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Flashcards in Test Unit 1 Deck (12):

What is a gene?

an element that contains information that determines characteristics of a species


What is a genome?

the complete set of information that must be replicated and passed to daughter cells.
- 22 autosomal and 2 sex chromosomes


What are two different ways to process and evaluate karyotypes?

-geimsa stain
- whole chromosome painting


What is geimsa stain and what are its pros/cons?

This staining process looks at the bands in the chromosome. Is beneficial for evaluating large translocations or defects, but not for detail.


What is chromosome painting?

Each chromosome is stained a different color.
-easy to establish karyotype
-easy to establish any type or translocation


True/ False
All of our DNA is to make proteins

only the exons which make up 1.5% of the DNA strand is actually used to make the proteins we need


What three components are required for a chromosome to be "functional"?

1. DNA replication origin
2. Centromere
3. Telomere


What are the three levels of DNA packing we have discussed?

1. chromatin
2. nucleosome
3. 30nm chain (thread)


What is chromatin consistent of?

-formed by DNA and proteins, that are either histones or non histones
-first step of DNA folding


What is a nucleosome?

this is a histone structure that has DNA strand wound around it.
considered the most basic packing unit


What is histone H1?

this is a linker histone that attaches to the protein and the DNA strand. It reduces the entrance and exit angle of the strand in relation to the protein, forming a more condensed package.


What are chromatin remodeling complexes used for?

-these complexes are ATP dependent and work to loosen the DNA strand when it is bound to a histone. When loosened the DNA is able to slide and move along the histone, changing the amount or section of DNA that is in the linker section.