Flashcards in The Middle Ages Deck (90):
Someone who dedicates themselves to God by separating themselves from normal society
The name used for Charlemagne's Empire
Medieval social and political system, national governments could no longer defend their subjects, so nobles/aristocrats offered protection in return for land and service from peasants
The leader of the Roman Catholic Church (Western Christian)
People who try to spread their religion
Religious ceremonies (baptism, confession, etc.)
After Charlemagne was crowned -------------- in --- AD, Church and the state often fought over -----
Holy Roman Emperor
The Church had its own ------ and often functioned as a ------ during the Middle Ages
The Church united people during ----- (plagues, barbarian, invasions, bad harvests)
No matter the circumstances, all people could follow the same path to -------
Performed by priests which helped people on their journey to salvation
Everyone was subjected to -------(-----) in matters such as ----- or --------
Law of the church
You don't get sacraments (so, Hell)
The sacraments could not be performed in the offenders kingdom which means the people in the kingdom could not earn salvation
A man who served his lord in a military capacity
Heavily armored cavalry; a class of warriors in medieval Europe
The land a lord gives to a vassal
The set of unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and a vassal
An ideal code of behavior for knights
Over time, the church began to resent -----------
Ceremony where kings appointed church officials
Clergy dislikes ------- (big shock)
-------- banned the lay investiture in 1075
Pope Gregory VII
German Emperor ------- called the Pope out and was ------------; he then lost his support from the -------- in Germany and had to beg the pope for ---------
In ---- the representatives of the ------ and the ------------ met to decide what to so about the ----------
Holy Roman Empire
Concordat of Worms
Only the church can appoint bishops but the Holy Roman Emperor had veto power
Another important role of the church:
HUMAN XEROX MACHINES
And preservers of knowledge
Greek, Roman, and Medieval books survive because...
Monks copied them down
In Feudalism, punishment for the crime was based less on the ----- than on the -------- of the victim
Benefits granted a vassal under feudalism
Political power over land
Lords took care of them
Vassal's primary obligation to his lord
Perform military service 40 days a year
Make payments on certain occasion
Provide ransom if The Lord is captured
What factors helped feudalism develop in Western Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries?
Invasions: Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims
Centralized governments get weaker (invasions make it worse)
Central gov. can't help? People turn to local lords who can
Why did cities such as Venice flourish as a result of the Crusades?
Crusaders establish 4 kingdoms in Holy Land, need supplies, and Venice provides, Italian cities profit
Warriors/knights of Western Europe (France), motivated by religion
Crusaders capture Antioch, Jerusalem; Italian merchants start to get rich; four crusader states are organized
Knights/warriors, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, King Louis VII of France, Emperor Conrad III of Germany
Failed attempt to help the Crusader states fight Muslim armies
Knights/warriors, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard of England, Philip II Augustus of France
Richard made a settlement with Saladin so that Christians could have free access to Jerusalem; coastal cities
Feudalism social structure
Feudalism: centralized or not?
Center of life in the average medieval village
Name the modern day countries that were included in Charlemagne's empire
Not since the ------------ has so much of the continent been under the command of one man
Fall of Rome
Charlemagne launched more than ----- military campaigns on his lifetime. He is at war most of the time
What happened to people who refused to be a Christian in Charlemagne's kingdom?
The people were executed (death penalty)
What move did Charlemagne make that was similar to the Tang empire's, or Prince Shotoku's, reforms?
Divides his empire into territories/counties and has counts (governors) appointed
What evidence is there of equality in Charlemagne's policies regarding education?
Schools were free; regardless of class you go to school
What did Charlemagne try to learn to do that was so surprising?
How to read and write
What event officially made Charlemagne "emperor of the West?"
The pope crowns him emperor of the Roman Empire
A series of religious wars fought by European Christians to control the Holy Land (modern day Israel/Syria/Palestine)
Fought between Western Christians and Muslims
"God wills it"--that's what the crowd shouted when Pope Urban II announced the Crusades
The Byzantine emperor asked to help against invading Muslims
Won back the area where Christ lived and worked
Indulgences! Go on Crusade and you'll be free of afterlife penalties for confessed sins
Also? Crusaders were freed of debts and lawsuits
A court run by the church. Their job was to find heretics. The Inquisition demonstrates the church's power, and their desire to stop heresy. Punishments ranged from flogging (whipping) to execution
An agricultural estate run by a lord, worked on/in by peasants
Peasants that were legally bound to the land (about 60% of Europe's population)
The opposite of a barter system; an economy based on money
An economic system where people invest to make a profit; a system of rational self intrest
Years of the Black Death
Where did the plague start?
How does the Black Death spread?
Cure for the Black Death?
How many people die of the Black Death in Europe?
Whipped themselves b/c they thought the plague was a punishment from God and they hit themselves as a punishment
What is the Black Death?
A massive plague. The biggest natural disaster in European histrory. The Bubonic plague was the Black Death's most common form
Effects of the Black Death?
Decline in trade (fewer workers b/c so many are dead)
Higher cost of labor (fewer workers, so they cost more to hire), more work opportunities) for women
HUGE population decrease
How did the Pax Mongolica make it easier for the Black Death to spread?
Plague spread by trade routes, so the Pax Mongolica allowed for death and chaos of the plague. The central Asian trade routes guarded by the Mongols largely close down as a result of the plague
Medieval Europe is
From ___-___, more opportunities for women thanks to ------- and ---------
By the ----- there were fewer opportunities for women
The church offered opportunities for women in a ------
**meant freedom from a patriarchal world
The Late Middle Ages
Characterized by war and the Black Death
Important military innovation in England
Rich/high on the social ladder
Tended to be peasants/ farmers
Could a longbow pierce armor?
Does it take a great deal of strength to pull back the arrow?
Range of the longbow
Up to 900 feet
The Hundred Years' War
Why did the Hundred Years' War start?
Struggles between French and English royal families I've who would rule either country
Conflicts over territory, trade
The church was a
Unifying force in the Early and High Middle Ages
By the late Middle Ages...
The Church is losing its power
People trust it less
One big reason for the decrease in the church influences is the "Babylonian" ----------- (1305-1375) which isn't Babylonian
In 1303, ----------------- kidnaps the pope from Rome and puts him in -----------.
When that pope dies, ------------
The French Philip IV
Philip appoints his own pope
After Philip appoints his own pope, it makes the pope seem like he is working for ---------, rather than God and the church's followers
The King of France
In 1378, the Pope moves back to Rome, but some of the people in the Avignon -------------
Appoint their own pope
When The Avignon appointed their own pope, this is called the..
Second Great Schism and it goes on until 1414 when the Avignon papacy shuts down, and the Roman pope, again is in charge
Early Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
The Hundred Years War: Battles
England had early victories
The French eventually expelled the British from mainland Europe
English military innovation: the archer and the longbow