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Block 5; Week 4 > HB1-Hendrickson > Flashcards

Flashcards in HB1-Hendrickson Deck (71):

What is the story of the unabomber & how does this affect the question of nature v. nurture?

Ted K's brother is director of monastery & he is a murdered. As a child he was quiet & socially withdrawn. He was eventually diagnosed with schizophrenia. He did have traumatic experiences, however, in the hospital, with bullying, and a 3 yr CIA study at Harvard.


T/F The concept of neuroplasticity kind of connects genetics (nature) & nurture (environment).



How does the human brain differ from at birth from the brains of other species?

human brain needs to be small for delivery. more dependence after birth than other species. Need bonding & do a lot of learning in that process. A lot of gain or loss of development & potential during that time.


What are some of the things that children are at risk for if they are born under the poverty line?

**these are things that could hurt development
lack of parenting & attachment
emotional or physical trauma
medical problems
bad nutrition
toxin exposure


What was John Watson's problem?

this guy wrote Psychological Care of Infant & Child & thought that parents hindered child's development
maybe kid can grow up in a box with sufficient stimulation w/o parents!
His kids were super messed up, sadly.


What are the 4 important studies that relate to the evolution of our understanding of the role of love in development?

1. Rene Spitz (1940s-1950s); Maternal Deprivation in Institutions
2. John Bowlby (1951); Maternal Deprivation in WWII Orphans
3. James Robertson (1952); Maternal Deprivation in Hospitalized Patients
4. Harry Harlow (1950s-1960s); Maternal Deprivation in Monkeys


What were the dominant theories that came out of these studies?

Attachment Theory (John Bowlby)
Types of Attachment (Mary Ainsworth 60s-70s)


Describe Rene Spitz's experiment.

looked @ whether kids who were kept in prison nursery & given contact with mothers did better than children kept in foundling home who were deprived of contact but were clean & cared for.
the prison nursery kids did better-->higher IQ & better development & didn't show "hospitalism"


What was the state of the orphanage babies in Spitz's study?

1/3 of the babies died by age 2
survivors couldn't walk or talk by age 2
many of the kids ended up institutionalized for life


John Bowlby in his studies describe 3 stages to the experience of children separated from their mothers in WWII. What were they?

1. Protest
2. Despair
3. Detachment


What did Harlow's studies show?

showed that infant rhesus monkeys preferred cloth surrogate mother to a wire mother w/ a milk bottle. Mothers aren't just about food, but about contact & love. The babies w/ the cloth mom were more willing to explore, less frightened of new stimuli.


Can a non-parent provide a bond with a child?

Why, yes.


So...why do we have the foster system in the US? Which psychological theory is this based off of?

based off of attachment theory
saw that children needed contact comfort, better to put them in homes than in institutions


So, once again which people came up with attachment theory? What does this theory state? What are the 4 types of attachment?

Bowlby & Ainsworth
**infants need to develop a relationship with a primary care giver for social & emotional development to occur normally.
Secure, Avoidant, Ambivalent, Disorganized


T/F Attachment theory only holds true for Western Culture.

FALSE...this theory is true across cultures!


What are the 4 characteristics, according to attachment theory, of mother-child attachment?

Proximity Maintenance: babies want to be near their mother
Safe Haven: parent is safe haven, safe place
Secure Base: children make contact with mom & then feel safe to explore their environment before they return back to her.
Separation Distress: kids are distressed when separated from parent.


Describe the set-up of the strange situation experiment.

baby 11-18 mo old
plays in a room w/ mother's presence but w/o her participation.
stranger enters room & talks to mom & plays with kid.
Mom leaves room quietly.
Mom returns later.


With a securely attached child...what happened in this experiment in the following areas?
*When the mother was present:
*When the mother left:
*When the mother returned:
*Child's behavior toward stranger:
*Mother's responsiveness:

*When the mother was present:
child explores & plays, uses mom as secure base
*When the mother left:
child protests, but not desperate. Trusts mom to return.
*When the mother returned:
child pleased, quickly comforted, returns to play.
*Child's behavior toward stranger:
comforted by stranger, but prefers mom.
*Mother's responsiveness:
responds quickly & consistently to child's needs
child knows mom will meet their needs.


With an insecurely attached child (avoidant)...what happened in this experiment in the following areas?
*When the mother was present:
*When the mother left:
*When the mother returned:
*Child's behavior toward stranger:
*Mother's responsiveness:

*When the mother was present:
emotionally distant, little playful interaction
*When the mother left:
*When the mother returned:
*Child's behavior toward stranger:
same as toward mother
*Mother's responsiveness:
mom disengaged, doesn't meet kid's needs
child doesn't cry b/c doesn't expect needs to be met


With an insecurely attached child (anxious)...what happened in this experiment in the following areas?
*When the mother was present:
*When the mother left:
*When the mother returned:
*Child's behavior toward stranger:
*Mother's responsiveness:

*When the mother was present:
anxious, wants mom's attention, but shows anger
*When the mother left:
child distressed
*When the mother returned:
child still distressed & angry, won't return to play
*Child's behavior toward stranger:
not easily comforted
*Mother's responsiveness:
oscillates b/w sensitive & neglectful; unpredictable
child can't rely on needs being met


With an insecurely attached child (disorganized)...what happened in this experiment in the following areas?
*When the mother was present:
*When the mother left:
*When the mother returned:
*Child's behavior toward stranger:
*Mother's responsiveness:

*When the mother was present:
*When the mother left:
*When the mother returned:
***at all of these times, dazed, confused, apprehensive
*Child's behavior toward stranger:
same as mom
*Mother's responsiveness:
acts as figure of fear & reassurance.


What are the percentages of kids who are secure, avoidant, anxious, disorganized?

secure: 65%
avoidant: 20%
anxious: 10-15%
disorganized: 10-15%


Which child type is this:
anxious, insecure, angry?



Which child type is this:
depressed, angry, completely passive, nonresponsive



What are the long term results of a securely attached child?

Basic trust.
Positive self image.
Goal oriented.
Positive outlook on life.
Strong relationships.
Good coping strategies & skills.
Ego resiliency.


What are the long term results of an insecurely attached child?

Lack of trust.
Confused self image.
Emotional detachment & volatility
Relationship challenges


What are 4 factors that affect parenting quality?

“Goodness of fit”
Parenting style
Language use


What are 3 categories of adverse early experiences?

Maternal depression
Abuse and neglect
Emotional and physiologic trauma


What is temperament? What are 3 temperament styles?

**pattern of reacting to people & events
Easy, difficult, slow to warm


What do we mean by "goodness of fit" b/w child & parent?

how well their temperaments match, how likable the people in the child's life find them to be.
"good fit" when adult expectations match child's natural behaviors.
mismatch can lead to conflict.


What does it mean to be responsive v. unresponsive? What does it mean to be demanding v. non demanding?

Responsive: responds to needs of child.
Unresponsive: doesn't pay attention to needs as much.
Demanding: sets boundaries, has expectations
Undemanding: no boundaries


What type of parenting style matches w/ responsive & demanding?

**most ideal parenting style
**common style in middle classes
sets high standards, but is nurturing
**children raised in this way are more likely to be: independent, self-reliant, socially accepted, academically successful, and well-behaved.


What type of parenting style matches w/ responsive & undemanding?

**worst parenting style of the 3 normal ones.
ignores child's bad behavior; gives into tantrums, bribes
**children raised in this way are more likely to have:
Impulse control problems.
Substance abuse.
Academic problems.
Excessive media use, higher BMI.
Lower self-esteem.


What type of parenting style matches w/ unresponsive & demanding?

**second worst parenting style
doesn't encourage, just gives orders, shames.
**children raised in this way are more likely to be:
Socially inept.
Poor school performance. (Due to history of being shamed?)
Immature moral reasoning.
Behavior, substance abuse, and self-regulation problems.
Increasing aggressiveness with age.


What did the Kansas language study (studied until 3 yrs old & then checked in at age 9) show?

Low SES parents talk to their children less & with a smaller variety of vocabulary.
**Poor child heard 30 million fewer words than child from professional family.
**this was predictive of the child's IQ & how their performance would be throughout life.


What were the differences found in the low SES households in language use?

Fewer nouns/modifiers and past-tense verbs.
Less affirmative tone. (said don't & no & stop more often)
Fewer questions.
Less responsive to child’s initiations.


What is a child's best chance at normal development?

Secure attachment.
Good temperamental fit with parents OR parents are sensitive to child’s temperament.
Authoritative parenting style.
Lots of conversation


Parental depression is associated w/ which negative practices?

Inept discipline
Negative perceptions of children


T/F Decreased cognitive ability age 4 if mother depressed during 1st year.

This situation can be lessened by an involved father.
Also increased risk of emotional or behavioral disorder in child, including Insecure attachment. ADD/ADHD. Depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, substance abuse.


What is the incidence of postpartum depression?
With mothers w/ kids b/w ages 1-10 what is the incidence of major depression? Mild depression?

Post partum depression: 9-16%
Major depression: 17.6%
Mild depression: 52%


T/F The more wealthy the mother, the more likely they are to be depressed.

False. Lower SES--more likely to be depressed.


What is the relationship b/w criminal activity & childhood abuse?

9X more likely to engage in criminal activity if abused.
14% of male inmates abused as child.
36% of female inmates abused as child.


IF you have been abused as a child you are ____% more likely to experience a teen pregnancy.



What fraction of people in drug/alcohol rehab have experienced childhood abuse?



T/F YOu are more likely to experience childhood abuse in a Low SES household.



What are some examples of physiologic trauma?

Toxin exposure (in utero)
Nutrition -some obese kids malnourished
Medical Problems: genetic issues
**poverty increases this risk, 50% more likely to die by the age of 14


T/F There is a graded relationship b/w number of ACEs & health problems, according to a large Kaiser Permanente Survey study.



What is the period when the brain is neuroplastic? What does this mean?

mainly the first 3 years
**brain altered by early experience, often permanently


Experience leaves its mark on the brain thru which 2 processes?

Synaptic Remodeling


What's the deal with synaptic remodeling?

this happens in the cortex
born with a ton of neurons, not connected. Make synapses b/w them for communication. If we don't make these connections during the critical period, then they will die off.


What is the function of the orbitofrontal cortex?

important in self awareness, emotional regulation, social skills, personal identity, picturing yourself in the future or past.


What important thing happens to the orbitofrontal cortex during a child's critical period?

first 2 years of life--right orbitofrontal cortex receives projections from limbic system.
helps in development of empathy, self-awareness if child has loving parent relationship


T/F Sewing a monkey's right eye shut during the critical period will lead to loss of right ocular dominance columns in the left occipital cortex.

True. Probably in the right occipital cortex too?


What's the deal with Otx2 protein?

If a child has visual experiences then their body will seek to sharpen their vision. They will make an otx2 protein in their retina & it will migrate back thru the optic nerve & tract & will end up in the occipital cortex. then the parvalbumin cells will mature.
These early life experiences are epigenetic markers, turning genes on or off.


T/F Genes can only be modified via epigenetics during the critical period.

False. But this is true for some genes for sure!
**also epigenetics seems to mainly influence organs.


In terms of epigenetics, what is the effect of the addition of an acetyl group on a histone protein?

It keeps the histones from spooling up. Allows that section of DNA to possibly be transcribed.
Deacetylation makes the DNA inaccessible


What is the effect of methylation of DNA?

usu the methylation happens @ the promoter site. This makes it impossible for the RNA pol to get there & transcribe. Makes DNA inaccessible.


What are 2 things that toxic stress can permanently affect?

1. hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis
2. immune system


What's the relationship b/w the glucocorticoid receptor & toxic stress?

GR is made in hippocampus--negative feedback on HPA axis
binds cortisol
dampens stress response-you can calm down
early adversity reduces GR levels


What happens with high licking grooming pups?

GR gene unmethylated--transcribe more of it.
more calm
**these moms are always in contact with the pups


What happens with low licking grooming pups?

GR gene methylated
less GR protein
tend to be anxious


Is the epigenetic marker of the low licking pups inherited?

at least with the pups it was NOT inherited.


T/F Prenatal exposure to maternal depression is associated with increased methylation of infant’s GR gene.

True! Crazy, right?! Also, higher cortisol levels in infants with depressed moms.


What are some long term health problems with sustained high levels of cortisol?

Growth suppression
Impaired cognitive performance
Decreased bone density
Sleep disruption
Decreased muscle mass
Lowered immune function
Slow wound healing
Increased abdominal fat


Toxic stress alters brain structure. Which parts of the brain become hypertrophied as a result? Which regions experience neuronal loss?

Hypertrophied: Orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala
Neuronal Loss: Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus


What are some of the consequences of neuronal loss in the hippocampus?

impaired memory, learning, and mood control; decreases ability to discriminate safety vs. danger.


T/F Children who have experienced severe neglect have larger brains at 3 years of age than children who have been nurtured-from increased cortisol levels.

FALSE. They have much smaller brains, sadly.


WHich substances in the immune system are increased as a result of toxic stress?

C-reactive protein


20-40% of abuse victims have no significant mental health problems. Which factors promote this happy ending?

Social skills.
Strong relationship with at least one adult most important.


What is the resiliency gene?

5-HTT gene produces a protein that transports serotonin from end of synapse to presynaptic terminal. People who have 2 long alleles (rather than short ones) for this gene are less likely to become depressed during times of stress.


T/F Twins always express the exact same proteins b/c they have the same genes.

False. They become less alike as time goes on b/c of their different experiences...different epigenetics.