Test 2 Flashcards Preview

Social Psychology > Test 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (170):
1

the process by which people think about and make sense of other people, themselves, and social situations

social cognition

2

People have a reluctance to engage in effortful, conscious thought (social world is complex, impossible to attend to everything at all times)

the cognitive miser

3

When does controlled behavior occur?

when something is vitally important to meeting goals and standards

4

What are the 3 goals of social cognition?

1. to conserve mental effort
2. to be accurate
3. to manage self-image

5

In what 2 ways does the mind work like a computer?

1. repeated experience leads to development of contingencies between stimuli and action
2. develop knowledge structures

6

organized packets of information stored in memory

knowledge structures

7

type of schema that deals with the image of typical features of members of a group

prototype

8

type of schema that contains information about the normal sequence of events in a given circumstance

scripts

9

Schemas are generated from what 2 things?

1. personal experiences
2. cultural knowledge sources

10

rules of thumb that simplify judgements (mental shortcuts)

heuristics

11

basing judgements on the ease with which examples come to mind

availability heuristic

12

When is the availability heuristic useful? (2 situations)

1. When a particular thought is reasonable
2. When it aids in learning

13

the availability bias contributes to the ____ effect and the ____ bias

spotlight; egocentric

14

the idea that our own personal actions are especially noticeable to others

spotlight effect

15

our awareness of our behavior compared to others

egocentric bias

16

related to availability; more salient experiences remembered better

distinctiveness

17

2 distinct events more likely to be seen as associated

illusory correlations

18

classifying something as belonging to a certain category because it is similar to a typical case from the category

representativeness heuristic

19

we tend to ignore relavent probabilities in favor of salient representative information

base rate fallacy

20

What is a benefit of representativeness?

categorization is important in some circumstances

21

states that the primary function of emotions is to anticipate future problems (just miss leads to greater emotion than big miss)

simulation heuristic

22

Using an anchor and then insufficiently adjusting your judgement

anchoring and adjustment heuristic

23

Why use the anchoring and adjustment heuristic?

using good anchors can make negotiation easier

24

Our reliance on anchors is ______

overused

25

Why do we use heuristics?

because they simplify things

26

When do we use heuristics?

when we lack either ability or motivation to think more carefully

27

Are we more or less likely to use heuristics when we are in a hurry?

more likely

28

When physiologically aroused, we are more likely to use ______

cognitive short-cuts (heuristics)

29

We rely more on heuristics when we are in a (good/bad) mood.

good

30

When there isn't a correct answer, why waste time thinking it out? Instead we use _______ when we are faced with uncertainty.

heuristics

31

Complex situations use more ______, leading us to rely on heuristics

attention

32

We lose attentional resources during certain phases of our daily cycle. These cycles are called what?

circadian rhythms

33

How do we avoid using heuristics?

1. conscious processing (engage in metacognition)
2. realize the errors in judgement and correct accordingly

34

What are the 2 types of attributes?

1. dispositional (internal)
2. situational (external)

35

When we explain others behaviors, we tend to overestimate the dispositional attributes, and underestimate the situational ones. What is this known as?

fundamental attribution error (FAE)

36

We often ignore obvious (dispositional/situational) information

situational

37

We assume actors have the _______ of the people they portray.

characteristics

38

Attributions change depending on if we are the actor or observer. What is this known as?

actor-observer effect

39

we tend to construe a situation to benefit the self

self-serving bias

40

What is the benefit and drawback of the self-serving bias?

benefit: we can maintain a positive sense of self
drawback: no change in behavior

41

What are BIRGing and CORFing?

BIRGing: Basking in Reflective Glory
CORFing: Cutting Off from Reflective Failure

42

preemptively providing excuses for less than exceptional behavior

self-handicapping

43

The FAE is not prevalent in (individualistic/collectivist) cultures.

collectivist

44

The actor/observer bias doesn't really have much to do with ________, as it has more to do with _____

situation/disposition; access to information

45

the tendency to see positive attributes as unique and negative attributes as common (consensus meets the SSB)

false uniqueness/consensus

46

tendency to search for information that confirms one's view

confirmation bias

47

willingness to believe vague universal statements that apply to the self

firer effect (barnum effect)

48

The firer effect is enhanced when statements are? (2 things)

1. presented by an authority
2. tailored to an individual

49

What is the problem with prophecies?

our expectancies can influence our behavior

50

peoples expectations lead them to act in ways that result in confirmation of their beliefs. What is this known as?

self-fulfilling prophecy

51

The parenting/custody study is an example of the ...

framing effect

52

certain emotions that are experienced across all cultures

universal emotions

53

Cultural differences in emotion occur in the degree of ____

expression

54

Individualistic cultures tend to ____ their emotions, while collectivistic cultures tend to _____ them.

show; hide

55

Women are more _____, while men show more emotions such as ____

expressive of emotions, anger

56

states that physical experience leads to emotion; facial feedback hypothesis

James-Lange Theory

57

states that physical and emotional experiences occur separately

Cannon-Bard Theory

58

A requirement for both James-Lange and Cannon-Bard theories is that emotions don't have specific _______

physical arousal experience

59

when the emotion you feel is subjective

subjective evaluation

60

The Schachter two-factor theory deals with the ____

attribution theory of emotion

61

occurs when you are feeling an emotion

arousal

62

tells you what a certain emotion is

cognition

63

the bridge study is an example of...

misattribution

64

states that emotions help with decision making; if you see something that generates positive emotion, you will approach it; if you see something that generates negative emotion, you will avoid it

affect-as-information hypothesis

65

Emotions sometimes help with ________

decision making

66

High arousal states lead to ____ decisions.

bad

67

Emotions ____ us when it comes to making decisions.

screw

68

Negative emotionality leads to ________ behaviors

impulse

69

Emotions arise because of increased _______

arousal

70

Feeling of negative emotionality reduces the likelihood that you will ________

make the same mistake twice

71

Emotions encourage us to generate __________

counterfactuals

72

______ plays a huge role in the experience of emotion.

Cognition

73

What are the 2 types of counterfactuals?

1. upward counterfactual
2. downward counterfactual

74

imagining a better possible outcome

upward counterfactual

75

imagining a worse possible outcome

downward counterfactual

76

pre-experiencing emotion and decision making

affective forecasting

77

People are good at picking which _____ they will feel, but bad at predicting _____ and _____ (over prediction)

emotion; how much; for how long

78

Negative emotions teach us _____

rules

79

Emotions cause the physical manifestation of the emotion, but they do not cause _____

behaviors

80

If emotions caused behavior, we would expect ________

consistency

81

Dealing directly with the problem that caused emotional distress in the first place

problem-focused coping

82

trying to cancel out the emotion

emotion-focused coping

83

Both problem and emotion focused coping are aimed at alleviating _________

negative emotions

84

The desire to alleviate negative emotions _______ behavior

encourages

85

Emotions are triggers for us to _________ (emotivations)

change

86

Motivations are _____ that something is wrong

signals

87

factors that energize and direct behavior

motivations

88

psychological states that encourage behaviors to satiate needs

drives

89

states that we need things (primary reinforcers), needs create arousal, and we are driven to reduce that arousal

drive-reduction theory

90

What is the goal of the drive-reduction theory?

homeostasis

91

emotions that convey social meaning (most)

social emotions

92

encourage interpersonal success

social

93

What are 3 social emotions?

1. guilt
2. embarrassment
3. jealously

94

feeling bad for a known transgression

guilt

95

feeling bad for a faux pas

embarrassment

96

feeling bad because your partner may leave you

jealousy

97

Emotions can trigger certain _____

goal states

98

What is jealousy/guilt induction associated with?

relationship regulation

99

Guilt is good for _______

relationships

100

guilt encourages what 2 things?

1. apologies
2. making amends

101

the capability to experience others' emotional states; greatest of all the social emotions; aided by mirror neurons

empathy

102

someone experiencing an emotion causes a person watching to experience the same emotion

mirror neurons

103

What do you get if you've got a person who can't show empathy?

psychopath

104

Bad is stronger than good; negative overcomes positive

Positive-Negative asymmetry

105

objective factors don't influence happiness

hedonic treadmill

106

favorable or unfavorable evaluative reaction towards something or someone, exhibited in one's beliefs, feelings, or intended behavior

attitude

107

What are the ABC dimensions of attitudes?

1. Affect (feelings)
2. Behavior
3. Cognition (thoughts)

108

How do you measure each of the ABC dimensions of attitudes?

1. affect - fear, heart rate
2. behavior - avoidance
3. cognition - danger

109

What are 3 obvious sources for attitudes?

1. parents
2. friends
3. Institutional factors

110

the more we are exposed to something, the more we like it

Mere Exposure Effect

111

What 2 things does the mere exposure effect depend on?

1. initial attitudes
2. co-occurance of other stimuli

112

When stimuli are paired together, they can elicit similar attitudinal and behavioral responses

conditioning

113

the pairing of a neutral stimulus with an already learned association

classical conditioning

114

reward and punishment; when something is paired with positive outcomes (rewards) we tend to like it more; when something is paired with negative outcomes (punishments) we tend to like it less

operant conditioning

115

we can watch others to find out what is accepted and match our attitudes to boot

social learning

116

sometimes we have 2 different evaluations of an object/person

dual attitudes

117

non-conscious automatic evaluation

implicit

118

conscious deliberative evaluation

explicit

119

What is one of the major reasons that attitudes can fail to predict behavior?

dual attitudes

120

who stated that attitudes do not do a good job of predicting behavior?

Wicker (1969)

121

When do attitudes predict behavior (4 situations)?

1. when social influences are minimized
2. when we aggregate across behaviors
3. when attitude is specific to behavior
4. when attitudes are made salient

122

The fact that behavior influences attitudes is used to _______

persuade others

123

If people first agree to a small request, they will later comply with a larger request

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

124

What technique do cults use to recruit?

foot-in-the-door

125

People who agree to a small request will still comply when the requester ups the anty

low-ball technique

126

tension that arises when one is aware of 2 inconsistent cognitions

cognitive dissonance

127

the cognitive dissonance motives changing one's _____

cognition

128

Attitude change is more likely if there is ________ for the behavior

insufficient justification

129

shows how we work to justify our decisions

post-decision dissonance

130

People want their attitudes to be consistent with others around them; We like for other people to have the same attitudes that we do

P-O-X Theory (balance theory)

131

_______ can make you like something you should hate

cognitive dissonance

132

We'll even work to justify _____ decisions

simple

133

attitudes that are very difficult to change; tend to be highly polarized and associated with other attitudes

embedded attitudes

134

Challenging someone's attitude (with weak attacks) can actually make it ______

stronger

135

(Attitudes/Beliefs) tend to be more resistant to change.

beliefs

136

Beliefs = ________
Attitudes = _________

explanations; evaluations

137

Even when proved wrong, convictions can become stronger

belief perspective

138

capitalize on human choice

social influence tactics

139

Forceful requests can lead to ________. To avoid this, influence attempts to use choice rather than force

reactance

140

Influence tactics are often based on ______

heuristics

141

We over-rely on _______. Each tactic capitalizes on important ________.

heuristics; goals/motivations

142

What are the 3 tactics of accuracy?

1. social validation
2. authority
3. scarcity

143

When in doubt, go with majority option (heuristic)

social validation

144

People in authority know more than me - It pays to follow the advice of a legitimate authority (heuristic)

authority

145

something that is scarce has value - related to social validation (heuristic)

scarcity

146

What are the 2 exploitations of scarcity?

1. limited # tactic
2. deadline technique

147

we should be consistent and stick to our commitments (heuristic)

managing the self-image

148

What are the 4 general tactics of managing the self-image (all resulting from cognitive dissonance)?

1. foot-in-the-door
2. low-ball
3. bait-and-switch
4. labeling

149

tactic used to lure client in with good deal, then convince them of a better deal or inform them of conditions of the deal

bait-and-switch

150

tactic used in which a sales person tells someone they look like a generous person so they feel inclined to oblige to the request

labeling

151

Wat are the 3 tactics of approval and acceptance?

1. reciprocity
2. liking
3. conformity

152

you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours (heuristic)

reciprocity

153

start with an initially large request and back down and make concession

door-in-the-face

154

The foot-in-the-door technique is based on _______, whereas the door-in-the-face technique is based on _______

consistency; reciprocity

155

if someone you like asks for a favor, it pays to say yes (heuristic)

liking

156

What are the 3 exploitations of liking?

1. first name basis
2. capitalizing on a similarity/shared group membership
3. use of attractive sales people

157

technique used to try to stop the influence of heuristics

the pique technique

158

To stop the influence of heuristics, you should remain __________ and ____________ the salesperson is making.

aware of the situation; rethink the requests

159

change in private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message

persuasion

160

what is heard is more important than what is said (focus on self-talk); effectiveness of a message determined by the thoughts evoked by the message

cognitive response model

161

Thoughts of a message are dependent upon what 3 things?

1. audience (who is listening)
2. communicator (who is speaking)
3. message (what is being said)

162

central or peripheral route of thought?
1. high motivation and ability to think
2. deep processing (focused on quality of argument)
3. lasting change (resists fading and counter-attacks)

central

163

central or peripheral route of thought?
1. low motivation and ability to think
2. superficial processing (focused on surface features - # of arguments - quantity)
3. temporary change (susceptible to fading and counter-attacks)

peripheral

164

The message (central or peripheral?):
1. many arguments regardless of quality
2. flashy presentation style
3. repetition
4. emotional appeal

peripheral

165

The message (central or peripheral?):
1. high quality arguments regardless of quantity
2. steal thunder

central

166

The speaker (central or peripheral?):
1. credible and trustworthy

central

167

The speaker (central or peripheral?):
1. appear credible and trustworthy
2. powerful speaker

peripheral

168

developing counterarguments preemptively

inoculation

169

being prepared to be persuaded reduces persuasion

forewarned is forearmed

170

Physical and mental fatigue increases your likelihood of being _________.

persuaded