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Flashcards in test 3 pictures Deck (65)
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1

  • title:
    • baldachino
  • artist:
    • Gianlorenzo Bernini
  • date/period:
    • 1624-33, Baroque 
  • country:
    • Rome, Italy
  • medium:
    • gilded bronze
  • context:
    • sits over the high altar above St. Peter's tomb
    • was created to reduce the space at the crossing so that worshipers would be drawn to the altar
    • Gianlorenzo Bernini was the official architect of St. Peter's until his death, appointed by Pope Urban VIII
    • the size of a modern nine-story building (95 feet high)
    • foundations reach deep into the floor of the old Constantinian basilica

2

  • title:
    • St. Peter's basilica and piazza
  • artist:
    • Gianlorenzo Bernini
  • date/period:
    • 1607-26
    • facade
    • piazza design
    • baroque style
  • country:
    • Vatican, Rome
    • western europe
  • medium:
    • stone? concrete?
  • context:
    • where the faithful gather during Christian festivals to hear the pope's message and recieve his blessing
    • large enough to accomodate 250,000 people
    • Bernini's goal when beginning the exterior: provide an impressive approach to the church and define the Piazza San Pietro

3

  • title:
    • facade of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
  • artist:
    • Francesco Borromini
  • date/period:
    • 1665-67
  • country:
    • Rome
  • medium:
    • stone? concrete?
    • baroque style
  • context:
    • this is Borromini's best known building and established his reputation for daring architectural innovation
    • Borromini and Bernini were each others biggest rivals
      • with very different temperments
    • Borromini resented living and working in Bernini's shadow
      • eventually committed suicide 

 

4

  • title:
    • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
  • artist:
    • Francesco Borromini
  • date/period:
    • ? 1665-67?
  • country:
    • Rome
  • medium:
    • stone? concrete? bronze?
    • baroque style
  • context:
    • interior view of the high altar
      • shows the use of large, smooth-shafted Corinthian columns to create a plastic effect on the walls
      •  

5

  • title:
    • David
  • artist:
    • Gianlorenzo Bernini
  • date/period:
    • 1623
  • country:
    • Rome, Italy
  • medium:
    • Marble
    • baroque style (dynamic diagonal extending from the head to the left foot)
  • context:
    • represents a narrative movement requiring action
    • life-size marble sculpture
    • according to biographers, the pope had to hold a mirror up for the artist, and he carved David's face as a self-portrait
      • consistent with his habit of studying his mirror reflection

6

  • title:
    • Cornaro Chapel
  • artist:
    • Gianlorenzo Bernini
  • date/period:
    • 1640's
  • country:
    • Rome
  • medium:
    • ?
  • context:
    • altar wall opens onto the dramatic encounter between Saint Teresa and the angel
      • witnesses of this miracle are the worshiper and the sculptures of the Coronaro family
    • the chapel illustrates the authors skill of integrating the arts in a single project
      • uses the chapel as if it were a little theater

7

  • title:
    • Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
  • artist:
    • Gianlorenzo Bernini
  • date/period:
    • 1640's
  • country:
    • Rome
  • medium:
    • Marble
    • baroque style
  • context:
    • main event over the altar
    • represents the visionary world of the mystic saint, and a moment of heightened emotion (the transport of esctasy)
    • angel prepares to pierce Saint Teresa with a flaming golden arrow as he gently pulls aside her drapery
      • pleasure and pain emerged- felt as if God were "caressing her soul"

8

  • title:
    • Boy with a Basket of Fruit
  • artist:
    • Caravaggio
  • date/period:
    • 1594
  • country:
    • Rome, Italy
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • together with the yellow piece of fruit turning brown in the center of the basket, the leaf calls on the viewer to enjoy life's pleasures before they become rotten with age

9

  • title:
    • Calling of Saint Matthew
  • artist:
    • Carvaggio
  • date/period:
    • 1599-1600
  • country:
    • Rome, Italy
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • good example of the author innovative approach to Christian subjects
      • tenebrism (use of sharply contrasting light and dark) enhances Christian message
    • the authors criminal behavior and acquaintance w/ roman street life contributed to the character of this picture
      • he fled rome after killing a man over a tennis match in 1606

10

  • title:
    • Judith Slaying Holofernes
  • artist:
    • Artemisia Gentileschi
  • date/period:
    • 1614-1620
  • country:
    • Florence, Italy
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting (exhibits the taste for violence)
  • context:
    • illustrates an event from the Book of Judith in the Old Testament Apocrypha
    • artist is known for her pictures of heroic women and violent scenes after incident with Agostino Tassi
      • he was hired to teach her drawing and perspective
      • he raped her and refused to marry her
      • she sued him and was tortured by thumb screws before he was convicted

11

  • title:
    • Venus and Adonis
  • artist:
    • Peter Paul Rubens
  • date/period:
    • 1635
  • country:
    • Northern Europe
    • Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • medium:
    • Oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • celebrates the sensual side of life and seem unaffected by the Counter-Reformation
    • also reflects the artist's Classical education
    • in the work, Venus is begging her lover, Adonis, not to leave, and his pose reveals his conflict between staying and leaving

12

  • title:
    • The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (aka The Night Watch)
  • artist:
    • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • date/period:
    • 1642
  • country:
    • Amsterdamn, Netherlands
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • group portrait that depicts the militia company, led by captain BC, leaving Amsterdam on a shooting expedition
    • represents the triumphal arches of ancient rome, and reminds viewers that the Dutch had overthrown their Spanish conquerors and were now free people
      • city wall is pierced by an arch
    • Remembrandt perfected the technique of etching and mainpulating light and dark

13

  • title:
    • Self-Portrait as Saint Paul 
  • artist:
    • Rembrandt van Rijn
  • date/period:
    • 1661
  • country:
    • Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • now older and sadder figure (age 55)
      • no longer prosperous artist, confident in his future
    • he is now "Saint Paul", after several personal tragedies

14

  • title:
    • The Laughing Cavalier
  • artist:
    • Frans Hals
  • date/period:
    • 1624
  • country:
    • London
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • artists portraits typically convery a sense of exuberance- is enhanced through pose, character, and proximity
    • Hals is known primarily for his individual and group portraits- did not have a wide range of subject matter

15

  • title:
    • The Last Drop (The Gay Cavalier)
  • artist:
    • Judith Leyster
  • date/period:
    • 1628-1629
  • country:
    • Northern Europe
    • Philadelphia Museum of Art
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • iconography represents the popularity of drinking, carousing, and smoking in the Dutch Republic
    • skeleton and hourglass represent the passage of time and inevitability of death

16

  • title:
    • The Geographer
  • artist:
    • Jan Vermeer
  • date/period:
    • 1668
  • country:
    • Germany
    • Baroque painting
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
  • context:
    • reflects the Dutch's interest in exploration and science, and the artist's depiction of interiors
    • today the artists paintings are viewed as some of the most highly valued in the world, when they were neglected by critics after his death

17

  • title:
    • View of Delft
  • artist:
    • Jan Vermeer
  • date/period:
    • 1660-61
  • country:
    • Netherlands
    • Northern Europe
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque
  • context:
    • example of Dutch's taste for landscape
    • artist created a glowing, textured surface motion that was new in Western European art

18

  • title:
    • Vanitas Still Life
  • artist:
    • Maria van Oosterwyck
  • date/period:
    • 1668
  • country:
    • Austria
    • Northern Europe
    • Kunsthistorisches Museum
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • each element of painting contains a warning against folly 

19

  • title:
    • Saint Serapion
  • artist:
    • Francesco de Zurbaran
  • date/period:
    • 1628
  • country:
    • Northern Europe
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • represents the impact of death and suffering on behalf of the Christian faith
    • Serapion belonged to the Spanish Order of Mercedarians, dedicated to rescuing Christians captured by the Moors
      • when he agreed, martyrd to die in a place of Christian prisoners

20

  • title:
    • Venus with a Mirror (aka Rokeby Venus)
  • artist:
    • Diego Velazquez
  • date/period:
    • 1648
  • country:
    • London, England
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas 
    • baroque painting
  • context:
    • designed for a private patron
    • rarity of the female during the time of this painting makes is all the more unusual (anti-humanist Counter-Reformation)
    • reflects the influence of reclining Venuses by  Giorgione and Titan- who the artist studied in italy 

21

  • title:
    • Las Meninas
  • artist:
    • Diego Velazquez
  • date/period:
    • 1656
  • country:
    • Madrid, Spain
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
  • context:
    • tribute to the artist's genius as a painter and the very art of paining 
    • contains quite a bit of symbolism

22

  • title:
    • Pilgrimage to Cythera
  • artist:
    • Antoine Watteau
  • date/period:
    • 1717
  • country:
    • Paris, France
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • rococo style
  • context:
    • depicts a group of amorous couples who have journeyed to the island of Venus
    • symbolism throughout painting love and fertility as well as of the Classical tradition

23

  • title:
    • The Swing
  • artist:
    • Jean-Honore Fragonard
  • date/period:
    • 1766
  • country:
    • London, England
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
  • context:
    • depicts an enclosed yet open garden, where amorous games are played
      • man underneath swing looking up dress, old couple pushing swing
    • commissioned by Baron de Saint-Julien

24

  • title:
    • Self Portrait with Two Pupils
  • artist:
    • Adelaide Labille-Guiard
  • date/period:
    • 1785
  • country:
    • Metropolitan Musem of Art, New York
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • rococo
  • context:
    • contains a serious message about the role of women artists
    • artist helped to improve the position of women in the arts, and succeeded in having the four places reserved for women at the French Academy of Painting and Sculptures expanded

25

  • title:
    • Marie Antoinette and Her Children
  • artist:
    • Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun
  • date/period:
    • 1788
  • country:
    • France
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • rococo
  • context:
    • emphasize the queens wealth and position as well as her ease with motherhood
    • boy in the picture pulls aside the crib and reveals an empty bed, implying the death of one of her children
    • depicts the Austrian-born queen of France in a regal setting, oblivious to the political, social, and economic among her subjects that would arise in the French Revolution

26

  • title:
    • Pipe and Jug
  • artist:
    • Jean-Baptiste Chardin
  • date/period:
    •  
  • country:
    • Paris, France
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • rococo
  • context:
    • eliminates human figures while assuring the observor of their presence
      • objects arranged in a way that implies the person may be back any minute

27

  • title:
    • Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan
  • artist:
    • Thomas Gainsborough
  • date/period:
    • 1785-87
  • country:
    • France
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • rococo
  • context:
    • good example of French Rococo
      • self conscious pose and gazes out of the picture plane
      • shiny, silky textures of dress
      • garden settings and trees
    • Mrs. Sheridan is enclosed by nature and distinct from it. She is:
      • sedate
      • aristocratic
      • surrounded by landscape as orderly and controlled as herself

28

  • title:
    • Marriage a la Mode II
  • artist:
    • William Hogarth
  • date/period:
    • 1743
  • country:
    • London, England
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • rococo
  • context:
    • one of a series of six paintings
    • satirizes the dangers of sexual excess

29

  • title:
    • Oath of the Horatii
  • artist:
    • Jacques-Louis David
  • date/period:
    • 1785
  • country:
    • Paris, France
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • neoclassical style
  • context:
    • illustrates an event from Roman tradition in which honor and self-sacrifice prevailed 
    • commissioned by Louis XVI as a part of a program aimed at the moral improvement of France

30

  • title:
    • Death of Marat
  • artist:
    • Jacques-Louis David
  • date/period:
    • 1793
  • country:
    • Brussels, Belgium
  • medium:
    • oil on canvas
    • neoclassicism style
  • context:
    • commissioned during the Reign of Terror
    • related to the Chirstian images of the dead Christ
    • represents intellectual and political enlightenment