The kidneys structure and function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The kidneys structure and function Deck (33):
1

List some functions of the kidney

Water balance
Salt balance
Plasma volume
Plasma osmolarity
Excretion of endogenous waste products
Excretion of exogenous waste products
Acid-base balance
Long term regulation of blood pressure
Red blood cell production
Activation of vitamin D

2

Urea, bilirubin and uric acid are breakdown products of what respectively?

Urea - protein
Bilirubin - haemoglobin
Uric acid - purines

3

Erythropoetin is released in response to what? How does it manage this?

Hypoxia
Stimulation of red blood cell production

4

What effect does calcitriol have on the GI tract?

Stimulates calcium absorption

5

Vitamin D undergoes metabolism by two organs, name these

Liver
Kidney

6

What is the kidneys primary function?

To regulate the volume, composition and osmolarity of the extracellular fluid

7

What is the balance concept of homeostasis?

Input must match output

8

List all components of the renal system

Kidneys
Ureters
Bladder
Urethra

9

Describe the macrostructure of the kidney

Renal capsule
Renal cortex
Renal medulla
Medullary pyramids
Renal columns
Minor calyx
Major calyx
Renal pelvis
Renal hilum (artery, vein, ureter)

10

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

Nephron

11

What three processes does the nephron carry out?

Glomerular filtration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion

12

What are the two types of kidney nephron and which is the most numerous?

Juxtamedullary
Cortical (most common)

13

Describe the changes in vasculature over the course of the nephron

Renal artery >
Afferent arteriole >
Glomerulus >
Efferent arteriole >
Peritubular capillaries >
Venule >
Renal vein

14

The collecting duct receives urinary filtrate from many different nephrons. T/F

True

15

How do the descending and ascending limbs of the loop of henle differ in diameter?

Descending limb - thin
Ascending limb - thick

16

When is the tubular fluid termed urine? Why?

After it leaves the collecting ducts
It is no longer modified after leaving the collecting ducts

17

Describe the differences between the two nephron types

Juxtaglomerullary - long loop of Henle, vasa recta
Cortical - short loop of Henle, peritubular capillaries

18

What is the role of juxtaglomerullary nephrons?

Producing concentrated urine

19

The diameter of the efferent arteriole leaving the glomerulus is larger than that of the afferent arteriole. T/F

False - the diameter of the afferent arteriole is larger

20

What forms filtration slits?

Podocytes

21

What are the cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? What are their respective functions

Macula densa - senses ionic concentration of filtrate
Lacis cells - unknown
Granular/juxtaglomerular cells - secretes renin

22

What is urine?

Modified filtrate of the blood

23

Around which fraction of the total cardiac output do the kidney receive?

1/4 (i.e they have a rich blood supply)

24

What two components of plasma should the urinary filtrate not contain?

RBC
Large proteins

25

Write the equation for calculating rate of filtration (for a freely filterable substance)

Rate of filtration = plasma concentration x GFR

26

What is the average GFR of a healthy adult?

125ml/min

27

What effect should increased plasma concentration have on GFR?

Increase
(and vice versa)

28

Write the equation for calculating rate of excretion

Rate of excretion = urine concentration x urine flow rate

29

The rate of excretion changes dramatically depending on hydration status. T/F

True

30

How do we know a substance has been reabsorbed? Write the equation for calculating rate of reabsorption

Rate of filtration > rate of excretion
Rate of reabsorption = rate of filtration - rate of excretion

31

How do we know when a substance has been secreted? Write the equation for calculating rate of secretion

Rate of excretion > rate of filtration
Rate of secretion = rate of excretion - rate of filtration

32

The rates of reabsorption and secretion reflect tubular modification. T/F

True

33

What is important to convert when preforming these calculations?

The units (must always be litres per minute)

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