Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (127):
Which two psychologists were credited with the first social psychology experiment? What did they focus on?
Triplett and Ringlemann; affect of performing with/against others
Name the psychologist that goes with the term:
2. Functional psychology
credited with behaviorism; believed that only overt behaviors that can be observed should be studied; empirical study of behavior; stifled internal mental processes
What was the time period of the 1960s - 90s known as? What changed?
cognitive revolution; new focus on internal thought processes (caused by computers)
What did world war 2 lead to?
inc. interest in personality assessment; gave rise to personality psychology
What did Milgram and Sherif study?
social pressure influence
What study did Zimbardo do? What kind of questions were raised as a result of this study?
Stanford Prison Experiment; important ethical questions raised
1. Institutional Review Boards
2. Informed consent
3. Use deception only if essential
4. Protect people from harm
5. Information about participants should remain confidential
6. Debrief participants at the end
Ethics of experimental research
What is the ABC Triad?
affect (feelings and emotions)
behavior (actions taken)
cognition (what people think about what they and others do)
What are the 2 venues for ideas used by social psychologists?
integrated principles that explain and predict observed events
What is used to link theories to hypotheses?
What are the 5 steps of the scientific method?
1. generate a theory
2. form hypothesis
3. design and conduct study
4. analyze data
5. report results
5 part 2. reformulate theory based on findings and generate new hypothesis
--- natural relationships
--- deg of relationship between 2 variables
--- nothing manipulated
correlations closer to +/- 1 are….
correlations closer to 0 are...
What are the 3 requirements of causality?
1. covariation (experiments, longitudinal, correlation)
2. temporal precedence (experiments, longitudinal)
3. elimination of spuriousness (experiments)
--- conduct a lab study where participants are randomly assigned to a group
these studies occur in a natural setting with something manipulated
Quasi-experimental (field) studies
how generalizable the results are
how certain one can be of the conclusion or how much control did the researcher have over the experiment
How much external/internal validity is involved in:
1. correlational approach
2. quasi-experimental approach
3. lab/experimental approach
1. high external, low internal
2. high external, moderate internal
3. low external, high internal
What are 3 ways that we measure emotions, thoughts, and behaviors?
2. observational methods
3. specialized tasks
type of research that tests theories and attempts to build a foundation of knowledge
type of research that attempts to solve specific problems
provides framework for human behavior; allows for development of new predictions
What are the 4 basic ideas of evolution?
2. natural selection
4. sexual selection
_____ in characteristics occurs naturally within any population of organisms
the idea that some variations are more helpful for survival in certain environments
the idea that variations are passed on to offspring through sexual selection
the study of the evolution of behavior (people's tendencies); uses principles of natural selection
_____ stance is best in terms of the EEA
the idea that not attending to potential threats is more dangerous than overattending
error management theory
In what 3 ways do we test evolutionary psychology?
1. make and test predictions based on evolutionary principles
2. twin studies (degree of concordance)
3. cross-cultural comparisons
enduring behaviors, attitudes, ideas, and traditions; shared by a large group of people; transmitted from one generation to the next
The self is a ____ entity
_____ plays a large part in shaping the self.
What are the 4 types of statements?
1. physical (physical qualities)
2. social (social roles, memberships)
3. attributive (psychological or physical states)
3. global (comprehensive or vague)
Individualists tend to use more ____ statements.
Collectivists tend to use more _____ statements
_____ cultures emphasize individualism; personal traits in isolation; self-contained identity
_____ cultures emphasize collectivism; identity in relation to others; other-containing identity
rules for expected and accepted behavior
We like to keep a buffer zone between ourselves and others. This is know as… and varies with individuals and groups
often phrased as competition between two forces
states that it is essential to examine not only genetic influences but also the environment in which behaviors occur
the effect of one factor depends on another factor
analyzed brain size in animals compared to their body weight; found that larger brains correspond to more social animals; our larger brains are designed to help us relate to each other; evolution prepared us to deal with complex social environments
Mate selection strategies are important motivation for _______.
_____ differ on degree of parental investment (rearing/care)
Which two researchers did a study and found that men are more likely to agree to short term mating and women like long term relationships?
Clark and Hatfield
our sense of being male or female
Gender identity often leads to _______.
acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
_______ are influenced by innate processes and must be stifled in the interest of culture
(Culture/evolution) moves faster than (culture/evolution)
the study of the self in relation to others; important tool used by humans to satisfy needs
What are the 3 major components of social psychology?
1. reflexive consciousness
2. interpersonal self
3. agentic self
retains info about who you think you are; self knowledge, self concept
attending to info about the self
part of social psychology that relates the self to others; how you perceive others perceive you; how you relate who you are to others; concerned with gaining acceptance
public self-awareness; looking to others to obtain info about the self
looking glass self
how we show off the self to others; guided by norms, personal standards, desired impression
norms vs. personal standards
the self's decision maker; self is active, not passive; attends and corrects
self's ability to override impulse
The working self concept takes info from what two things?
1. self standards (reflexive consciousness)
2. others expectations (interpersonal self)
framework of beliefs about the self-concepts; organized info about the self; structured like memory; domains of self-worth
According to the working self-concept, domains that are accessed will vary across what 2 things?
What are the 3 motives for accessing info about domains/working self concept?
1. appraisal motive
2. consistency motive
motive for assessing info:
gauging abilities; self-efficacy
perceived ability to perform in a certain domain
motive for assessing info:
double checking the self; self-varification
actively working to confirm beliefs about the self
motive for assessing info:
info used to bolster the self
What is the logical order of importance in regards to assessing info about the self?
What is the actual ordering of importance in regards to accessing info about the self?
The self seems to be a(n) _____ info processor because it often casts the self in a positive light
Self enhancement leads to _____ and _____ judgements
inferences about the self from past behavior; how much people think about themselves; beeper study
states that we often fail to evaluate the self accurately because we aren't evaluating ourselves; lack of awareness
the fallacy of introspection
There is a problem with the looking glass self because of the disconnection between what two things?
1. what we think others think of us
2. what they actually think
We seek out situations that confirm the self, and we avoid disconfirming situation. (consistency motive)
The self enhancement motive is the ______
people think they have more control than they do
illusion of control
the belief that only good things will happen to you
What are the 3 commonly accepted classifications of self esteem?
2. domain specific
What is the most widely used SE scale in social psychology and what kind of SE does it measure?
Rosenburg SE scale; explicit SE
unconscious gravitation towards people, places, and things that resemble the self
On a 5 point scale, people with HSE score between ….. People with LSE score between...
4 and 5
2.5 and 4
People with ____ SE know who they are. People with ____ SE have self-concept confusion and experience changes/fluctuations but are usually more realistic
How do people with HSE handle negative feedback? LSE?
high - bounce back
low - take it personal/generalize
People with LSE are self-____ and avoid failure and use caution, while people with HSE are self-____ and seek success and take risks
The greatest difference between males and females is shown in _____
Unreasonably high SE can lead to _____,
This type of person is a poor relationship partner, is very aggressive, very prejudice, very persistent, and very stubborn
evaluate mostly in domains of interest
compare yourself to those worse off
selective social comparison
positive attributes ---> SE
bottum-up view of SE
SE ---> perception of positive attributes
top-down view of SE
What study did Brown and Dutton do?
Fake personality trait
greater resilience to negative feedback
Which two psychologists did the need to belong study? (fundamental human motivation) (sociometer theory)
Baumeister and Leary
self esteem as a gas gauge for social acceptance; can be miscalibrated (narcissist = set too high, depressed = set too low)
self's capacity to monitor and alter responses
Self regulation can have a dramatic effect on many _____ behaviors
What are the 4 main categories of self-regulation?
1. Thought control
2. Affect regulation
3. Impulse control
4. Performance control
Which study was used to measure delay of gratification (Mischel and Ebbeson)
What are the 3 ingredients of self-regulation?
2. monitoring (self-awareness)
3. strength (mental resources)
What 4 things does the Self-Discrepancy Theory deal with?
1. actual self
2. ideal self
3. ought self
our wants, wishes, and desires
what is appropriate for us
Actual/ideal self discrepancies lead to _____.
Actual/ought self discrepancies lead to ____.
explains that SR is like a muscle, because it fatigues with use; priming, skill model, depletion; taste-testing experiment
limited resource model
engaging in SR primes the process and makes it more likely to occur; SR exertion should increase subsequent SR
SR is skill independent of resources; SR exertion shouldn't affect subsequent SR
SR draws on limited resource common to all SR efforts; SR exertion should decrease subsequent SR
In all cases of studies, the depleted SR groups fared ____ than the other group
Enacting SR in one domain temporarily _______ your ability to regulate in other domains.
Baumeister and colleagues suggest that SR depletion results from a decrease in the ability to sustain ______
When we lack the motivation or lack the expectation of success, SR _______ are likely
What are 4 failures of self control?
1. lack of motivation
2. lack of standards
3. miscalculation of how much regulation is needed
4. failures in monitoring
What is it called when the monitoring system is looking for possible triggers?
One of the major problems that we face is that our thinking is _____ (temporal discounting --- $1000 today or $1200 in 2 weeks)