Test 4 Flashcards Preview

Social Psychology > Test 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (118):
1

Groups naturally occur as a set of _____ people. People prefer ______ groups when interaction is integral to the purpose of the group.

2-6
smaller

2

Group participation varies as a function of the ______ of people in a group

number

3

groupiness as a continuum

perceived entativity

4

Perceiving stimuli to be a single unit (Donald Campbell)

Gestalt psychology

5

What are the 3 Gestalt principles of groups?

1. proximity
2. similarity
3. common fate (interdependence)

6

some groups seem to be more cohesive than others

levels of entativity

7

Intimacy groups (family, close friends) have _______ entativity. Social categories (race, gender) have ________ entativity. Task groups (committee, project team) have _______ entativity. Loose association groups (neighbors) have _______ entativity.

high
low
medium
very low

8

Entativity varies as a function of the presence of what 5 things?

1. common goals
2. proximity
3. similarity
4. high in personal importance
5. degree of interaction

9

Joining a group helps to fulfill the need of _______.

belonging

10

Identifying with a group can make the self more stable

uncertainty

11

group members have to understand each other

group culture

12

if uncertain, people can identify with the group

subjective uncertainty reduction hypothesis

13

ability to perceive the emotional and psychological state of others due to history of interaction

empathy

14

groups have their own rules for how to behave

norms

15

group members delegate different domains of memory expertise to different individuals

transactive memory

16

it doesn't take much to create a group

minimal group paradigm

17

Diverse groups are often less _______. Groups require a level of ________.

stable
homogenity

18

diverse groups perform better (more flexible and creative; wide range of knowledge)

diversity hypothesis

19

When looking at the social influence on cockroaches, researchers found that cockroaches performed better on the (simple, complex) maze when in the presence of others.

simple

20

The presence of others causes an increase in ________ which leads to the amplification of a ________

physiological arousal
dominant response

21

reducing one's efforts when in a group

social loafing

22

in general, groups can get more done than the individual

specialization

23

enjoying group benefits without having to make the effort to contribute

free ride

24

wanting to avoid the risk of being the only member of a group contributing to the project

sucker effect

25

When performing with the group, it actually reduces ______

arousal

26

result of lack of accountability

social loafing

27

When are groups loafless? (4 situations)

1. the task is meaningful and important
2. working with friends
3. they have a collectivistic orientation
4. personal efforts are identifiable

28

increased arousal leads to dominant response

social facilitation

29

acting in accord with a direct order; direct social influence

obedience

30

a change in behavior or beliefs as a result of real or imagined social pressure; acting differently than you would alone

conformity

31

publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing (say yes but believe no)

compliance

32

acting and believing in accord with social pressure (say yes and believe yes)

acceptance

33

evidence about reality that we get from others; leads to acceptance

informational social influence

34

What 2 things affect informational influence?

1. whether the situation is ambiguous/novel
2. whether the other individuals appear to be "experts"

35

behavior shaped by a desire to fulfill others expectations (often to gain approval); leads to compliance

normative social influence

36

creative thinking in groups

brainstorming

37

Does brainstorming work?

yes and no

38

Groups are less ______ than individuals.

creative

39

when groups make decisions they tend to make especially extreme decisions

risky shift

40

decisions become extreme toward one option over another

group polarization

41

Groups often fail to engage in ___________ processes

normal problem solving

42

when group decision making inhibits good problem solving

process loss

43

One of the most important considerations for making a good decision is __________

considering all relavent info

44

assuming that other people know something because you know it

common knowledge effect

45

conscious self-reflection, knowledge that you are being evaluated

self-awareness

46

knowledge that you will be held responsible for your decisions

accountability

47

loss of self-awareness that occurs when we lack identifiability; often results in antisocial behavior

deindividuation

48

being in a group makes us less _____

identifiable

49

What happens when people become deindividuated in a group decision-making situation?

depersonalization

50

loss of focus on one's own opinions and attitudes and a shift to the group's opinions and attitudes

depersonalization

51

What 2 things does depersonalization result in?

1. conformity and consensus seeking
2. low accountability (diff. of responsibility)

52

when the group getting to a decision is more important than making the right decision

group think

53

What are the 4 factors that influence group think?

1. cohesiveness
2. isolation from outside members
3. directive leaders
4. lack of standard procedures

54

What are the 4 symptoms of group think?

1. pressure towards conformity
2. pressure on dissenters
3. self-censorship
4. illusion of invulnerability/morality

55

behavior intended to benefit others

prosocial behavior

56

special kind of prosocial behavior motivated mainly out of a consideration of another's needs rather than one's own; completely absent of obvious external rewards

altruism

57

helping a close relative promotes the survival of one's genes

inclusive fitness

58

gaining genetic and material benefits through helping

helping ourselves

59

inclusive fitness becomes more salient when its a _______ situation

life or death

60

The fact that animals will help non-kin is problematic for the evolutionary explanation of ________

prosocial behavior

61

Lemurs, wolves, ostriches, and meerkats all participate in _______

alloparenting

62

game theory measure of prosocial behavior; non-zero sum game (everyone can win)

prisoner's dilemma

63

In the prisoner's dilemma, which group always cooperates (golden rule strategy)?

indiscriminately prosocial

64

In the prisoner's dilemma, which group always deflects?

indiscriminately antisocial

65

In the prisoner's dilemma, which group does what their partner does?

tit-for-tat

66

very successful strategy in prisoner's dilemma when against the golden rule

cheaters

67

moderately successful in prisoner's dilemma

indiscriminately prosocial

68

highly effective in prisoner's dilemma over the long term

tit-for-tat

69

the more you have of something, the less you appreciate it over time

the law of diminishing returns

70

we must be able to detect those that are likely not to reciprocate

cheater detection

71

repetition of some benefit is contingent upon meeting some criteria

social contract

72

When are men more helpful (3 situations)?

1. in public
2. towards strangers
3. emergencies

73

When are women more helpful (3 situations)?

1. in private situations
2. with friends and family
3. long-term helping situations

74

Individuals often engage in prosocial behavior to ______ others

impress

75

If they aren't worried, I'm not worried

pluralistic ignorance

76

Somebody else can take care of it.

diffusion of responsibility

77

What are the 5 steps people follow when an emergency occurs?

1. notice it
2. interpret it
3. take responsibility
4. how to act
5. provide help

78

behavior intended to injure another

aggression

79

What is the caveat to aggression?

no prosocial intent

80

attempt to hurt another without obvious face-to-face contact

indirect aggression

81

behavior intended to hurt someone to his or her face

direct aggression

82

hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings

hostile agression

83

hurting another to accomplish another goal

instrumental aggression

84

The young male syndrome is an example of a _______ model

biological

85

young men are more likely to commit homicides

young male syndrome

86

Testosterone is related to both _________ and __________

dominance
aggressiveness

87

Aggression increases _________ levels

testosterone

88

What likely accounts for the large gender difference between men and women in aggressiveness?

testosterone

89

Women tend to engage in more ________ aggression

indirect

90

attempting to harm by destroying relationships

relational aggression

91

frustration always leads to aggression and aggression is always preceded by frustration

frustration aggression hypothesis

92

What are the steps of the frustration aggression hypothesis?

blocked goal ---> frustration/anger ---> aggression

93

frustration produces a number of responses, one of which is instigations of aggression; aggression is always preceded by frustration

frustration aggression revisited

94

increase in arousal due to physical activity or drugs can influence the likelihood of an aggressive response

excitation transfer theory

95

aggressive behavior is learned through observation and direct reward (ex. bobo doll study)

social learning theory of aggression

96

The typical American child sees ________ murders and over _______ acts of violence on TV by the age of 18.

8,000
100,000

97

_____% of TV programs contain violence

60

98

The social learning theory model suggests ________ of behavior which is a limitation

direct replication

99

makes a more modest prediction than the social learning theory; increase in general aggressive behavior through changes to cognition and emotion

general aggression model (GAM)

100

the tendency for weapons, such as guns, to enhance aggressive thoughts, feelings, and actions

weapons effect

101

What are the steps of the cognitive neo-association theory?

unpleasant experiences ---> negative feelings ---> aggressive behavior

102

having an aggressive personality or being exposed to aggressive content can lead to ________

hostile cognitive biases

103

perceive ambiguous actions of others as hostile

hostile attribution bias

104

expect others to react with aggression to your behavior

hostile expectation bias

105

perceive social interactions in general as hostile

hostile perception bias

106

Violent video games cause _______ hostile cognition, _________ hostile affect, ________ to violence, and _______ prosocial behavior

increase
increase
desensitization
decrease

107

Freud and others believed that aggression built up over time (hydraulic theory of aggression)

catharsis

108

One should ________ aggression regularly

release

109

Does catharsis actually work?

no

110

What is the strongest contributor to violent crime in America?

lack of self-control

111

Research has consistently shown that self-control has a strong influence on ________

aggression

112

self-regulatory depletion increases aggressive responding

fatigue

113

norms encouraging aggression ---> ______ aggression
norms discouraging aggression ---> _______ aggression

increased
decreased

114

people from this culture find violence more condonable

culture of honor

115

southern states have (higher/lower) violent crime rates than northern states

higher

116

extreme loss of personal identity in favor of group identity

deindividuation

117

A lack of identifiability leads to ________ self-awareness which leads to ________ and _________

decrease in
reduced self-regulation
inhibition

118

Several studies have found that the larger the crowd the more ______ and _____ the crime.

violent and gruesome