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1

TITLE: "Nativity"

ARTIST: Nicola Pisano

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1260, Gothic period

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Pisa Baptistry, Italy

MEDIUM: Marble

CONTEXT: 

-moumentality and central position evoke Mary's connections with the earth goddesses of antiquity

-reminiscent of imperial Roman reliefs

-good example of Roman heritage in Italian medieval art

 

2

TITLE: "Madonna Enthroned"

ARTIST: Cimabue

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1280-90, Gothic period

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Tempera on wood

CONTEXT: 

-located in Galleria degli Uffizi

-shows Byzantine influence in Italy

-four prophets at the foot of the throne embody the Old Dispensation as the foundation of the New

3

TITLE: "Madonna Enthroned" (Ognissanti Madonna) 

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1310, Gothic period

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Tempera on wood

CONTEXT: 

-located in Galleria degli Uffizi

-this is the only painting unanimously attributed to artist Giotto

-this piece was commissioned for the Church of Ognissanti (All Saints) in Florence

-Giotto was more interested than Cimabue in the reality of childhood

4

TITLE: "Nativity"

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1305, Gothic period

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Arena Chapel, Padua. 

MEDIUM: Fresco painting

CONTEXT:

-illustrates Giotto's reduction of form and content to its dramatic essence

-combines two, rather than 4, events in a single space (the Annunciation to the Shepherds and the Nativity)

5

6

 

TITLE: "Last Judgement"

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1305, late Gothic

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Arena Chapel, Padua

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT:

-fufills the prophecy of Christ's second coming

-the finality of that event corresponds to its placement in the chapel. it is the last image viewers see on their way out

6

TITLE: "Last Judgement" (close up section of the painting)

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1305, late Gothic

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Arena Chapel, Padua.

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT: 

-Enrico Scrovengi (placed on the side of the saved) lifts up a model of the Arena Chapel and presents it to the Virgin and two other figure

-such a portrayal of the donor within the work of art was to become characteristic of the Renaissance

7

TITLE: "Kiss of Judas"

ARTIST: Duccio

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1308-11, late Gothic

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Siena, Italy

MEDIUM: Tempera on panel

CONTEXT:

-located in Museo dell'Opera Del Duomo

-represents the moment when Judas identifies Jesus to the Romans with a kiss

-exemplifies a significant current in the early-fourteenth century Italian painting

-Duccio was more closely tied with the Byzantine tradition

8

TITLE: "Kiss of Judas"

ARTIST: Giotto

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1305, late Gothic

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Arena Chapel, Padua

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT:

-exempifies a significant current in the early 14th century Italian paintings

-Giotto more steeped in the revival of Classical antiquity

-in its convergence of artisitic forms, Giotto signals both the violence of Jesus' death and his ultimate triumph

9

TITLE: "January"

ARTIST: Limbourg brothers

DATE/PERIOD: 1413-16, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Musee Conde, Chantilly, France

MEDIUM: Illuminated manuscript

CONTEXT:

-located in Musee Conde

-shows the days when gifts were exchanged at the court of Berry

-the depiction of precise details is typical of the artists, the Limbourg brothers 

10

TITLE: "Holy Trinity"

ARTIST: Massacio

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1425, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Santa Maria Novella, Florence

MEDIUM: Fresco painting

CONTEXT:

-shows the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit occupying the higher space

-by his death, Masaccio had become one of the most powerful and innovative painters of his generation

-painting uses new perspective system and new architectual forms established by Brunelleschi

-the donors of the painting occupy a transitional space between the natural world of the observor and the spiritual, timeless space of the painted room

 

-orthogonals present

11

TITLE: "Dead Christ"

ARTIST: Andrea Mantegna 

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1500, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Milan, Italy

MEDIUM: Tempera on canvas

CONTEXT:

-located in Pinacoteca di Brera

-artist used prespectival theory to achieve radical foreshortening

-this idealization of the body and mastery of perspective creates a haunting psychological effect

12

TITLE: located in Brancaccai Chapel; "Expulsion from Eden", "Saint Peter in Prison", "Tribute Money"

ARTIST: Massacio

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1425, Early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT:

-divided into three scenes, organized narrative so that the point of greatest dramatic conflict (Jesus and Peter) occupies the largest and most central space

-Massacio uses both linear and aerial/atmospheric perspective

-left: Peter, retrieving a coin from a fish. 

-center: Jesus; faces the viewer, surrounded by apostles and Roman tax collector

-right: Peter, paying the tax collector. 

13

TITLE: "David"

ARTIST: Donatello

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1430-1440, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Bronze

CONTEXT:

-located in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello

-the pose of David was influenced by Classical statue poses Donatello had seen in Rome while studying ancient ruins

-revolutionary depiction of the nude

-revival of antique forms as well as having egnimatic character and complex meaning: David and Goliath

-David and Goliath were used as Christian types for Christ and Satan, and David's victory was paired with the moral victory over the Devil

14

TITLE: "The Youthful David"

ARTIST: Andrea del Castagno

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1450, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: National Gallery of Art, Widener Collection, Washington, DC

MEDIUM: Tempera on leather mounted on wood shield

CONTEXT:

-David's role was a symbol of Florence, and the theme preoccupied Italian artists throughout the Renaissance

-the shield was probably ceremonial

-depicts two separate moments in the narrative

-use of temporal condensation; allows viewers to speed up their vision and grasp of the narrative, so that they may see the middle and the end of the episode at the same time

15

TITLE: "David:

ARTIST: Andrea del Verrocchio

DATE/PERIOD: early 1470's, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Bronze

CONTEXT:

-located in Museo Nazionale del Bargello

-Verrocchio was the leading sculptor of the second half of the 15th century

-artist transformed graceful curves of Donatello's David into an angular adolescent

-the modeling of the torso and arms express a different facet of adolescent arrogance

-the general effect of the sculpture is that of a slightly gawky, outgoing, and energetic boy

16

TITLE: "Sir John Hawkwood"

ARTIST: Paolo Uccello

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1436, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence Cathedral, Italy.

MEDIUM: Fresco transferred to canvas

CONTEXT:

-enormous fresco on the north wall of the cathedral

-honors Sir John Hawkwood, an English soldier of fortune who led the Florentine army in the 14th century

-artist constructed a double perspective system in order to accomodate the viewpoint of the observer; condenses two narrative moments within one frame

17

TITLE: "Battista Sforza" and "Federico da Montefeltro"

ARTIST: Piero della Francesca

DATE/PERIOD: 1475, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Oil and tempera on wood panel

CONTEXT: 

-located in Galleria degli Uffizi

-Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, and his wife were leading patrons of the arts and presided over one of the most enlightened humanist courts in teh 15th century

-artists, scientists, and writers all came from various parts of Europe to work for Federico

-iconography is inspired by Roman portraits (busts)

-such formal parallels between rulers and landscape signified the relationship between them and their territories

-the artist's construction. which makes the background smaller than the figures, denotes the greatness of the ruler and the expanse of his duchy

18

TITLE: "Annunciation"

ARTIST: Piero della Francesca

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1450, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: San Francesco, Arezzo, Italy

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT:

-architectural metaphor for Mary's pregnancy through the miraculous Incarnation of Christ

-Mary's formal relationship with the architecture confirms her symbolic role as the "House of God"

-contains several allusions to the miraculous nature of Mary's impregnantion

-one of the leading stylistic trends in the mid-fifteenth century

-one of the many individual pictures in the Dominican monastery of San Marco (St. Mark) in Florence

-good example of the artist's interest in combining Christian iconography with geometry and the Classical revival

 

19

TITLE: "Annunciation"

ARTIST: Fra Angelico

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1440, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: San Marco, Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT:

-the purpose of this piece is related to its location in the cell of a Dominican friar in the monastery of San Marco

-on the left, just outside the sacred spot of the Annunciation stands the 13th century Dominican saint, Peter Martyr, who devoted his life to converting heretics to orthodox Christianity

-Peter Martyr was a daily inspiration to the friars of San Marco

20

TITLE: ceiling tondo of the "Camera Picta" (Camera degli Sposi)

ARTIST: Andrea Mantegna

DATE/PERIOD: finished 1474, early Renaissance*

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Ducal Palace, Mantua

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT:

-painted to resemble an architectural oculus

-painted on ceiling to be difficult for casual observers to identify the boundaries between reality and illusion

-mantegna's humor shows through the painting

21

TITLE: "Birth of Venus"

ARTIST: Sandro Botticelli

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1482, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: Tempera on canvas

CONTEXT:

-located in Galleria degli Uffizi

-one of a series of mythological pictures executed for the Medici family

-it was the Medici's interest in classical themes and the revival of Plato's philosophy that led to the founding of the Platonic Academy in Florence in 1469

22

TITLE: "Merode Altarpiece"

ARTIST: Robert Campin (Master of Flemalle)

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1425-1430, early Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

MEDIUM: tempera and oil on wood, central panel

CONTEXT:

-example of triptych

-the artist, Campin, was a master painter in the painters' guild in Tournai from 1406, as well as being active in the local gov.

-he was married, but convicted of living openly with a mistress. he was banned from Tournai, but punishment was later commuted to a fine.

-called the Merode Altarpiece after the 19th century family that owned it

23

TITLE: "Arnolfini Portrait" 

ARTIST: Jan van Eyck

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1431, early renaissance 

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: National Gallery, London, England

MEDIUM: Oil on wood

CONTEXT:

-unique subject in Western art

-lots have been written about this piece, and many scholors have proposed numerous interpretations

-has Christian significance

-"Jan Van Eyck was here" is written on the wall 

-her presence recalls the traditional parallel between God, as Creator of the universe, and the mortal artist, who immitates God's creations in making works of art

24

TITLE: "Embryo in the Womb"

ARTIST: Leonardo da Vinci

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1510, high Renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, Royal Library, England

MEDIUM: Pen and brown ink

CONTEXT:

-depicts an opened uterus, a fetus in breeched position, and the umbilical cord

-reflects passionate interest in the origins of life and in discovering scientific explanations for natural phenomena

-many renaissance artists studied human anatomy, but Leonardo went far beyond artistic concern with musculature and studied the digestive, reproductive, and respiratory systems

25

TITLE: "Last Supper"

ARTIST: Leonardo da Vinci

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1495-98, high Renaissance 

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan

MEDIUM: oil and tempera on plaster

CONTEXT:

-represents a series of moments following Jesus's announcement that one of his apostles will betray him, each react according to their personality

-leonardos single most mature work

-became an icon of Christian painting and one of the most widely recognized images in Western art

-success came from conveying character and dramatic tension and integrating these qualities with an imposing and unified architectural setting

-this had negative and positive results

26

TITLE: "Mona Lisa"

ARTIST: Leonardo da Vinci

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1503-5, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Musee du Louvre, Paris, France

MEDIUM: oil on wood

CONTEXT:

-subjects of volumes of scholarly interpretation

-smile revoked dimly remembered smile of Leonardo's mother

-Leonardo was unwilling to part with the picture and took it with him when he died

-became part of the French royal collection

27

TITLE: "David"

ARTIST: Michelangelo

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1501-4, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Florence, Italy

MEDIUM: marble

CONTEXT:

-located in Galleria dell'Accademia

-the symbol of Florentine republicanism

-originally destined for the exterior of the cathedral, but since it was such a political piece, placed in front of the Palazzo Vecchio in 1504, the government seat of Florence

28

TITLE: ceiling of the Sistine chapel 

ARTIST: Michelangelo

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1508-12, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Vatican, Rome

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT:

-none of the characters or scenes are from the New Testament

-but has typological intent, all referring to christian future

29

TITLE: "Creation of Adam"

ARTIST: Michelangelo

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1510, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Nippon Television Network Corportation Tokyo?

MEDIUM: ?

CONTEXT:

-example of Michelangelos figures having exaggerated contrapposto

-monumental image in western art

30

TITLE: "School of Athens"

ARTIST: Raphael

DATE/PERIOD: c. 1509-11, high renaissance

COUNTRY/ORIGIN: Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome

MEDIUM: Fresco

CONTEXT:

-located in Stanza della Segnatura*

-generally considered the represent the culmination of Raphael's classical harmony

-included portraits of his contemporaries among philosophers

-the room was known as the Stanza dell Segnatura because it was the place where the Signatura Curiae met

-Signatura Curiae- division of the supreme papal tribune

-Raphael was commisioned by Julius II to decorate the room with frescos of classical and christian subjects