Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (170):
the process by which people think about and make sense of other people, themselves, and social situations
People have a reluctance to engage in effortful, conscious thought (social world is complex, impossible to attend to everything at all times)
the cognitive miser
When does controlled behavior occur?
when something is vitally important to meeting goals and standards
What are the 3 goals of social cognition?
1. to conserve mental effort
2. to be accurate
3. to manage self-image
In what 2 ways does the mind work like a computer?
1. repeated experience leads to development of contingencies between stimuli and action
2. develop knowledge structures
organized packets of information stored in memory
type of schema that deals with the image of typical features of members of a group
type of schema that contains information about the normal sequence of events in a given circumstance
Schemas are generated from what 2 things?
1. personal experiences
2. cultural knowledge sources
rules of thumb that simplify judgements (mental shortcuts)
basing judgements on the ease with which examples come to mind
When is the availability heuristic useful? (2 situations)
1. When a particular thought is reasonable
2. When it aids in learning
the availability bias contributes to the ____ effect and the ____ bias
the idea that our own personal actions are especially noticeable to others
our awareness of our behavior compared to others
related to availability; more salient experiences remembered better
2 distinct events more likely to be seen as associated
classifying something as belonging to a certain category because it is similar to a typical case from the category
we tend to ignore relavent probabilities in favor of salient representative information
base rate fallacy
What is a benefit of representativeness?
categorization is important in some circumstances
states that the primary function of emotions is to anticipate future problems (just miss leads to greater emotion than big miss)
Using an anchor and then insufficiently adjusting your judgement
anchoring and adjustment heuristic
Why use the anchoring and adjustment heuristic?
using good anchors can make negotiation easier
Our reliance on anchors is ______
Why do we use heuristics?
because they simplify things
When do we use heuristics?
when we lack either ability or motivation to think more carefully
Are we more or less likely to use heuristics when we are in a hurry?
When physiologically aroused, we are more likely to use ______
cognitive short-cuts (heuristics)
We rely more on heuristics when we are in a (good/bad) mood.
When there isn't a correct answer, why waste time thinking it out? Instead we use _______ when we are faced with uncertainty.
Complex situations use more ______, leading us to rely on heuristics
We lose attentional resources during certain phases of our daily cycle. These cycles are called what?
How do we avoid using heuristics?
1. conscious processing (engage in metacognition)
2. realize the errors in judgement and correct accordingly
What are the 2 types of attributes?
1. dispositional (internal)
2. situational (external)
When we explain others behaviors, we tend to overestimate the dispositional attributes, and underestimate the situational ones. What is this known as?
fundamental attribution error (FAE)
We often ignore obvious (dispositional/situational) information
We assume actors have the _______ of the people they portray.
Attributions change depending on if we are the actor or observer. What is this known as?
we tend to construe a situation to benefit the self
What is the benefit and drawback of the self-serving bias?
benefit: we can maintain a positive sense of self
drawback: no change in behavior
What are BIRGing and CORFing?
BIRGing: Basking in Reflective Glory
CORFing: Cutting Off from Reflective Failure
preemptively providing excuses for less than exceptional behavior
The FAE is not prevalent in (individualistic/collectivist) cultures.
The actor/observer bias doesn't really have much to do with ________, as it has more to do with _____
situation/disposition; access to information
the tendency to see positive attributes as unique and negative attributes as common (consensus meets the SSB)
tendency to search for information that confirms one's view
willingness to believe vague universal statements that apply to the self
firer effect (barnum effect)
The firer effect is enhanced when statements are? (2 things)
1. presented by an authority
2. tailored to an individual
What is the problem with prophecies?
our expectancies can influence our behavior
peoples expectations lead them to act in ways that result in confirmation of their beliefs. What is this known as?
The parenting/custody study is an example of the ...
certain emotions that are experienced across all cultures
Cultural differences in emotion occur in the degree of ____
Individualistic cultures tend to ____ their emotions, while collectivistic cultures tend to _____ them.
Women are more _____, while men show more emotions such as ____
expressive of emotions, anger
states that physical experience leads to emotion; facial feedback hypothesis
states that physical and emotional experiences occur separately
A requirement for both James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories is that emotions don't have specific _______
physical arousal experience
when the emotion you feel is subjective
The Schachter two-factor theory deals with the ____
attribution theory of emotion
occurs when you are feeling an emotion
tells you what a certain emotion is
the bridge study is an example of...
states that emotions help with decision making; if you see something that generates positive emotion, you will approach it; if you see something that generates negative emotion, you will avoid it
Emotions sometimes help with ________
High arousal states lead to ____ decisions.
Emotions ____ us when it comes to making decisions.
Negative emotionality leads to ________ behaviors
Emotions arise because of increased _______
Feeling of negative emotionality reduces the likelihood that you will ________
make the same mistake twice
Emotions encourage us to generate __________
______ plays a huge role in the experience of emotion.
What are the 2 types of counterfactuals?
1. upward counterfactual
2. downward counterfactual
imagining a better possible outcome
imagining a worse possible outcome
pre-experiencing emotion and decision making
People are good at picking which _____ they will feel, but bad at predicting _____ and _____ (over prediction)
emotion; how much; for how long
Negative emotions teach us _____
Emotions cause the physical manifestation of the emotion, but they do not cause _____
If emotions caused behavior, we would expect ________
Dealing directly with the problem that caused emotional distress in the first place
trying to cancel out the emotion
Both problem and emotion focused coping are aimed at alleviating _________
The desire to alleviate negative emotions _______ behavior
Emotions are triggers for us to _________ (emotivations)
Motivations are _____ that something is wrong
factors that energize and direct behavior
psychological states that encourage behaviors to satiate needs
states that we need things (primary reinforcers), needs create arousal, and we are driven to reduce that arousal
What is the goal of the drive-reduction theory?
emotions that convey social meaning (most)
encourage interpersonal success
What are 3 social emotions?
feeling bad for a known transgression
feeling bad for a faux pas
feeling bad because your partner may leave you
Emotions can trigger certain _____
What is jealousy/guilt induction associated with?
Guilt is good for _______
guilt encourages what 2 things?
2. making amends
the capability to experience others' emotional states; greatest of all the social emotions; aided by mirror neurons
someone experiencing an emotion causes a person watching to experience the same emotion
What do you get if you've got a person who can't show empathy?
Bad is stronger than good; negative overcomes positive
objective factors don't influence happiness
favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction towards something or someone, exhibited in one's beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior
What are the ABC dimensions of attitudes?
1. Affect (feelings)
3. Cognition (thoughts)
How do you measure each of the ABC dimensions of attitudes?
1. affect - fear, heart rate
2. behavior - avoidance
3. cognition - danger
What are 3 obvious sources for attitudes?
3. Institutional factors
the more we are exposed to something, the more we like it
Mere Exposure Effect
What 2 things does the mere exposure effect depend on?
1. initial attitudes
2. co-occurance of other stimuli
When stimuli are paired together, they can elicit similar attitudinal and behavioral responses
the pairing of a neutral stimulus with an already learned association
reward and punishment; when something is paired with positive outcomes (rewards) we tend to like it more; when something is paired with negative outcomes (punishments) we tend to like it less
we can watch others to find out what is accepted and match our attitudes to boot
sometimes we have 2 different evaluations of an object/person
non-conscious automatic evaluation
conscious deliberative evaluation
What is one of the major reasons that attitudes can fail to predict behavior?
who stated that attitudes do not do a good job of predicting behavior?
When do attitudes predict behavior (4 situations)?
1. when social influences are minimized
2. when we aggregate across behaviors
3. when attitude is specific to behavior
4. when attitudes are made salient
The fact that behavior influences attitudes is used to _______
If people first agree to a small request, they will later comply with a larger request
What technique do cults use to recruit?
People who agree to a small request will still comply when the requester ups the anty
tension that arises when one is aware of 2 inconsistent cognitions
the cognitive dissonance motives changing one's _____
Attitude change is more likely if there is ________ for the behavior
shows how we work to justify our decisions
People want their attitudes to be consistent with others around them; We like for other people to have the same attitudes that we do
P-O-X Theory (balance theory)
_______ can make you like something you should hate
We'll even work to justify _____ decisions
attitudes that are very difficult to change; tend to be highly polarized and associated with other attitudes
Challenging someone's attitude (with weak attacks) can actually make it ______
(Attitudes/Beliefs) tend to be more resistant to change.
Beliefs = ________
Attitudes = _________
Even when proved wrong, convictions can become stronger
capitalize on human choice
social influence tactics
Forceful requests can lead to ________. To avoid this, influence attempts to use choice rather than force
Influence tactics are often based on ______
We over-rely on _______. Each tactic capitalizes on important ________.
What are the 3 tactics of accuracy?
1. social validation
When in doubt, go with majority option (heuristic)
People in authority know more than me - It pays to follow the advice of a legitimate authority (heuristic)
something that is scarce has value - related to social validation (heuristic)
What are the 2 exploitations of scarcity?
1. limited # tactic
2. deadline technique
we should be consistent and stick to our commitments (heuristic)
managing the self-image
What are the 4 general tactics of managing the self-image (all resulting from cognitive dissonance)?
tactic used to lure client in with good deal, then convince them of a better deal or inform them of conditions of the deal
tactic used in which a sales person tells someone they look like a generous person so they feel inclined to oblige to the request
Wat are the 3 tactics of approval and acceptance?
you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours (heuristic)
start with an initially large request and back down and make concession
The foot-in-the-door technique is based on _______, whereas the door-in-the-face technique is based on _______
if someone you like asks for a favor, it pays to say yes (heuristic)
What are the 3 exploitations of liking?
1. first name basis
2. capitalizing on a similarity/shared group membership
3. use of attractive sales people
technique used to try to stop the influence of heuristics
the pique technique
To stop the influence of heuristics, you should remain __________ and ____________ the salesperson is making.
aware of the situation; rethink the requests
change in private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message
what is heard is more important than what is said (focus on self-talk); effectiveness of a message determined by the thoughts evoked by the message
cognitive response model
Thoughts of a message are dependent upon what 3 things?
1. audience (who is listening)
2. communicator (who is speaking)
3. message (what is being said)
central or peripheral route of thought?
1. high motivation and ability to think
2. deep processing (focused on quality of argument)
3. lasting change (resists fading and counter-attacks)
central or peripheral route of thought?
1. low motivation and ability to think
2. superficial processing (focused on surface features - # of arguments - quantity)
3. temporary change (susceptible to fading and counter-attacks)
The message (central or peripheral?):
1. many arguments regardless of quality
2. flashy presentation style
4. emotional appeal
The message (central or peripheral?):
1. high quality arguments regardless of quantity
2. steal thunder
The speaker (central or peripheral?):
1. credible and trustworthy
The speaker (central or peripheral?):
1. appear credible and trustworthy
2. powerful speaker
developing counterarguments preemptively
being prepared to be persuaded reduces persuasion
forewarned is forearmed