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Flashcards in Surgery Deck (117)
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1

What nerves innervate the conchal bowl?

CNVII, IX, X

2

A ring block around the entire ear will numb the whole thing except:

concha AND external auditory canal

3

Innervation of the majority of the posterior ear

Greater auricular nerve

4

What nerve is damaged in Frey syndrome?

Auriculotemporal nerve (a branch of the mandibular nerve)

Frey syndrome is also called auriculotemporal nerve syndrome which is facial flushing, sweating in response to gustatory stimuli - usually and injury of the parotid nerve

5

What chemical does Botox prevent the release of?

Acetylcholine from the presynaptic terminal

6

Which part of the Botox protein binds to SNAP25? Heavy chain or light chain?

Light chain

7

What does the heavy chain of Botox do?

Binds to the axon terminal

8

SNAP25 is what type of protein?

A SNARE Protein

9

Which serotypes is SNAP/SNARE cleaved by? (A-E)

A & E
VS VAMP which is cleaved by B,D,F,G

10

Which type of neurotransmitter does Botox block - sympathetic or nonsympathetic?

Acetylcholine so it is sympathetic

11

Property of lasers in which the light waves travel in PHASE together

Coherence

Vs collimation which means the light waves travel in parallel. Together these two properties give a laser its ability to be precise

12

Property of lasers in which light waves travel in parallel to each other

Collimation

13

The emission of ONE well-defined wavelength, rather than a band or variety of wavelength

Monochromicity

14

What is the Fresnel reflectance property?

The property of skin that causes 4-7% of light to be reflected because of the difference in the refractive index of the stratum corneum and the Aires

15

What is the absorption coefficient in the skin? And what does it depend on

The absorption coefficient is the probability of a photon being ABSORBED (rather than reflected or scattered) by its target chromophore. And it depends on the CONCENTRATION OF CHROMOPHORES present

16

Name the three primary skin chromophores

Water, melanin, hemoglobin

17

Name the spectrum of light that melanin absorbs photons in?

Broadly across the visible and UV spectrum

18

Name the spectrum of light that hemoglobins absorb photons in?

UV, and specifically green, blue, and yellow regions

19

Name the spectrum of light that Water absorbs photons in?

Infrared spectrum

20

Name the spectrum of light that the chromophores absorb photons in:
Melanin
Hemoglobin
Water

Melanin - Broad UV, Visible light
Hemoglobin - UV, Green, Blue, Yellow
Water - Infrared

21

Name the wavelengths of the most deeply penetrating lasers

650-1200nm

22

What is the cut-off wavelength when a laser switches from being deep penetrating to superficial

1200nm

23

The least penetrating wavelengths are within which spectrum?

Far Infrared and far UV spectrums

24

Two most superficially penetrating lasers

Erbium Yag
CO2 laser

25

Which type of collagen gets melted during laser therapy?

Type I collagen

26

Definition of thermal relaxation time

The time it takes a heated tissue to cool to HALF of its original temperature

27

What is the relationship between the size of a tissue and it's thermal relaxation time

Thermal relaxation time is equal to the square of the target dimension (in millimeters)

28

The optical pulse duration in photothermolyis is equal to what:

The Thermal relaxation time (TRT)

29

Name the two most common continuous wave lasers (vs pulsed)

Argon and NG:YAG

30

Peak absorption of oxyhemoglobin

577nm (within yellow spectrum)