Flashcards in Test Unit 1 Deck (12):
What is a gene?
an element that contains information that determines characteristics of a species
What is a genome?
the complete set of information that must be replicated and passed to daughter cells.
- 22 autosomal and 2 sex chromosomes
What are two different ways to process and evaluate karyotypes?
- whole chromosome painting
What is geimsa stain and what are its pros/cons?
This staining process looks at the bands in the chromosome. Is beneficial for evaluating large translocations or defects, but not for detail.
What is chromosome painting?
Each chromosome is stained a different color.
-easy to establish karyotype
-easy to establish any type or translocation
All of our DNA is to make proteins
only the exons which make up 1.5% of the DNA strand is actually used to make the proteins we need
What three components are required for a chromosome to be "functional"?
1. DNA replication origin
What are the three levels of DNA packing we have discussed?
3. 30nm chain (thread)
What is chromatin consistent of?
-formed by DNA and proteins, that are either histones or non histones
-first step of DNA folding
What is a nucleosome?
this is a histone structure that has DNA strand wound around it.
considered the most basic packing unit
What is histone H1?
this is a linker histone that attaches to the protein and the DNA strand. It reduces the entrance and exit angle of the strand in relation to the protein, forming a more condensed package.