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Flashcards in Test 2 Images Deck (48)
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TITLE: "Nativity"

ARTIST: Nicola Pisano

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1260, Gothic period

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Pisa Baptistry, Italy

MEDIUM: Marble


-moumentality and central position evoke Mary's connections with the earth goddesses of antiquity

-reminiscent of imperial Roman reliefs

-good example of Roman heritage in Italian medieval art



TITLE: "Madonna Enthroned"

ARTIST: Cimabue

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1280-90, Gothic period

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Tempera on wood


-located in Galleria degli Uffizi

-shows Byzantine influence in Italy

-four prophets at the foot of the throne embody the Old Dispensation as the foundation of the New


TITLE: "Madonna Enthroned" (Ognissanti Madonna) 

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1310, Gothic period

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Tempera on wood


-located in Galleria degli Uffizi

-this is the only painting unanimously attributed to artist Giotto

-this piece was commissioned for the Church of Ognissanti (All Saints) in Florence

-Giotto was more interested than Cimabue in the reality of childhood


TITLE: "Nativity"

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1305, Gothic period

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Arena Chapel, Padua. 

MEDIUM: Fresco painting


-illustrates Giotto's reduction of form and content to its dramatic essence

-combines two, rather than 4, events in a single space (the Annunciation to the Shepherds and the Nativity)




TITLE: "Last Judgement"

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1305, late Gothic

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Arena Chapel, Padua

MEDIUM: Fresco


-fufills the prophecy of Christ's second coming

-the finality of that event corresponds to its placement in the chapel. it is the last image viewers see on their way out


TITLE: "Last Judgement" (close up section of the painting)

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1305, late Gothic

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Arena Chapel, Padua.

MEDIUM: Fresco


-Enrico Scrovengi (placed on the side of the saved) lifts up a model of the Arena Chapel and presents it to the Virgin and two other figure

-such a portrayal of the donor within the work of art was to become characteristic of the Renaissance


TITLE: "Kiss of Judas"

ARTIST: Duccio

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1308-11, late Gothic


MEDIUM: Tempera on panel


-located in Museo dell'Opera Del Duomo

-represents the moment when Judas identifies Jesus to the Romans with a kiss

-exemplifies a significant current in the early-fourteenth century Italian painting

-Duccio was more closely tied with the Byzantine tradition


TITLE: "Kiss of Judas"

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1305, late Gothic

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Arena Chapel, Padua

MEDIUM: Fresco


-exempifies a significant current in the early 14th century Italian paintings

-Giotto more steeped in the revival of Classical antiquity

-in its convergence of artisitic forms, Giotto signals both the violence of Jesus' death and his ultimate triumph


TITLE: "January"

ARTIST: Limbourg brothers

DATE/PERIOD: 1413-16, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Musee Conde, Chantilly, France

MEDIUM: Illuminated manuscript


-located in Musee Conde

-shows the days when gifts were exchanged at the court of Berry

-the depiction of precise details is typical of the artists, the Limbourg brothers 


TITLE: "Holy Trinity"

ARTIST: Massacio

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1425, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Santa Maria Novella, Florence

MEDIUM: Fresco painting


-shows the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit occupying the higher space

-by his death, Masaccio had become one of the most powerful and innovative painters of his generation

-painting uses new perspective system and new architectual forms established by Brunelleschi

-the donors of the painting occupy a transitional space between the natural world of the observor and the spiritual, timeless space of the painted room


-orthogonals present


TITLE: "Dead Christ"

ARTIST: Andrea Mantegna 

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1500, early Renaissance


MEDIUM: Tempera on canvas


-located in Pinacoteca di Brera

-artist used prespectival theory to achieve radical foreshortening

-this idealization of the body and mastery of perspective creates a haunting psychological effect


TITLE: located in Brancaccai Chapel; "Expulsion from Eden", "Saint Peter in Prison", "Tribute Money"

ARTIST: Massacio

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1425, Early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence

MEDIUM: Fresco


-divided into three scenes, organized narrative so that the point of greatest dramatic conflict (Jesus and Peter) occupies the largest and most central space

-Massacio uses both linear and aerial/atmospheric perspective

-left: Peter, retrieving a coin from a fish. 

-center: Jesus; faces the viewer, surrounded by apostles and Roman tax collector

-right: Peter, paying the tax collector. 


TITLE: "David"

ARTIST: Donatello

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1430-1440, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Bronze


-located in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello

-the pose of David was influenced by Classical statue poses Donatello had seen in Rome while studying ancient ruins

-revolutionary depiction of the nude

-revival of antique forms as well as having egnimatic character and complex meaning: David and Goliath

-David and Goliath were used as Christian types for Christ and Satan, and David's victory was paired with the moral victory over the Devil


TITLE: "The Youthful David"

ARTIST: Andrea del Castagno

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1450, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: National Gallery of Art, Widener Collection, Washington, DC

MEDIUM: Tempera on leather mounted on wood shield


-David's role was a symbol of Florence, and the theme preoccupied Italian artists throughout the Renaissance

-the shield was probably ceremonial

-depicts two separate moments in the narrative

-use of temporal condensation; allows viewers to speed up their vision and grasp of the narrative, so that they may see the middle and the end of the episode at the same time


TITLE: "David:

ARTIST: Andrea del Verrocchio

DATE/PERIOD: early 1470's, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Bronze


-located in Museo Nazionale del Bargello

-Verrocchio was the leading sculptor of the second half of the 15th century

-artist transformed graceful curves of Donatello's David into an angular adolescent

-the modeling of the torso and arms express a different facet of adolescent arrogance

-the general effect of the sculpture is that of a slightly gawky, outgoing, and energetic boy


TITLE: "Sir John Hawkwood"

ARTIST: Paolo Uccello

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1436, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence Cathedral, Italy.

MEDIUM: Fresco transferred to canvas


-enormous fresco on the north wall of the cathedral

-honors Sir John Hawkwood, an English soldier of fortune who led the Florentine army in the 14th century

-artist constructed a double perspective system in order to accomodate the viewpoint of the observer; condenses two narrative moments within one frame


TITLE: "Battista Sforza" and "Federico da Montefeltro"

ARTIST: Piero della Francesca

DATE/PERIOD: 1475, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Oil and tempera on wood panel


-located in Galleria degli Uffizi

-Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, and his wife were leading patrons of the arts and presided over one of the most enlightened humanist courts in teh 15th century

-artists, scientists, and writers all came from various parts of Europe to work for Federico

-iconography is inspired by Roman portraits (busts)

-such formal parallels between rulers and landscape signified the relationship between them and their territories

-the artist's construction. which makes the background smaller than the figures, denotes the greatness of the ruler and the expanse of his duchy


TITLE: "Annunciation"

ARTIST: Piero della Francesca

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1450, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: San Francesco, Arezzo, Italy

MEDIUM: Fresco


-architectural metaphor for Mary's pregnancy through the miraculous Incarnation of Christ

-Mary's formal relationship with the architecture confirms her symbolic role as the "House of God"

-contains several allusions to the miraculous nature of Mary's impregnantion

-one of the leading stylistic trends in the mid-fifteenth century

-one of the many individual pictures in the Dominican monastery of San Marco (St. Mark) in Florence

-good example of the artist's interest in combining Christian iconography with geometry and the Classical revival



TITLE: "Annunciation"

ARTIST: Fra Angelico

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1440, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: San Marco, Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Fresco


-the purpose of this piece is related to its location in the cell of a Dominican friar in the monastery of San Marco

-on the left, just outside the sacred spot of the Annunciation stands the 13th century Dominican saint, Peter Martyr, who devoted his life to converting heretics to orthodox Christianity

-Peter Martyr was a daily inspiration to the friars of San Marco


TITLE: ceiling tondo of the "Camera Picta" (Camera degli Sposi)

ARTIST: Andrea Mantegna

DATE/PERIOD: finished 1474, early Renaissance*

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Ducal Palace, Mantua

MEDIUM: Fresco


-painted to resemble an architectural oculus

-painted on ceiling to be difficult for casual observers to identify the boundaries between reality and illusion

-mantegna's humor shows through the painting


TITLE: "Birth of Venus"

ARTIST: Sandro Botticelli

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1482, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Tempera on canvas


-located in Galleria degli Uffizi

-one of a series of mythological pictures executed for the Medici family

-it was the Medici's interest in classical themes and the revival of Plato's philosophy that led to the founding of the Platonic Academy in Florence in 1469


TITLE: "Merode Altarpiece"

ARTIST: Robert Campin (Master of Flemalle)

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1425-1430, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

MEDIUM: tempera and oil on wood, central panel


-example of triptych

-the artist, Campin, was a master painter in the painters' guild in Tournai from 1406, as well as being active in the local gov.

-he was married, but convicted of living openly with a mistress. he was banned from Tournai, but punishment was later commuted to a fine.

-called the Merode Altarpiece after the 19th century family that owned it


TITLE: "Arnolfini Portrait" 

ARTIST: Jan van Eyck

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1431, early renaissance 

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: National Gallery, London, England

MEDIUM: Oil on wood


-unique subject in Western art

-lots have been written about this piece, and many scholors have proposed numerous interpretations

-has Christian significance

-"Jan Van Eyck was here" is written on the wall 

-her presence recalls the traditional parallel between God, as Creator of the universe, and the mortal artist, who immitates God's creations in making works of art


TITLE: "Embryo in the Womb"

ARTIST: Leonardo da Vinci

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1510, high Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, Royal Library, England

MEDIUM: Pen and brown ink


-depicts an opened uterus, a fetus in breeched position, and the umbilical cord

-reflects passionate interest in the origins of life and in discovering scientific explanations for natural phenomena

-many renaissance artists studied human anatomy, but Leonardo went far beyond artistic concern with musculature and studied the digestive, reproductive, and respiratory systems


TITLE: "Last Supper"

ARTIST: Leonardo da Vinci

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1495-98, high Renaissance 

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan

MEDIUM: oil and tempera on plaster


-represents a series of moments following Jesus's announcement that one of his apostles will betray him, each react according to their personality

-leonardos single most mature work

-became an icon of Christian painting and one of the most widely recognized images in Western art

-success came from conveying character and dramatic tension and integrating these qualities with an imposing and unified architectural setting

-this had negative and positive results


TITLE: "Mona Lisa"

ARTIST: Leonardo da Vinci

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1503-5, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Musee du Louvre, Paris, France

MEDIUM: oil on wood


-subjects of volumes of scholarly interpretation

-smile revoked dimly remembered smile of Leonardo's mother

-Leonardo was unwilling to part with the picture and took it with him when he died

-became part of the French royal collection


TITLE: "David"

ARTIST: Michelangelo

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1501-4, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: marble


-located in Galleria dell'Accademia

-the symbol of Florentine republicanism

-originally destined for the exterior of the cathedral, but since it was such a political piece, placed in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in 1504, the government seat of Florence


TITLE: ceiling of the Sistine chapel 

ARTIST: Michelangelo

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1508-12, high renaissance


MEDIUM: Fresco


-none of the characters or scenes are from the New Testament

-but has typological intent, all referring to christian future


TITLE: "Creation of Adam"

ARTIST: Michelangelo

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1510, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Nippon Television Network Corportation Tokyo?



-example of Michelangelos figures having exaggerated contrapposto

-monumental image in western art


TITLE: "School of Athens"

ARTIST: Raphael

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1509-11, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome

MEDIUM: Fresco


-located in Stanza della Segnatura*

-generally considered the represent the culmination of Raphael's classical harmony

-included portraits of his contemporaries among philosophers

-the room was known as the Stanza dell Segnatura because it was the place where the Signatura Curiae met

-Signatura Curiae- division of the supreme papal tribune

-Raphael was commisioned by Julius II to decorate the room with frescos of classical and christian subjects