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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (127):
1

Which two psychologists were credited with the first social psychology experiment? What did they focus on?

Triplett and Ringlemann; affect of performing with/against others

2

Name the psychologist that goes with the term:
1. Psychoanalysis
2. Functional psychology
3. Self-concept

1. Freud
2. James
3. Cooley

3

credited with behaviorism; believed that only overt behaviors that can be observed should be studied; empirical study of behavior; stifled internal mental processes

Skinner

4

What was the time period of the 1960s - 90s known as? What changed?

cognitive revolution; new focus on internal thought processes (caused by computers)

5

What did world war 2 lead to?

inc. interest in personality assessment; gave rise to personality psychology

6

What did Milgram and Sherif study?

social pressure influence

7

What study did Zimbardo do? What kind of questions were raised as a result of this study?

Stanford Prison Experiment; important ethical questions raised

8

1. Institutional Review Boards
2. Informed consent
3. Use deception only if essential
4. Protect people from harm
5. Information about participants should remain confidential
6. Debrief participants at the end

Ethics of experimental research

9

What is the ABC Triad?

affect (feelings and emotions)
behavior (actions taken)
cognition (what people think about what they and others do)

10

What are the 2 venues for ideas used by social psychologists?

1. theories
2. hypotheses

11

integrated principles that explain and predict observed events

theories

12

testable predictions

hypotheses

13

What is used to link theories to hypotheses?

scientific method

14

What are the 5 steps of the scientific method?

1. generate a theory
2. form hypothesis
3. design and conduct study
4. analyze data
5. report results
5 part 2. reformulate theory based on findings and generate new hypothesis

15

Testing theory:
--- natural relationships
--- deg of relationship between 2 variables
--- nothing manipulated

correlational approach

16

correlations closer to +/- 1 are….

stronger

17

correlations closer to 0 are...

weaker

18

What are the 3 requirements of causality?

1. covariation (experiments, longitudinal, correlation)
2. temporal precedence (experiments, longitudinal)
3. elimination of spuriousness (experiments)

19

Testing theory:
--- conduct a lab study where participants are randomly assigned to a group

experimental approach

20

these studies occur in a natural setting with something manipulated

Quasi-experimental (field) studies

21

how generalizable the results are

external validity

22

how certain one can be of the conclusion or how much control did the researcher have over the experiment

internal validity

23

How much external/internal validity is involved in:
1. correlational approach
2. quasi-experimental approach
3. lab/experimental approach

1. high external, low internal
2. high external, moderate internal
3. low external, high internal

24

What are 3 ways that we measure emotions, thoughts, and behaviors?

1. interviews/questionnaires
2. observational methods
3. specialized tasks

25

type of research that tests theories and attempts to build a foundation of knowledge

basic research

26

type of research that attempts to solve specific problems

applied research

27

provides framework for human behavior; allows for development of new predictions

evolutionary theory

28

What are the 4 basic ideas of evolution?

1. variation
2. natural selection
3. heredity
4. sexual selection

29

_____ in characteristics occurs naturally within any population of organisms

variation

30

the idea that some variations are more helpful for survival in certain environments

natural selection

31

the idea that variations are passed on to offspring through sexual selection

heritability

32

the study of the evolution of behavior (people's tendencies); uses principles of natural selection

evolutionary psychology

33

_____ stance is best in terms of the EEA

Avoidant

34

the idea that not attending to potential threats is more dangerous than overattending

error management theory

35

In what 3 ways do we test evolutionary psychology?

1. make and test predictions based on evolutionary principles
2. twin studies (degree of concordance)
3. cross-cultural comparisons

36

enduring behaviors, attitudes, ideas, and traditions; shared by a large group of people; transmitted from one generation to the next

culture

37

The self is a ____ entity

social

38

_____ plays a large part in shaping the self.

culture

39

What are the 4 types of statements?

1. physical (physical qualities)
2. social (social roles, memberships)
3. attributive (psychological or physical states)
3. global (comprehensive or vague)

40

Individualists tend to use more ____ statements.

attributive

41

Collectivists tend to use more _____ statements

social

42

_____ cultures emphasize individualism; personal traits in isolation; self-contained identity

independent

43

_____ cultures emphasize collectivism; identity in relation to others; other-containing identity

interdependent

44

rules for expected and accepted behavior

norms

45

We like to keep a buffer zone between ourselves and others. This is know as… and varies with individuals and groups

proxemics

46

often phrased as competition between two forces

false dichotomy

47

states that it is essential to examine not only genetic influences but also the environment in which behaviors occur

interactionist perspective

48

the effect of one factor depends on another factor

interaction

49

analyzed brain size in animals compared to their body weight; found that larger brains correspond to more social animals; our larger brains are designed to help us relate to each other; evolution prepared us to deal with complex social environments

dunbar study

50

Mate selection strategies are important motivation for _______.

behavior

51

_____ differ on degree of parental investment (rearing/care)

sexes

52

Which two researchers did a study and found that men are more likely to agree to short term mating and women like long term relationships?

Clark and Hatfield

53

our sense of being male or female

gender identity

54

Gender identity often leads to _______.

gender-typing

55

acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

gender-typing

56

_______ are influenced by innate processes and must be stifled in the interest of culture

impulses

57

(Culture/evolution) moves faster than (culture/evolution)

culture evolution

58

the study of the self in relation to others; important tool used by humans to satisfy needs

social psychology

59

What are the 3 major components of social psychology?

1. reflexive consciousness
2. interpersonal self
3. agentic self

60

retains info about who you think you are; self knowledge, self concept

reflexive consciousness

61

attending to info about the self

self-awareness

62

part of social psychology that relates the self to others; how you perceive others perceive you; how you relate who you are to others; concerned with gaining acceptance

interpersonal self

63

public self-awareness; looking to others to obtain info about the self

looking glass self

64

how we show off the self to others; guided by norms, personal standards, desired impression

self-presentation

65

norms vs. personal standards

desired impression

66

the self's decision maker; self is active, not passive; attends and corrects

agentic self

67

self's ability to override impulse

self control

68

The working self concept takes info from what two things?

1. self standards (reflexive consciousness)
2. others expectations (interpersonal self)

69

framework of beliefs about the self-concepts; organized info about the self; structured like memory; domains of self-worth

self-schema

70

According to the working self-concept, domains that are accessed will vary across what 2 things?

1. person
2. situation

71

What are the 3 motives for accessing info about domains/working self concept?

1. appraisal motive
2. consistency motive
3. self-enhancement

72

motive for assessing info:
gauging abilities; self-efficacy

appraisal motive

73

perceived ability to perform in a certain domain

self-efficacy

74

motive for assessing info:
double checking the self; self-varification

consistency motive

75

actively working to confirm beliefs about the self

self-varification

76

motive for assessing info:
info used to bolster the self

self-enhancement

77

What is the logical order of importance in regards to assessing info about the self?

1. appraisal
2. consistency
3. self-enhancement

78

What is the actual ordering of importance in regards to accessing info about the self?

1. self-enhancement
2. consistency
3. appraisal

79

The self seems to be a(n) _____ info processor because it often casts the self in a positive light

biased

80

Self enhancement leads to _____ and _____ judgements

appraisal/consistency

81

inferences about the self from past behavior; how much people think about themselves; beeper study

introspection

82

states that we often fail to evaluate the self accurately because we aren't evaluating ourselves; lack of awareness

the fallacy of introspection

83

There is a problem with the looking glass self because of the disconnection between what two things?

1. what we think others think of us
2. what they actually think

84

We seek out situations that confirm the self, and we avoid disconfirming situation. (consistency motive)

confirmation bias

85

The self enhancement motive is the ______

strongest

86

people think they have more control than they do

illusion of control

87

the belief that only good things will happen to you

unrealistic optimism

88

What are the 3 commonly accepted classifications of self esteem?

1. global
2. domain specific
3. state

89

What is the most widely used SE scale in social psychology and what kind of SE does it measure?

Rosenburg SE scale; explicit SE

90

unconscious gravitation towards people, places, and things that resemble the self

implicit egotism

91

unconscious SE

implicit SE

92

On a 5 point scale, people with HSE score between ….. People with LSE score between...

4 and 5
2.5 and 4

93

People with ____ SE know who they are. People with ____ SE have self-concept confusion and experience changes/fluctuations but are usually more realistic

high
low

94

How do people with HSE handle negative feedback? LSE?

high - bounce back
low - take it personal/generalize

95

People with LSE are self-____ and avoid failure and use caution, while people with HSE are self-____ and seek success and take risks

low
high

96

The greatest difference between males and females is shown in _____

adolescence

97

Unreasonably high SE can lead to _____,

aggression

98

This type of person is a poor relationship partner, is very aggressive, very prejudice, very persistent, and very stubborn

narcissist

99

evaluate mostly in domains of interest

selective evaluations

100

compare yourself to those worse off

selective social comparison

101

positive attributes ---> SE

bottum-up view of SE

102

SE ---> perception of positive attributes

top-down view of SE

103

What study did Brown and Dutton do?

Fake personality trait

104

greater resilience to negative feedback

resource stock

105

Which two psychologists did the need to belong study? (fundamental human motivation) (sociometer theory)

Baumeister and Leary

106

self esteem as a gas gauge for social acceptance; can be miscalibrated (narcissist = set too high, depressed = set too low)

sociometer theory

107

self's capacity to monitor and alter responses

self-regulation

108

Self regulation can have a dramatic effect on many _____ behaviors

real world

109

What are the 4 main categories of self-regulation?

1. Thought control
2. Affect regulation
3. Impulse control
4. Performance control

110

Which study was used to measure delay of gratification (Mischel and Ebbeson)

marshmallow study

111

What are the 3 ingredients of self-regulation?

1. standards
2. monitoring (self-awareness)
3. strength (mental resources)

112

What 4 things does the Self-Discrepancy Theory deal with?

1. actual self
2. ideal self
3. ought self

113

our wants, wishes, and desires

ideal self

114

what is appropriate for us

ought self

115

Actual/ideal self discrepancies lead to _____.
Actual/ought self discrepancies lead to ____.

sadness, depression
worry, anxiety

116

explains that SR is like a muscle, because it fatigues with use; priming, skill model, depletion; taste-testing experiment

limited resource model

117

engaging in SR primes the process and makes it more likely to occur; SR exertion should increase subsequent SR

priming

118

SR is skill independent of resources; SR exertion shouldn't affect subsequent SR

skill model

119

SR draws on limited resource common to all SR efforts; SR exertion should decrease subsequent SR

depletion

120

In all cases of studies, the depleted SR groups fared ____ than the other group

worse

121

Enacting SR in one domain temporarily _______ your ability to regulate in other domains.

depletes

122

Baumeister and colleagues suggest that SR depletion results from a decrease in the ability to sustain ______

persistance

123

When we lack the motivation or lack the expectation of success, SR _______ are likely

failures

124

What are 4 failures of self control?

1. lack of motivation
2. lack of standards
3. miscalculation of how much regulation is needed
4. failures in monitoring

125

What is it called when the monitoring system is looking for possible triggers?

White Bear

126

One of the major problems that we face is that our thinking is _____ (temporal discounting --- $1000 today or $1200 in 2 weeks)

flawed

127

We need to use cognitive strategies to avoid _____

impulses