Flashcards in Surgery Deck (117)
What nerves innervate the conchal bowl?
CNVII, IX, X
A ring block around the entire ear will numb the whole thing except:
concha AND external auditory canal
Innervation of the majority of the posterior ear
Greater auricular nerve
What nerve is damaged in Frey syndrome?
Auriculotemporal nerve (a branch of the mandibular nerve)
Frey syndrome is also called auriculotemporal nerve syndrome which is facial flushing, sweating in response to gustatory stimuli - usually and injury of the parotid nerve
What chemical does Botox prevent the release of?
Acetylcholine from the presynaptic terminal
Which part of the Botox protein binds to SNAP25? Heavy chain or light chain?
What does the heavy chain of Botox do?
Binds to the axon terminal
SNAP25 is what type of protein?
A SNARE Protein
Which serotypes is SNAP/SNARE cleaved by? (A-E)
A & E
VS VAMP which is cleaved by B,D,F,G
Which type of neurotransmitter does Botox block - sympathetic or nonsympathetic?
Acetylcholine so it is sympathetic
Property of lasers in which the light waves travel in PHASE together
Vs collimation which means the light waves travel in parallel. Together these two properties give a laser its ability to be precise
Property of lasers in which light waves travel in parallel to each other
The emission of ONE well-defined wavelength, rather than a band or variety of wavelength
What is the Fresnel reflectance property?
The property of skin that causes 4-7% of light to be reflected because of the difference in the refractive index of the stratum corneum and the Aires
What is the absorption coefficient in the skin? And what does it depend on
The absorption coefficient is the probability of a photon being ABSORBED (rather than reflected or scattered) by its target chromophore. And it depends on the CONCENTRATION OF CHROMOPHORES present
Name the three primary skin chromophores
Water, melanin, hemoglobin
Name the spectrum of light that melanin absorbs photons in?
Broadly across the visible and UV spectrum
Name the spectrum of light that hemoglobins absorb photons in?
UV, and specifically green, blue, and yellow regions
Name the spectrum of light that Water absorbs photons in?
Name the spectrum of light that the chromophores absorb photons in:
Melanin - Broad UV, Visible light
Hemoglobin - UV, Green, Blue, Yellow
Water - Infrared
Name the wavelengths of the most deeply penetrating lasers
What is the cut-off wavelength when a laser switches from being deep penetrating to superficial
The least penetrating wavelengths are within which spectrum?
Far Infrared and far UV spectrums
Two most superficially penetrating lasers
Which type of collagen gets melted during laser therapy?
Type I collagen
Definition of thermal relaxation time
The time it takes a heated tissue to cool to HALF of its original temperature
What is the relationship between the size of a tissue and it's thermal relaxation time
Thermal relaxation time is equal to the square of the target dimension (in millimeters)
The optical pulse duration in photothermolyis is equal to what:
The Thermal relaxation time (TRT)
Name the two most common continuous wave lasers (vs pulsed)
Argon and NG:YAG