Flashcards in Texts and Translations Deck (27)
Define variant reading.
Variant readings are copies of the text with transmission errors and changes.
What languages was the Old Testament written in?
Primarily Hebrew with some Aramaic
How many books are in the Protestant canon?
What does Ketubim stand for?
Define original autograph.
This is the original copy of the text by the author. None of these survive today.
Who were the Masoretes?
A group of Jewish scribes who added vowel points and punctuation marks to the Old Testament.
What does Torah stand for and which books does it encompass?
Law - Genesis through Deuteronomy (Pentateuch)
What has textual criticism shown?
It shows that very little of importance to the meaning of the text was changed over the hundreds of years of copying.
Define Samaritan Pentateuch.
A translation of the first five books of the Old Testament into Samaritan from the 5th-4th centuries BC.
Aramaic was the "lingua franca" (common language) of the Persian era. It is very similar to Hebrew.
What is textual criticism?
Textual criticism takes the copies from all the variants and translated languages and creates a tree to try to get back to the original autograph.
What is the Tanak?
The Tanak is Hebrew canon, separated into Torah, Nebiim, and Ketubim.
What are Hebrew and Aramaic like in contrast to English?
- Alphabetic (syllables stand for a sound)
- Originally lacked vowels
- Read right to left
- Verb tense stresses whether actions are complete rather than focusing on time
Define the Targums.
These were pre-Christian paraphrases of the Old Testament written in Aramaic.
What does Nebiim stand for?
Define the Masoretic text.
This is the name for the Hebrew language version of the Old Testament.
What is the symbol for the Septuagint?
Define textual criticism.
Textual criticism examines all the variants of Scripture and creates a tree to try to derive the text of the original autograph.
Approximately from when to when did the Masoretes exist?
From 500 to 900 AD.
How is the Protestant canon arranged?
- Pentateuch (same as Torah)
- Historical books in order they happened
- Poetry and wisdom
Define the Vulgate.
A translation of the Old Testament into Latin by Jerome in the 4th and 5th centuries AD.
Where was the Samaritan Pentateuch used?
In the northern part of former Israel.
A translation of the Old Testament text from Hebrew into Greek around 250 BC.
Rather than emphasizing time like English, what does Hebrew tend to emphasize?
Where an action has completed yet or not.
How many books are in the Hebrew canon?
How is the Hebrew canon different from Protestant?
- Lots of consolidation
- 12 minor prophets combined
- Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah not separated
- Different ordering
- Poetry and wisdom in Ketuvim