Chapter 9 Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Key Terms Deck (33):
1

doing something that is good for other people or for society as a whole

prosocial behavior

2

when members of a society respect follow its rules

rule of law

3

the obligation to return in kind what another has done for us

reciprocity

4

a positive emotion that results from the perception that one has benefited from the costly, intentional, voluntary action of another person

gratitude

5

standards established by society to tell its members what types of behavior are typical or expected

norms

6

the idea that each person receives benefits in proportion to what he or she contributes

equity

7

the idea that everyone gets the same amount, regardless of what he or she contributes

equality

8

interpersonal concern about the consequences of outperforming others

sensitivity about being the target of a threatening upward comparison

9

getting less than you deserve

underbenefited

10

getting more than you deserve

overbenefited

11

feeling bad for living through a terrible experience in which many others died

survivor guilt

12

when each person does his or her part, and together they work toward a common goal

cooperation

13

a game that forces people to choose between cooperation and compensation

prisoner's dilemma

14

an interaction in which both participants can win (or lose)

non-zero sum game

15

a situation in which one person's gain is another's loss

zero-sum game

16

ceasing to feel angry toward or seek retribution against someone who has wronged you

forgiveness

17

following orders from an authority figure

obedience

18

going along with the crowd

conformity

19

a strong belief in the reliability and validity of someone or something

trust

20

the evolutionary tendency to help people who have our genes

kin selection

21

reacting to another person's emotional state by experiencing the same emotional state

empathy

22

when a helper seeks to increase his or her own welfare by helping another

egoistic helping

23

when a helper seeks to increase another's welfare and expects nothing in return

altruistic helping

24

the idea that empathy motivates people to reduce other people's distress, as by helping or comforting

empathy-altruism hypothesis

25

the idea that empathy triggers the need for social reward (e.g. praise, honor, pride) that can be gained by helping

empathy-specific reward hypothesis

26

the idea that empathy triggers the fear of social punishment (e.g. guilt, shame, censure) that can be avoided by helping

empathy-specific punishment hypothesis

27

the idea that people help others in order to relieve their own distress

negative state relief hypothesis

28

the assumption that life is essentially fair, that people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get

belief in a just world

29

the finding that people are less likely to offer help when they are in a group than when they are alone

bystander effect

30

looking to others for cues about how to behave, while they are looking to you; collective misinterpretation

pluralistic ignorance

31

the reduction in feeling responsible that occurs when others are present

diffusion of responsibility

32

failure to help in front of others for fear of feeling like a fool if one's offer of help is rejected

audience inhibition

33

a planned, long-term, non impulsive decision to help others

volunteering