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Flashcards in Test Unit 1 Deck (12):
1

What is a gene?

an element that contains information that determines characteristics of a species

2

What is a genome?

the complete set of information that must be replicated and passed to daughter cells.
- 22 autosomal and 2 sex chromosomes

3

What are two different ways to process and evaluate karyotypes?

-geimsa stain
- whole chromosome painting

4

What is geimsa stain and what are its pros/cons?

This staining process looks at the bands in the chromosome. Is beneficial for evaluating large translocations or defects, but not for detail.

5

What is chromosome painting?

Each chromosome is stained a different color.
-easy to establish karyotype
-easy to establish any type or translocation

6

True/ False
All of our DNA is to make proteins

False.
only the exons which make up 1.5% of the DNA strand is actually used to make the proteins we need

7

What three components are required for a chromosome to be "functional"?

1. DNA replication origin
2. Centromere
3. Telomere

8

What are the three levels of DNA packing we have discussed?

1. chromatin
2. nucleosome
3. 30nm chain (thread)

9

What is chromatin consistent of?

-formed by DNA and proteins, that are either histones or non histones
-first step of DNA folding

10

What is a nucleosome?

this is a histone structure that has DNA strand wound around it.
considered the most basic packing unit

11

What is histone H1?

this is a linker histone that attaches to the protein and the DNA strand. It reduces the entrance and exit angle of the strand in relation to the protein, forming a more condensed package.

12

What are chromatin remodeling complexes used for?

-these complexes are ATP dependent and work to loosen the DNA strand when it is bound to a histone. When loosened the DNA is able to slide and move along the histone, changing the amount or section of DNA that is in the linker section.