Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (118):
Groups naturally occur as a set of _____ people. People prefer ______ groups when interaction is integral to the purpose of the group.
Group participation varies as a function of the ______ of people in a group
groupiness as a continuum
Perceiving stimuli to be a single unit (Donald Campbell)
What are the 3 Gestalt principles of groups?
3. common fate (interdependence)
some groups seem to be more cohesive than others
levels of entativity
Intimacy groups (family, close friends) have _______ entativity. Social categories (race, gender) have ________ entativity. Task groups (committee, project team) have _______ entativity. Loose association groups (neighbors) have _______ entativity.
Entativity varies as a function of the presence of what 5 things?
1. common goals
4. high in personal importance
5. degree of interaction
Joining a group helps to fulfill the need of _______.
Identifying with a group can make the self more stable
group members have to understand each other
if uncertain, people can identify with the group
subjective uncertainty reduction hypothesis
ability to perceive the emotional and psychological state of others due to history of interaction
groups have their own rules for how to behave
group members delegate different domains of memory expertise to different individuals
it doesn't take much to create a group
minimal group paradigm
Diverse groups are often less _______. Groups require a level of ________.
diverse groups perform better (more flexible and creative; wide range of knowledge)
When looking at the social influence on cockroaches, researchers found that cockroaches performed better on the (simple, complex) maze when in the presence of others.
The presence of others causes an increase in ________ which leads to the amplification of a ________
reducing one's efforts when in a group
in general, groups can get more done than the individual
enjoying group benefits without having to make the effort to contribute
wanting to avoid the risk of being the only member of a group contributing to the project
When performing with the group, it actually reduces ______
result of lack of accountability
When are groups loafless? (4 situations)
1. the task is meaningful and important
2. working with friends
3. they have a collectivistic orientation
4. personal efforts are identifiable
increased arousal leads to dominant response
acting in accord with a direct order; direct social influence
a change in behavior or beliefs as a result of real or imagined social pressure; acting differently than you would alone
publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing (say yes but believe no)
acting and believing in accord with social pressure (say yes and believe yes)
evidence about reality that we get from others; leads to acceptance
informational social influence
What 2 things affect informational influence?
1. whether the situation is ambiguous/novel
2. whether the other individuals appear to be "experts"
behavior shaped by a desire to fulfill others expectations (often to gain approval); leads to compliance
normative social influence
creative thinking in groups
Does brainstorming work?
yes and no
Groups are less ______ than individuals.
when groups make decisions they tend to make especially extreme decisions
decisions become extreme toward one option over another
Groups often fail to engage in ___________ processes
normal problem solving
when group decision making inhibits good problem solving
One of the most important considerations for making a good decision is __________
considering all relavent info
assuming that other people know something because you know it
common knowledge effect
conscious self-reflection, knowledge that you are being evaluated
knowledge that you will be held responsible for your decisions
loss of self-awareness that occurs when we lack identifiability; often results in antisocial behavior
being in a group makes us less _____
What happens when people become deindividuated in a group decision-making situation?
loss of focus on one's own opinions and attitudes and a shift to the group's opinions and attitudes
What 2 things does depersonalization result in?
1. conformity and consensus seeking
2. low accountability (diff. of responsibility)
when the group getting to a decision is more important than making the right decision
What are the 4 factors that influence group think?
2. isolation from outside members
3. directive leaders
4. lack of standard procedures
What are the 4 symptoms of group think?
1. pressure towards conformity
2. pressure on dissenters
4. illusion of invulnerability/morality
behavior intended to benefit others
special kind of prosocial behavior motivated mainly out of a consideration of another's needs rather than one's own; completely absent of obvious external rewards
helping a close relative promotes the survival of one's genes
gaining genetic and material benefits through helping
inclusive fitness becomes more salient when its a _______ situation
life or death
The fact that animals will help non-kin is problematic for the evolutionary explanation of ________
Lemurs, wolves, ostriches, and meerkats all participate in _______
game theory measure of prosocial behavior; non-zero sum game (everyone can win)
In the prisoner's dilemma, which group always cooperates (golden rule strategy)?
In the prisoner's dilemma, which group always deflects?
In the prisoner's dilemma, which group does what their partner does?
very successful strategy in prisoner's dilemma when against the golden rule
moderately successful in prisoner's dilemma
highly effective in prisoner's dilemma over the long term
the more you have of something, the less you appreciate it over time
the law of diminishing returns
we must be able to detect those that are likely not to reciprocate
repetition of some benefit is contingent upon meeting some criteria
When are men more helpful (3 situations)?
1. in public
2. towards strangers
When are women more helpful (3 situations)?
1. in private situations
2. with friends and family
3. long-term helping situations
Individuals often engage in prosocial behavior to ______ others
If they aren't worried, I'm not worried
Somebody else can take care of it.
diffusion of responsibility
What are the 5 steps people follow when an emergency occurs?
1. notice it
2. interpret it
3. take responsibility
4. how to act
5. provide help
behavior intended to injure another
What is the caveat to aggression?
no prosocial intent
attempt to hurt another without obvious face-to-face contact
behavior intended to hurt someone to his or her face
hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings
hurting another to accomplish another goal
The young male syndrome is an example of a _______ model
young men are more likely to commit homicides
young male syndrome
Testosterone is related to both _________ and __________
Aggression increases _________ levels
What likely accounts for the large gender difference between men and women in aggressiveness?
Women tend to engage in more ________ aggression
attempting to harm by destroying relationships
frustration always leads to aggression and aggression is always preceded by frustration
frustration aggression hypothesis
What are the steps of the frustration aggression hypothesis?
blocked goal ---> frustration/anger ---> aggression
frustration produces a number of responses, one of which is instigations of aggression; aggression is always preceded by frustration
frustration aggression revisited
increase in arousal due to physical activity or drugs can influence the likelihood of an aggressive response
excitation transfer theory
aggressive behavior is learned through observation and direct reward (ex. bobo doll study)
social learning theory of aggression
The typical American child sees ________ murders and over _______ acts of violence on TV by the age of 18.
_____% of TV programs contain violence
The social learning theory model suggests ________ of behavior which is a limitation
makes a more modest prediction than the social learning theory; increase in general aggressive behavior through changes to cognition and emotion
general aggression model (GAM)
the tendency for weapons, such as guns, to enhance aggressive thoughts, feelings, and actions
What are the steps of the cognitive neo-association theory?
unpleasant experiences ---> negative feelings ---> aggressive behavior
having an aggressive personality or being exposed to aggressive content can lead to ________
hostile cognitive biases
perceive ambiguous actions of others as hostile
hostile attribution bias
expect others to react with aggression to your behavior
hostile expectation bias
perceive social interactions in general as hostile
hostile perception bias
Violent video games cause _______ hostile cognition, _________ hostile affect, ________ to violence, and _______ prosocial behavior
Freud and others believed that aggression built up over time (hydraulic theory of aggression)
One should ________ aggression regularly
Does catharsis actually work?
What is the strongest contributor to violent crime in America?
lack of self-control
Research has consistently shown that self-control has a strong influence on ________
self-regulatory depletion increases aggressive responding
norms encouraging aggression ---> ______ aggression
norms discouraging aggression ---> _______ aggression
people from this culture find violence more condonable
culture of honor
southern states have (higher/lower) violent crime rates than northern states
extreme loss of personal identity in favor of group identity
A lack of identifiability leads to ________ self-awareness which leads to ________ and _________