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Flashcards in test 1 vocab. & general info Deck (40)
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  • describes forms that do not accurately depict real objects
  • artist may be attempting to convey the essence of an object rather than its actual appearance
  • glossary definition: in painting or sculpture, having a generalized or essential form with only a symbolic resemblance to natural objects


archaic style

-painting technique used is black-figure

-monumental sculpture of human figures first appear, influenced by Egyptians



archaic time period

c. 600-480 B.C.


black-figure painting example

(page 88)

  • artists painted the figures in black silhouettes with slips made of clay and water.
  • details were added with with sharp tool, exposing orange clay beneath.
  • vase is then baked in a kiln in three different stages.
  • final result is the oxidization process: turns surface reddish-orange and painted areas black


cannon of proportions

  • commonly accepted guidelines for depicting the ideal human figure by specifying the relationships of the parts of the body to one another to the whole
  • vary from culture to culture and have evolved over time


example: based on the old kingdom canon as it was used at saqqara during the reign of Zoser



  • a subtractive sculptural technique in which the sculptor uses a sharp instrument (such as knife, gouge, or chisel) to remove material from a hard surface (bone, wood, or stone). 
  • after the image is shaped, it can be sanded, filed, or polished



a supporting column in post-and-lintel construction carved to represent a human (generally female) figure


classical style

  • shows red-figure technique and more naturalistic
  • EARLY classical
    • produced radical changes in the approach to the human figure
      • the best example of this: Kritos Boy
    • widespread change from marble to bronze for large-scale sculptures
      • "lost-wax" process
  • HIGH Classical
    • "golden age" of greek art
    • art reflects cultural and intellectual achievements of Greece
    • artists idealized human form. figures are usually young, nicely proportioned and symmetrical. but lack personality and expression


classical time period

c.480-400 B.C.

early: c. 480-450 B.C.

late: c. 450-400 B.C.



series of columns set at regular intervals, usually supporting arches or an entabluature.


contrapposto (or counterpoise)

a stance of the human body in which one leg bears the weight while the other is relaxed, creating an asymmetry in the hip-shoulder axis


corinthian order (base, column, and capital)

base: circular, looks like it has three layers

column: used mainly in interiors by the greeks- associated w/ luxury and "feminine" character. curved with vertical indentions from top to bottom

capital: elegant, curved like it is in layers



  • neolithic megalith
  • megalithic structures in which groups of menhirs form circles or semicircles
  • clearly marked sacred spaces


glossary definition: a prehistoric monument consisting of a circle of monoliths




  • neolithic megalith
  • chambers/enclosures consisting of two or more vertical stones supporting a large single stone, much as legs support a table
  • imbued by neolthic people w symbolic associations
  • the first dolmens were tombs. they were later turned into passageways. some decorated with carvings, others were painted.

glossary definition: a prehistoric structure consisting of two or more megaliths capped with a horizontal slab


doric order (base, column, capital)

  • base: three steps
  • column: spacy (??)
  • capital: three elements
    • necking- snug band at the top of the shaft
    • echinos- above necking; flat, curved element with rounded sides (like a plate)
    • abacus- flat, square; formed by the echinos transition between the curved shaft to this. 


geometric style

  • characterized by rectilinear, meander patterns
  • best known for pottery and small-scale scultpures
  • painting and pottery: meander patterns


geometric time period

c. 1000-700 B.C.


hellenistic style

shows white-ground painting technique


hellenistic time period

450-323 BC


hierarchical scale (or hierarchical proportion)

the representation of more important figures as larger than less important ones


 ionic order (base, column, and capital)

  • base: round base w/ an alternating convex and concave profile
  • column: curved, has vertical indentions like corinthian, but they are not as frequent.. are more spread out
  • capital: two swirls, elegant also



  • greek for "girl" archaic sculptures of standing women
  • generally represent votive figures of girls who serve Athena



  • greek word for "youth" archaic life-size statues of standing males
  • ex. of appearance: (pg. 91)
    • maintains standard egyptian frontal pose.
    • left leg extended forward w/ no bend at the knee, hips or waist.
    • arms are at side. fists clenched and elbows turned back.
    • sculptor makes changes to emphasize human anatomy.
    • kouros is cut away from the original block of marble, leaving open spaces between the arms and body and between the legs.


lost wax technique

  • lost wax bronze casting (aka cireperdue)
  • a technique for casting bronze and other metals


meander pattern

a fret or key pattern originating from the Greek geometric period



a large, undressed stone used in the construction of prehistoric monuments



  • neolithic megalith
  • unhewn or slightly shaped single stones, usually standing upright in the ground

glossary: a prehistoric monolith standing alone or grouped with other stones



a large block of stone that is all in one piece used in megalithic structures



the inner sanctuary of an ancient greek temple; main room



a style of art seeking to represent objects as they actually appear in nature