Test 2, 16. cells, molecules, systems analysis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2, 16. cells, molecules, systems analysis Deck (17):

What is significant about the human genome?

1. consists of 26,000 genes
2. 1.5% of entire genome sequence is active participation


What are restriction endonucleases?

1. enzymes that cut DNA at specific sequences


What is HaeIII?

1. restriction endonuclease
2. cleaves in between GC, forming no overhang


What is EcoRI?

1. restriction endonuclease
2. cleaves between GA, overhang produced


What is HindIII?

1. restriciton endonuclease
2. cleaves between AA, forms overhang


Agarose gel is used to analyze DNA but differs from SDS-PAGE, how?

1. requires endonucleases
2. does not require chemical to charge DNA. (already negative charge)
3. separates based on size, due to endonuclease cleavage activity


Which type of process is easier for DNA ligase to fix:
region that was cut by the same endonuclease, or a region that was cleaved by two different types?

1. region cleaved by same endonuclease; fewer steps needed to join as they already have proper overhang sequence


What function do plasmids have?

1. carry manipulated gene products
2. replicate manipulated gene products


What is a cDNA clone?

1. the DNA copy of mRNA
2. not include introns
3. requires viral enzyme reverse transcriptase


What is the major difference between genomic library and cDNA libray?

1. genomic library has different pieces of DNA attached to the specific gene of interest
2. cDNA only contains the gene fragments (more exact, less junk)


What is FISH?

1. fluorescent in situ hybridization
2. analyzes the presence and location of genes.
3. light = gene present
4. no light= no gene present


What are primers?

1. replication start points
2. complementary to some portion of ssDNA


What is polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?

1. used to create more DNA strands.
2. use heat to separate two strands, and allow cooling to anneal primers and other factors that will replicate the DNA


What are short tandem repeats?

1. small DNA units that are modified over time but not expressed in the gene
2. can be passed to progeny
3. variable from maternal/paternal inheritance


What can PCR be used to detect?

1. alteration in gene expression or presence of foreign DNA


How much difference is in two different human genomes?

1 in 1,000 nucleotide differences


How are microarrays used in research?

1. two strands are hybridized and undergo H bonding.
2. the stronger the interaction the more intense the coloring to indicate the reaction.
3. they detect specific nucleotide sequences