ER
**nucleus in a different position

5

What happens 2 weeks after an axonal lesion in the PNS?

Wallerian degeneration happens at the distal stump & you start to get a growth cone forming & bridging the gap
Also myelin & other tissue needs to be removed-done by Schwann & macrophage cells.

6

What happens 3 months after an axonal lesion in the PNS?

at this time you get functional reinnervation of your myofiber

7

What happens if you never get functional reinnervation of your myofiber?

then you get atrophy
if there is too much scar tissue-a growth cone can't get across

8

Aside from phagocytosis of myelin of messed up axonal fibers...what else do Schwann cells do after an axonal cut?

they secrete trophic factors
divide & form bands of bungner-->makes a tract for the growth cone

9

What does successful regeneration of PNS axon that has been cut require?

survival of cell body
axon growth
functional connection with target

10

Which is more helpful for axonal regeneration? Schwann cells; Oligodendrocytes.

Definitely Schwann cells.
Oligodendrocytes aren't helpful-hurt the process of axonal regeneration in the CNS

11

If the distal & proximal stump of a severed nerve are far apart...what medical intervention might be necessary?

a nerve graft
the nerve won't become functional, but it will provide a bridge.
commonly use sural nerve

12

Which type of nerve would have a better outcome...crushed or cleanly cut?

crushed, interestingly enough.

13

A glial scaffold of ECM left over after a nerve is cut is helpful in what?

in nerve regeneration...allows a nerve to sprout from a neighbor & innervate the muscle fiber that lost its nerve.

14

Why is CNS axon regeneration not the same as the PNS (not as successful)?

b/c removal of debris is slow
growth cones are upset & can hardly advance
astrocytes form a scar

15

What are some attractive adhesive markers in the CNS?

laminin
fibronectin
cadherin
CAM

16

What are some attractive diffusible markers in the CNS?

netrins
ephrins

17

What are some repellent adhesive markers in the CNS?

semaphorins
collapsin
myelin-associated protein (ex: nogo)

18

What are some repellent diffusible markers in the CNS?

semaphorins
nephrins

19

What's the deal with nogo?

it is a protein that is found in oligodendrocytes in the CNS.
Not found in Schwann cells in the PNS.
It is a myelin-associated protein & is repellent.
People think that if they can make an antibody to nogo then they can improve nerve regeneration in the CNS.
**one study showed that inhibiting it helps in spinal cord regeneration

20

Where does growth cone collapse often happen? Why?

often happens in the CNS b/c the oligodendrocytes don't help & then astrocytes move in.

21

Some people thought that putting a PNS nerve graft in the CNS would help with regeneration. Describe this experiment. Did it help?

Had problem with optic nerve.
put a sciatic nerve (PNS graft) in to connect the retinal ganglion cells to the superior colliculus. It helped!
**this showed that the real problem with CNS regeneration was the environment, not an intrinsic inability.

22

T/F Scientists have also studied trophic factors to help with nerve growth.

True.

23

What is an example of optic nerve crush? What are some of the treatments that are considered for this?

ex: loss of retinal ganglion cells
Treatments:
use of growth factors
antibodies against myelin proteins

24

What happens in Parkinson's disease? WHat are some of the treatments that are considered?

loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra
Treatments:
BDNF, GDNF
fetal tissue transplants
stem cells

25

What happens in Alzheimer's? What are some of the treatments that are considered?

loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain
Treatments: growth factors--NGF, BDNF

26

What happens in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? What are some of the treatments that are considered?

loss of upper & lower motor neurons
growth factors: CNTF, BDNF, GDNF, IGF

27

What are some delivery method options for trophic factors?

Intracerebral/Intraventricular Infusion
Slow-Release Implants
Carrier-mediated Transport across BBB
Grafting of Cells Producing Trophic Factor
Development of Low-Molecular Weight Agonists
Fusion Proteins with Trafficking Motifs for Delivery along spinal/cranial Nerves

28

Is it true that some scientists are looking at ways to stop neuronal apoptosis to help with some of these diseases?

Why yes, it is true.

29

What are some strategies that researchers have been using to treat the loss of a specific neuron?

Drugs to enhance function of still remaining neurons
Trophic factors to rescue remaining neurons
Grafts (transplants) of embryonic or genetically engineered neurons to replace lost neurons
Stem cells to replace lost neurons
Prosthetic devices to replace function of lost neurons

30

What are some examples of drugs that are being used to enhance the function of still remaining neurons? What is the problem with this?

Parkinson’s: L-DOPA;
Alzheimer’s: AChE inhibitors
**only treats the symptoms, wears off in end stages as the neurons keep dying off.

31

What are some prosthetic devices that can be used to treat neuronal loss?

pacemakers
cochlear implants
retinal implants

32

What are some problems that we run into with drug delivery to treat neuronal loss?

it may not be the trophic factor that is the problem...could be a problem with a receptor or even a downstream signal.
**it is important to not treat these things systemically as that causes side effects, but to instead treat it in a targeted manner.

33

What has the research shown with Grafts (transplants) of embryonic or genetically engineered neurons to replace lost neurons?

variable results
not working better than deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's patients

34

Is it even theoretically possible to integrate new neurons into someone's neuronal circuitry?

Mammals do it! With...Olfactory receptor cells; Taste receptor cells; Interneurons in olfactory bulb; Interneurons in hippocampus
Other vertebrates do it! With...Auditory and vestibular hair cells in birds; Retinal cells (including retinal ganglion cells) in fish; Song control neurons in forebrain of birds

35

What are the issues that you run up against with using stem cells to replace lost neurons?

risk of teratomas--try to make stem cells w/ a suicide gene if they get out of control.
not necessarily more successful that fetal grafts

36

HOw might stem cells be used for Parkinson's disease?

grow the cells in a dish
get out the dopaminergic neurons
place them in the striatum

37

What's the deal with the hair cells in the organ of Corti?

these cochlear hair cells can't regenerate in humans, but they can in birds.
we are only born with a certain number...

38

HOw do birds regenerate their auditory hair cells?

via stem cells

39

In humans...what can we do even tho we can't regenerate our cochlear hair cells?

we can get cochlear implants...run close to the cochlear nerve.

40

Which transcription factor are they researching to help out with regenerating hair cells?

Atoh1

41

What can you do for someone who has had some phrenic nerve damage?

well...the diaphragm's innervation is damaged & this can sometimes compromise breathing.
can use breathing pacemaker so that you don't have to be on a ventilator.

42

Describe the pressure sensitive prosthetic hand.

bionic hand can transmit sense of touch to the brain
this pressure sensation info is fed back into the stump of the median & ulnar nerves afferents.

43

Describe the cause of multiple sclerosis. What is the usual treatment?

an autoimmune disease
loss of glial cells
often get loss of oligodendrocytes & therefore plaques of demyelination
**can be seen in optic nerve, corticospinal tract
Treatment: corticosteroids--b/c problem seems to be inflammation...but this really only treats the symptoms.