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Flashcards in test 1 pictures Deck (48)
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  • title: Venus of Wilendorf
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Prehistoric Era (c. 25,000-21, 000 BC)
  • country/origin: Wilendorf, Austria
  • medium: limestone
  • context (social, political, chronological):
    • most famous paleolithic sculpture
    • between 4-5 in tall, so can be held in people's hands
    • can only really speculate, but most believe that she represented a fertility goddess



  • title: Lion Panel 
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Prehistoric Era (c. 30,000 B.C.)
  • country/origin: Chauvet Cave, France
  • medium: Black Pigment on Limestone
  • context:
    • largest cave in the region
    • home to hundreds of cave drawings, most of which are unusual animals


  • title: Stonehenge
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: (c. 2,800-1,500 B.C.)
  • country/origin: England
  • medium: Bluestone and sarsen sandstone
  • context:
    • most famous neolithic cromlech in western europe
    • served as a giant sundial
    • used to predict seasonal changes and astronomical pneumonia 
    • ritual cite


  • title: Palette of Namer
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Neolithic Era (c. 3100 BC)
  • country/origin: Hierakonpolis, capital of Egypt
  • medium: Slate
  • context:
    • upper egypt side
      • Narmer wears white crown
    • lower egypt side
      • Pharoh wears red crown


  • title: Pyramids
  • artist: Khufu & Hemiunu
  • date/period: Neolithic Era (2551-2472 B.C.)
  • country/origin: Egypt
  • medium: Limestone
  • context: 
    • built for three Old Kingdom Pharohs
      • resting place for their bodies after death
    • most impressive pyramids built


  • title: Egyptian Canon of Proportion
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Neolithic Era
  • country/origin: Egypt
  • medium: (book)
  • context:
    • these canons were used for over a two thousand year period


  • title: Menkaure and Queen Khamernebty
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Neolithic Era (2490-2472 BC)
  • country/origin: Egypt
  • medium: Slate
  • context:
    • symbolized the relationships between men and women during this time
      • men were of higher status than women
    • was considered to be a very romantic piece


  • title: Opening of the Mouth Ceremony: Book of the Dead of Hunefer
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Neolithic/Prehistoric Era (c.1295-1186 B.C.)
  • country/origin: Egypt
  • medium: pigment on papyrus
  • context:
    • ceremony ritually "opened the mouth" of the deceased and restored their ability to breathe, feel, hear, see and speak


  • title: Mask of Tutankhamon
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Neolithic/Prehistoric (c.1327 BC)
  • country/origin: Egypt
  • medium: Gold inlaid with Enamel and semiprecious stones
  • context:
    • worn by tut's mummy


  • title: Geometric Amphora (darker vase)
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: 8th Century BC
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: Geometric style; refined clay, painted in a dark glaze
  • context:
    • design is typical of geometric pottery design
    • its main scene is "prothesis"
      • lying-in-state of the dead 


  • title: Amphora
  • artist: Polyphemos
  • date/period: (675-650 BC)
  • country/origin: Greek
  • medium: Geometric to Orientalizing style
  • context:
    • amphora: two handled storage jar; gravemarker


  • title: The Great Sphinx
  • artist: Khafre
  • date/period: Neolithic Era (c.2520-2494)
  • country/origin: Egypt
  • medium: Limestone
  • context:
    • guarded the pyramid of Khafre; the location of sphinx suggests that it represented Khafre itself
    • in egypt, lions guarded entrances, especially to temples and palaces.
      • were associated with the sun as the eye of heaven


  • title: Amphora: Achilles & Ajax Playing Board Game (complete handles)
  • artist: Exekias
  • date/period: (540-530 BC)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: Terra Cotta, black figure painting
  • context:
    • artist of pottery is the most dramatic black-figure artist known
    • the painting transforms the personal rivalry of two greek heros of the trojan war into a board game


  • title: Kalyx Krater- Death of Children of Niobe (incomplete handles)
  • artist: Niobid painter
  • date/period: (c.455-450)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: Archaic/Early Classical; clay and red-figure painting
  • context:
    • Niobe was a mortal woman who bragged that she was better than Leto because she had 14 children
    • Twins (and children of Zeus and Leto), Apollo and Artemis, who were expert archers, killed all of her children.
    • The god's power is emphasized because they tower over the mortals


  • title: Warrior by a Grave
  • artist: Reed Painter
  • date/period: (c.450 BC)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: later classical style; clay, white ground painting
  • context:
    • lekythoi's (vessels) were used for grave dedications
    • use of foreshortening
    • indicates the artists interest in rendering forms as they appear in natural, three-dimensional spaces


  • title: statue of kouros
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: (c.590-580 BC)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: Archaic Style- Naxian Marble without plinth
  • context:
    • earliest-known life-size sculpture of a standing male from the archaic period


  • title: Peplos Kore
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: (c. 530 BC)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: Archaic Style- Parian Marble
  • context:
    • she has the so-called "Archaic smile", which accenuates the fact of being alive
    • kore (archaic sculptures of standing women) generally represent votive figures of girls who serve Athena


  • title: Kritos Boy
  • artist: Kritios
  • date/period: (c. 480 BC)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: Early Classical Style- Parian Marble
  • context:
    • sculpture reflects a moment of self-awareness in Greek history that is marked by the change from Archaic to Early Classical
    • he is maintaining the contrapposto stance
      • torso shifted, right hip and shoulder lowered
    • the contrast betwen rigid and relaxed elements allow the viewer to feel the innder workings of the human body


  • title: Doryphoros
  • artist: Polykeitos
  • date/period: (c.440 BC)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: Classical Style- Marble Copy of Bronze original
  • context:
    • Doryphoros means "Spear Bearer"
    • This scultpure was originally bronze, but is only known today through later Roman copies made in marble


  • title: Parthenon
  • artist: Iktinos & Kallikrates
  • date/period: (448-432 BC)
  • country/origin: Greek
  • medium: classical style- Pentelic Marble
  • context:
    • temple dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens
      • celebrates her in her aspect as a virgin goddess. ("parthenos"=virgin)


  • title: Athena
  • artist: Neda Leipen & Sylvia Hahn (reconstruction of Phidias original)
  • date/period: (438 BC)
  • country/origin: Greek
  • medium: classical style- wood covered with gold-ivory plating
  • context:
    • in the reconstruction, athena is armed and represented in her aspect as the goddess of war
    • embodied her importance as goddess of Athens
    • the richness of the statues materials symbolized the wealth transferred from Delos to Athens


  • title: Aphrodite of Knidos
  • artist: Praxiteles
  • date/period: (c.350 BC)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: late classical style- marble
  • context:
    • Praxitelean curve
      • the s-shape of their stance
    • the piece was originally rejected because of its nudity, then accepted by greek city Knidos
    • represents the goddess standing next to her water jar after her bath. her gestures imply modesty, but at the same time it draws attention to her nudity
    • this piece began the entrance of females into the canon of beauty in greek art, which was previously restricted to male nude


  • title: Apoxymenos *Athlete with a Strigil*
  • artist: Lysippos
  • date/period: (c. 320 BC)
  • country/origin: Greece
  • medium: Late classical period; marble- roman copy of a bronze original
  • context:
    • represents a victorious athelete scraping oil off of his arm with a strigil
    • roman emperor Tiberious admired this piece
      • had it moved from the roman bathrooms to his bedroom until the people protested its loss


  • title: Winged Nike (Winged Victory)
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: (c. 190 BC)
  • country/origin: Greek
  • medium:  hellenisic period- marble
  • context:
    • the shifing spatial thrusts of the Nike are representation of the new Hellenistic command of form and motion in space


  • title: Boxer
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Hellenistic Period (2nd/1st Century)
  • country/origin: Greek
  • medium: bronze with copper inlay
  • context:
    • reveals the ravaging effects of the violent sport
      • face covered in scars
      • wearing knuckle straps- inflicted serious injury on opponents
      • has broken nose and teeth, cauliflower ear
    • shows a man who has weathered a lifetime of fighting
      • droopy skin in rib area
    • red/orange areas were made w/ copper to indicate flesh injuries


  • title: Laocoon and His Two Sons
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: Hellenistic Period (1st Century AD)
  • country/origin: Greek
  • medium: Marble
  • context:
    • depicts hellenistic interest in melodramatic pathos
    • depicts an incident at the end of the Trojan War in which Lacoon and his sons are devoured by a pair of serpents


  • title: Colosseum 
  • artist: under Emperor Vespesian
  • date/period: (c. 72-80 AD)
  • country/origin: Rome
  • medium: concrete, tufa, brick, marble, travertine
  • context:
    • was used primarily for public spectacles
      • gladiator contests
      • combats between men and animals, or animals alone
    • ground floor columns were tuscan- later form of doric; second were ionic;  third- corinthian


  • title: Pont Du Gard
  • artist: Marcus Agrippa
  • date/period: 1st Century BC
  • country/origin: Nimes, France
  • medium: Limestone and Breezeblocks
  • context:
    • most impressive roman aqueduct
      • bring water to Nimes from natural springs 30 miles away


  • title: Pantheon
  • artist: Hadrian
  • date/period: (117-125 AD)
  • country/origin: Roman
  • medium: marble, brick, concrete
  • context:
    • most innovative roman temple
    • Pantheon resembles a greek temple
      • this resolved tension between native tradition and greek culture


  • title: Trajan's Column
  • artist: Trajan
  • date/period: (c. 113 BC)
  • country/origin: Roman
  • medium: Marble
  • context:
    • one of the most commemorative monuments from the Hellenistic period onward
    • its formal crowding conveys the bustling activity of armies preparing for war
    • the frieze on trajan's column is an informative historical record of life in the roman army


  • title: A Young Flavian Woman
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: (c. 90 BC)
  • country/origin: Rome, italy
  • medium: Marble
  • context:
    • portraits were often intended as means of keeping the deceased alive in memory
    • portraits of upper-class roman women became popular in the first-century AD


  • title: Monumental Head of Constantine
  • artist: unknown
  • date/period: (313 AD)
  • country/origin: Rome, italy
  • medium: Marble, Brick, Wood
  • context:
    • stands over eight feet tall
    • the restrained classical character of earlier scultures has disappeared, giving way for new style
      • this expresses the emperors power and makes him seem aloof from his subjects
    • the statues original placement on the throne reflected the emperors power over the roman people and empire