Tetracyclines, Macrolides, And Other Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Tetracyclines, Macrolides, And Other Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Deck (28):
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Mention 4 main tetracyclines.

1. Tetracycline
2. Doxycycline
3. Minocycline
4. Tigecycline

1

What is the mechanism of action of tetracyclines?

1. Bind to 30S ribosomal subunit.
2. Bacteriostatic - tigecycline has broadest spectrum and resistance is less common.

2

What is the clinical use of tetracyclines?

Infections due to:
1. Chlamydiae
2. Mycoplasma
3. Rickettsiae
4. Spirochetes
5. H.pylori
6. Low dose for Tx of acne

3

What are the pharmacokinetics of tetracyclines?

1. Orally or IV
2. Renal and biliary clearance
3. Doxycycline --> Mainly GI elimination and long half-life

4

What are the toxicities of tetracyclines?

1. GI upsets
2. Deposition in developing bones and teeth
3. Photosensitivity
4. Superinfection

5

Mention 5 macrolides.

1. Erythromycin
2. Azithromycin
3. Clarithromycin
4. Telithromycin
5. Fidaxomicin

6

What is the mechanism of action of macrolides?

1. Bind to 50S ribosomal subunit.
2. Bacteriostatic
3. Least resistance to telithromycin

7

What is the clinical use of macrolides?

1. Community-acquired pneumonia
2. Pertussis
3. Corynebacteria
4. Chlamydial infections

8

What are the pharmacokinetics of macrolides?

1. Oral administration
2. IV for erythromycin/azithromycin.
3. Hepatic clearance
4. Azithromycin --> long half-life (>40h)

9

What are the toxicities of the macrolides?

1. GI upsets
2. Hepatic dysfunction
3. QT elongation
4. CYP450 inhibition (not azithromycin)

10

What is the prototype lincosamide?

Clindamycin

11

What is the mechanism of action of clindamycin?

1. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit.
2. Bacteriostatic

12

What is the clinical use of clindamycin?

1. Skin
2. Soft tissue
3. Anaerobic infections

13

What are the pharmacokinetics of clindamycin?

1. Orally or IV
2. Hepatic clearance

14

What are the toxicities of clindamycin?

1. GI upsets
2. C.difficile colitis

15

Mention 2 main streptogramins.

1. Quinupristin
2. Dalfopristin
Used in combination.

16

What is the mechanism of action of streptogramins?

1. Bind to 50S ribosomal subunit.
2. Bactericidal

17

What is the clinical use of streptogramins?

1. Staphylococcal infections
2. VRE. faecium

18

What are the pharmacokinetics of streptogramins?

IV administration and renal clearance.

19

What are the toxicities of streptogramins?

1. Infusion related arthalgia and myalgia.
2. CYP450 inhibition

20

What is the mechanism of action of chloramphenicol?

1. Binds to 50S ribosomal subunit.
2. Bacteriostatic

21

What is the clinical use of chloramphenicol?

Wide spectrum, but mainly back-up.

22

What are the pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol?

1. Orally or IV
2. Hepatic clearance - short half-life.

23

What are the toxicities of chloramphenicol?

1. Dose-related anemia
2. Gray baby syndrome

24

What is the mechanism of action of linezolid?

Binds to 23S RNA of 50S subunit - bacteriostatic.

25

What is the clinical use of linezolid?

1. MRSA
2. PRSP
3. VRE

26

What are the pharmacokinetics of linezolid?

1. Orally or IV
2. Hepatic clearance

27

What are the toxicities of linezolid?

1. Dose-related anemia
2. Neuropathy
3. Optic neuritis
4. Serotonin syndrome with SSRIs

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