Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (145):
anything that draws two or more people together
What are the 4 factors that differentiate attraction?
2. degree of impact
3. diversity of activities
Forming relationships is a (want/need).
Our ancestors who engaged in long-term relationships with others acquired many benefits necessary for survival including _______, _________, and _________
food, protection, and mating
forming relationships with fictional characters
We have a ______ to end relationships
What happens if the need to belong and form relationships isn't fulfilled?
We suffer from psychological stress (anxiety, depression) and physical illness (heart disease, low immune system)
What are the 2 ingredients need to fulfill our need to belong?
1. regular social contact
2. stable network of on-going relationships
About how many stable relationship partners does an individual typically have?
closer physical distance
encountering on a regular basis
a partner's annoying habits grow just that much more annoying over time
social allergy effect
Shared experiences can result in _______
4s go with 4s, 7s go with 7s
Married couples tend to be very (similar/different)
Why are people attracted to similar others?
what is familiar is good (safe and predictable)
self-presentational strategy in which we mimic the behaviors of those around us
you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours; when people get info that someone likes them, almost invariably there is a strong drive of affection for that person
We are attracted to those others who _____ us.
people and animals will perform behaviors that have been rewarded
Rewards + cost > or < rewards - cost
rewards + cost is greater
We respect and admire _______ people.
tendency to judge people with attractive features to have other positive qualities (i.e. intelligence, social competence)
The need to belong is a universal, powerful, motivation and _______ thwarts that need
Some people reject others to maintain the ________
Rejection occurs due to what 4 things?
1. idiosyncratic preferences
2. cultural beliefs
3. desire to avoid certain outcomes
4. reduce deviance
one person breaking the rules inspires others to do the same
bad apple effect
The bad apple effect is an example of _________
Seeing someone else get rejected for poor behavior reduces the _____
bad apple effect
Rejection serves as _______
Perceptions of loneliness lead to an increase in _____ and _____.
physical and psychological illness
strong expectation that one will be rejected by others
Emotions serve as a warning system to encourage self directed attention (_________) and to change behavior (________)
What are the 3 social emotions?
1. guilt and shame
Social emotions function to signal that ______ is looming
social anxiety results from a desire to ___________
The threat of rejection leads to motivated behavior to avoid ___________
Studies on rejection rarely show changes in ________
MacDonald and Leary suggested that rejected, excluded animals lose _______
Panksepp suggested that the social emotion system piggybacks on the ___________ system
physical pain system
emotion that encourages pro-social behavior and inhibits aggression
A lack of empathy after rejection is found to be the primary cause for a _______ in pro-social behavior and a _______ in aggressive behavior
Social exclusion impairs the ___________, thereby altering the manner in which it registers physical pain and empathy.
Social exclusion can stimulate pro-social behavior, but the person must symbolize a source of __________
People date others who like and reward them. What is this an example of?
__________ is a much more dominating factor in romantic relationships than in friendships.
What do we find attractive?
symmetry (facial and body)
Why do we prefer symmetry?
asymmetry can result from illness during development; symmetrical features suggest stronger resistance to environmental pathogens
Why are we more attracted to people who look average?
mere exposure effect, diversity and health
What 4 things do men prefer in a woman?
1. physical attractiveness
2. signs of youth
3. neotenous features
4. body shape (36-24-36 WTH ratio)
What 2 things do women prefer in a man?
1. physical dominance
What do women benefit from when looking for a partner?
a mate who is willing and able to provide
What do men benefit from when looking for a partner?
mating often; partners who can produce more offspring
the things that society values
social constructionist perspective
Exposure to highly desirable same-sex individuals _______ the estimates of proportions of attractive people around
Exposure to highly desirable opposite-sex individuals increases estimates of attractive individuals available; this is one of the single strongest predictors of _________
For women, in a short-term partner _____ matters more. In a long-term partner ______ matters more
status and resources
For men, ______ is almost always important in a partner.
For both men and women, the minimum criteria met in a partner functions in relation to __________
desired length of relationship
physiological arousal, longing, sexual attraction
close bond, sharing, support
willing to define as love, long-term
1. intimacy only
3. commitment only
5. passion only
7. all 3 (intimacy, passion, commitment)
2. compassionate love
3. empty love
4. fatuous love
6. romantic love
7. consummate love
The longer a couple is together, ________ increases and ________ decreases
commitment and intimacy
Although _______ love starts the relationship up, _______ love keeps it going
The beginning of a relationship; you owe me; more likely in relationships driven by passion
exchange (equity) relationship
if the other partner cheats (takes without giving) it will end the relationship
seen latter in a relationship; exchange with less expectation of return; more likely in relationships driven by commitment; characterized by trust and mutual concern
What are the 3 components of strong relationships according to Rusbult?
2. quality of available alternatives
comparative level of your partner; related to satisfaction; dependent on positive and negative experiences shared with your partner
negative experiences account for more than positive ones
positive/negative asymmetry effect
comparative level of alternatives; is there someone better out there?
What happens if an individual's compL is very low?
others will seem appealing (also can happen if compL is high)
Motivated evaluations can influence _________
Men tend to _________ sexual interest
Men tend to have higher (compL/compAlt)
Most of the investments put into a relationship are _______.
states that each factor of strong relationships alone has a weak predictive value of whether a relationship lasts; if compL>compAlt and investment is high; if compL
relationships either _____ or ______ over time
stay the same or get worse
Fincham suggested that relationship success is dependent on how you _________
explain your partner's behavior
dispositional attributes for good behavior and situational for bad
relationship enhancing attributions
situational attributes for good behavior and dispositional attributes for bad behavior
distress maintaining attributions
What did the original Princeton trilogy studies find?
with time, racial prejudice seemed to decrease
What were the 3 major problems with the original Princeton trilogy studies?
1. ambiguous instructions
2. no assessment of Ss prejudice
3. outdated list of stereotype adjectives
What did the revisited princeton trilogy studies find?
stereotypes haven't disappeared, they've just changed
What are the ABC's of bias?
unjustifiable negative behavior towards a person based on their group membership
a belief about the personal attributes of a group
a negative prejudgement of a group and its individual members
All forms of bias involve __________ based responses
What are the 3 roots of prejudice?
1. cultural sources
2. cognitive sources
3. motivational sources
Is racism an evolved trait?
Is a general propensity to categorize things an evolved trait?
We are most likely to notice a ______ member doing something _____
a false impression that 2 variables are related
We overestimate distinctive events which leads to ________
Illusory correlation can lead people to overestimate the likelihood that racial minorities will _________
We notice and recall events that ________
confirm our expectations
We associate common properties to groups, which makes it easier to predict a person's behavior, and harder to accept exceptions to the rule
Stereotypes are ________.
Given time and the ability to think people can accurately assess gender differences
kernel of truth
Under pressures of time, the kernel of truth can be _______
To save us time and cognitive effort, we often ______ the distinctions between groups and ______ the differences within groups
overestimating how similar members of other groups are to one another
perceived out group homogeneity
states that in in-groups, positive acts are intrinsic to its essence and negative acts are meaningless products of the situation; in out-groups the opposite is true
ultimate attribution error (UAE)
Why are positive stereotypes not a good thing?
they pigeon hole the stereotyped group; often prime stereotyped beliefs in general; lead to negative stereotypes
self reports are subject to _______
social desirability bias
distinguishes between stereotypes and personal beliefs
acceptance of content of stereotype
The propensity to categorize is _______
When people do not or cannot actively control stereotypes, they influence ________
Implicit measures of prejudice assess automatic/uncontrollable biases; IAT
dual attitude approach
test that attempts to measure implicit responses
Implicit Associations Test (IAT)
The results of the IAT show that we are slower to categorize _____ things and quicker to categorize ______ things
Implicit attitudes tend to be more ________, while explicit attitudes are overly _______
overt bias, policy attitudes; conscious, self-directed behavior
nonverbal bias, split second decisions; uncontrollable behavior
beliefs and feelings we have toward the groups to which we see ourselves belonging
seeing the groups we belong to as better makes us feel good about ourselves
social identity theory
certain groups that we identify ourselves with
our tendency to favor our ingroup
strong in-group identification leads to ________
strong out-group prejudice
threats of death make us especially negative toward others who have different beliefs than us; we respond with prejudice to alleviate distress about fallibility of our own beliefs
terror management theory
prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources
realistic group conflict theory
Out-groups become the _______
stereotypes provide us with expectations about people; if the expectation is negative, our response could be too
What did the shoot/don't shoot studies find?
People are more likely to mistakenly shoot unarmed blacks, but they can learn to overcome biases and ignore race with training
when people treat others based on their expectations, it elicits the behavior they expect
disruptive concern that one will be evaluated based on a stereotype, concern that one will confirm the stereotype; more likely if stereotype is salient
The stereotype threat is a type of ______
individuals low in prejudice do make active attempts at controlling their prejudice
What does IMS stand for?
internal motivation to suppress stereotypes
What does EMS stand for?
external motivation to suppress stereotypes
report moderately prejudiced attitudes in both public and private; more likely to show overt discrimination
low IMS/low EMS
report low prejudice when in public, but high in private; more likely to show prejudice when there is some nonracial justification for negative responding; show backlash effects
low IMS/high EMS
pressure to respond without prejudice leads to more prejudice in the future
report low prejudice attitudes in both public and private; least prejudice of all groups; internalized beliefs; show low bias on IAT type measures
High IMS/low EMS
report low prejudice attitudes in both public and private; experience some difficulty when interacting with out group members; interracial anxiety; low self-efficacy for responding without prejudice
High IMS/high EMS
fear of appearing prejudice
the idea that increasing contact might decrease prejudice; proximity seems to breed liking (ex. WWII study)
the contact hypothesis
What is the problem with the contact hypothesis?
people often segregate themselves in desegregated environments
What was the main study done in the revisited contact hypothesis?
What 3 factors did the revisited contact hypothesis say were necessary?
1. contact must be positive
2. members of group must be of equal status
3. out group members must be perceived as typical members of their group
People who are high in prejudice are easily influenced by ________