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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (145):
1

anything that draws two or more people together

attraction

2

What are the 4 factors that differentiate attraction?

1. frequency
2. degree of impact
3. diversity of activities
4. duration

3

Forming relationships is a (want/need).

need

4

Our ancestors who engaged in long-term relationships with others acquired many benefits necessary for survival including _______, _________, and _________

food, protection, and mating

5

forming relationships with fictional characters

parasocial relationships

6

We have a ______ to end relationships

reluctance

7

What happens if the need to belong and form relationships isn't fulfilled?

We suffer from psychological stress (anxiety, depression) and physical illness (heart disease, low immune system)

8

What are the 2 ingredients need to fulfill our need to belong?

1. regular social contact
2. stable network of on-going relationships

9

About how many stable relationship partners does an individual typically have?

5-6

10

closer physical distance

proximity

11

encountering on a regular basis

propinquity

12

a partner's annoying habits grow just that much more annoying over time

social allergy effect

13

Shared experiences can result in _______

strong relationships

14

4s go with 4s, 7s go with 7s

matching hypothesis

15

Married couples tend to be very (similar/different)

similar

16

Why are people attracted to similar others?

what is familiar is good (safe and predictable)

17

self-presentational strategy in which we mimic the behaviors of those around us

chameleon effect

18

you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours; when people get info that someone likes them, almost invariably there is a strong drive of affection for that person

reciprocity

19

We are attracted to those others who _____ us.

reward

20

people and animals will perform behaviors that have been rewarded

reinforcement theory

21

Rewards + cost > or < rewards - cost

rewards + cost is greater

22

We respect and admire _______ people.

attractive

23

tendency to judge people with attractive features to have other positive qualities (i.e. intelligence, social competence)

halo effect

24

The need to belong is a universal, powerful, motivation and _______ thwarts that need

rejection

25

Some people reject others to maintain the ________

status quo

26

Rejection occurs due to what 4 things?

1. idiosyncratic preferences
2. cultural beliefs
3. desire to avoid certain outcomes
4. reduce deviance

27

one person breaking the rules inspires others to do the same

bad apple effect

28

The bad apple effect is an example of _________

reducing deviance

29

Seeing someone else get rejected for poor behavior reduces the _____

bad apple effect

30

Rejection serves as _______

punishment

31

Perceptions of loneliness lead to an increase in _____ and _____.

physical and psychological illness

32

strong expectation that one will be rejected by others

rejection sensitivity

33

Emotions serve as a warning system to encourage self directed attention (_________) and to change behavior (________)

self-awareness
self-regulation

34

What are the 3 social emotions?

1. guilt and shame
2. jealousy
3. embarrassment

35

Social emotions function to signal that ______ is looming

rejection

36

social anxiety results from a desire to ___________

avoid rejection

37

The threat of rejection leads to motivated behavior to avoid ___________

relationship dissolution

38

Studies on rejection rarely show changes in ________

emotion

39

MacDonald and Leary suggested that rejected, excluded animals lose _______

pain sensitivity

40

Panksepp suggested that the social emotion system piggybacks on the ___________ system

physical pain system

41

emotion that encourages pro-social behavior and inhibits aggression

empathy

42

A lack of empathy after rejection is found to be the primary cause for a _______ in pro-social behavior and a _______ in aggressive behavior

decrease
increase

43

Social exclusion impairs the ___________, thereby altering the manner in which it registers physical pain and empathy.

emotion system

44

Social exclusion can stimulate pro-social behavior, but the person must symbolize a source of __________

potential acceptance

45

People date others who like and reward them. What is this an example of?

reciprocity/reward

46

__________ is a much more dominating factor in romantic relationships than in friendships.

attractiveness

47

What do we find attractive?

symmetry (facial and body)

48

Why do we prefer symmetry?

asymmetry can result from illness during development; symmetrical features suggest stronger resistance to environmental pathogens

49

Why are we more attracted to people who look average?

mere exposure effect, diversity and health

50

What 4 things do men prefer in a woman?

1. physical attractiveness
2. signs of youth
3. neotenous features
4. body shape (36-24-36 WTH ratio)

51

What 2 things do women prefer in a man?

1. physical dominance
2. status

52

What do women benefit from when looking for a partner?

a mate who is willing and able to provide

53

What do men benefit from when looking for a partner?

mating often; partners who can produce more offspring

54

the things that society values

social constructionist perspective

55

Exposure to highly desirable same-sex individuals _______ the estimates of proportions of attractive people around

increases

56

Exposure to highly desirable opposite-sex individuals increases estimates of attractive individuals available; this is one of the single strongest predictors of _________

relationship dissolution

57

For women, in a short-term partner _____ matters more. In a long-term partner ______ matters more

physical attractiveness
status and resources

58

For men, ______ is almost always important in a partner.

attractiveness

59

For both men and women, the minimum criteria met in a partner functions in relation to __________

desired length of relationship

60

physiological arousal, longing, sexual attraction

passion

61

close bond, sharing, support

intimacy

62

willing to define as love, long-term

commitment

63

Love triange:
1. intimacy only
2. intimacy/commitment
3. commitment only
4. passion/commitment
5. passion only
6. intimacy/passion
7. all 3 (intimacy, passion, commitment)

1. liking
2. compassionate love
3. empty love
4. fatuous love
5. infatuation
6. romantic love
7. consummate love

64

The longer a couple is together, ________ increases and ________ decreases

commitment and intimacy
passion

65

Although _______ love starts the relationship up, _______ love keeps it going

passionate
companionate

66

The beginning of a relationship; you owe me; more likely in relationships driven by passion

exchange (equity) relationship

67

if the other partner cheats (takes without giving) it will end the relationship

self-protection

68

seen latter in a relationship; exchange with less expectation of return; more likely in relationships driven by commitment; characterized by trust and mutual concern

communal relationship

69

What are the 3 components of strong relationships according to Rusbult?

1. satisfaction
2. quality of available alternatives
3. investment

70

comparative level of your partner; related to satisfaction; dependent on positive and negative experiences shared with your partner

compL

71

negative experiences account for more than positive ones

positive/negative asymmetry effect

72

comparative level of alternatives; is there someone better out there?

compAlt

73

What happens if an individual's compL is very low?

others will seem appealing (also can happen if compL is high)

74

Motivated evaluations can influence _________

relationship satisfaction

75

Men tend to _________ sexual interest

over-percieve

76

Men tend to have higher (compL/compAlt)

compAlt

77

Most of the investments put into a relationship are _______.

sunk costs

78

states that each factor of strong relationships alone has a weak predictive value of whether a relationship lasts; if compL>compAlt and investment is high; if compL

investment model

79

relationships either _____ or ______ over time

stay the same or get worse

80

Fincham suggested that relationship success is dependent on how you _________

explain your partner's behavior

81

dispositional attributes for good behavior and situational for bad

relationship enhancing attributions

82

situational attributes for good behavior and dispositional attributes for bad behavior

distress maintaining attributions

83

What did the original Princeton trilogy studies find?

with time, racial prejudice seemed to decrease

84

What were the 3 major problems with the original Princeton trilogy studies?

1. ambiguous instructions
2. no assessment of Ss prejudice
3. outdated list of stereotype adjectives

85

What did the revisited princeton trilogy studies find?

stereotypes haven't disappeared, they've just changed

86

What are the ABC's of bias?

affect (prejudice)
behavior (discrimination)
cognition (stereotype)

87

unjustifiable negative behavior towards a person based on their group membership

discrimination

88

a belief about the personal attributes of a group

stereotype

89

a negative prejudgement of a group and its individual members

prejudice

90

All forms of bias involve __________ based responses

category

91

What are the 3 roots of prejudice?

1. cultural sources
2. cognitive sources
3. motivational sources

92

Is racism an evolved trait?

no

93

Is a general propensity to categorize things an evolved trait?

yes

94

We are most likely to notice a ______ member doing something _____

outgroup
wrong

95

a false impression that 2 variables are related

illusory correlation

96

We overestimate distinctive events which leads to ________

stereotyping

97

Illusory correlation can lead people to overestimate the likelihood that racial minorities will _________

commit crimes

98

We notice and recall events that ________

confirm our expectations

99

We associate common properties to groups, which makes it easier to predict a person's behavior, and harder to accept exceptions to the rule

representativeness

100

Stereotypes are ________.

heuristics

101

Given time and the ability to think people can accurately assess gender differences

kernel of truth

102

Under pressures of time, the kernel of truth can be _______

exaggerated

103

To save us time and cognitive effort, we often ______ the distinctions between groups and ______ the differences within groups

sharpen
soften

104

overestimating how similar members of other groups are to one another

perceived out group homogeneity

105

states that in in-groups, positive acts are intrinsic to its essence and negative acts are meaningless products of the situation; in out-groups the opposite is true

ultimate attribution error (UAE)

106

Why are positive stereotypes not a good thing?

they pigeon hole the stereotyped group; often prime stereotyped beliefs in general; lead to negative stereotypes

107

self reports are subject to _______

social desirability bias

108

distinguishes between stereotypes and personal beliefs

dissociation model

109

acceptance of content of stereotype

personal belief

110

The propensity to categorize is _______

automatic

111

When people do not or cannot actively control stereotypes, they influence ________

responses

112

Implicit measures of prejudice assess automatic/uncontrollable biases; IAT

dual attitude approach

113

test that attempts to measure implicit responses

Implicit Associations Test (IAT)

114

The results of the IAT show that we are slower to categorize _____ things and quicker to categorize ______ things

positive
negative

115

Implicit attitudes tend to be more ________, while explicit attitudes are overly _______

negative
positive

116

overt bias, policy attitudes; conscious, self-directed behavior

explicit attitudes

117

nonverbal bias, split second decisions; uncontrollable behavior

implicit attitudes

118

beliefs and feelings we have toward the groups to which we see ourselves belonging

social identity

119

seeing the groups we belong to as better makes us feel good about ourselves

social identity theory

120

certain groups that we identify ourselves with

ingroups

121

our tendency to favor our ingroup

ingroup bias

122

strong in-group identification leads to ________

strong out-group prejudice

123

threats of death make us especially negative toward others who have different beliefs than us; we respond with prejudice to alleviate distress about fallibility of our own beliefs

terror management theory

124

prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources

realistic group conflict theory

125

Out-groups become the _______

scapegoat

126

stereotypes provide us with expectations about people; if the expectation is negative, our response could be too

implicit bias

127

What did the shoot/don't shoot studies find?

People are more likely to mistakenly shoot unarmed blacks, but they can learn to overcome biases and ignore race with training

128

when people treat others based on their expectations, it elicits the behavior they expect

self-fulfilling prophecy

129

disruptive concern that one will be evaluated based on a stereotype, concern that one will confirm the stereotype; more likely if stereotype is salient

stereotype threat

130

The stereotype threat is a type of ______

self-fulfilling prophecy

131

individuals low in prejudice do make active attempts at controlling their prejudice

self-regulation

132

What does IMS stand for?

internal motivation to suppress stereotypes

133

What does EMS stand for?

external motivation to suppress stereotypes

134

report moderately prejudiced attitudes in both public and private; more likely to show overt discrimination

low IMS/low EMS

135

report low prejudice when in public, but high in private; more likely to show prejudice when there is some nonracial justification for negative responding; show backlash effects

low IMS/high EMS

136

pressure to respond without prejudice leads to more prejudice in the future

backlash effects

137

report low prejudice attitudes in both public and private; least prejudice of all groups; internalized beliefs; show low bias on IAT type measures

High IMS/low EMS

138

report low prejudice attitudes in both public and private; experience some difficulty when interacting with out group members; interracial anxiety; low self-efficacy for responding without prejudice

High IMS/high EMS

139

fear of appearing prejudice

interracial anxiety

140

the idea that increasing contact might decrease prejudice; proximity seems to breed liking (ex. WWII study)

the contact hypothesis

141

What is the problem with the contact hypothesis?

people often segregate themselves in desegregated environments

142

What was the main study done in the revisited contact hypothesis?

jigsaw classroom

143

What 3 factors did the revisited contact hypothesis say were necessary?

1. contact must be positive
2. members of group must be of equal status
3. out group members must be perceived as typical members of their group

144

People who are high in prejudice are easily influenced by ________

normative pressure

145

Before desegregation, most people had _____ attitudes towards it. Afterwards, there was a huge shift to _____ of desegregation.

negative
support