The Middle Ages Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Middle Ages Deck (90):
1

Clovis

Christianity

Frankish kingdom

2

Charlemagne

Christianity

Carolingian empire
Roman Emperor

3

Monk

Someone who dedicates themselves to God by separating themselves from normal society

4

Nuns

Lady monks

5

Carolingian

The name used for Charlemagne's Empire

6

Feudalism

Medieval social and political system, national governments could no longer defend their subjects, so nobles/aristocrats offered protection in return for land and service from peasants

7

Pope

The leader of the Roman Catholic Church (Western Christian)

8

Missionaries

People who try to spread their religion

9

Sacraments

Religious ceremonies (baptism, confession, etc.)

10

After Charlemagne was crowned -------------- in --- AD, Church and the state often fought over -----

Holy Roman Emperor
800
Power

11

The Church had its own ------ and often functioned as a ------ during the Middle Ages

Hierarchy
Government

12

The Church united people during ----- (plagues, barbarian, invasions, bad harvests)

Crises

13

No matter the circumstances, all people could follow the same path to -------

Salvation

14

Sacraments

Performed by priests which helped people on their journey to salvation

15

Everyone was subjected to -------(-----) in matters such as ----- or --------

Canon law
Law of the church
Marriage
Religious practices

16

Excommunication

You don't get sacraments (so, Hell)

17

Interdict

The sacraments could not be performed in the offenders kingdom which means the people in the kingdom could not earn salvation

18

Vassal

A man who served his lord in a military capacity

19

Knight

Heavily armored cavalry; a class of warriors in medieval Europe

20

Fief

The land a lord gives to a vassal

21

Feudal contract

The set of unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and a vassal

22

Chivalry

An ideal code of behavior for knights

23

Over time, the church began to resent -----------

Powerful kings

24

Lay investiture

Ceremony where kings appointed church officials

25

Clergy dislikes ------- (big shock)

Lay investiture

26

-------- banned the lay investiture in 1075

Pope Gregory VII

27

German Emperor ------- called the Pope out and was ------------; he then lost his support from the -------- in Germany and had to beg the pope for ---------

Henry IV
Excommunicated
Clergy
Forgiveness

28

In ---- the representatives of the ------ and the ------------ met to decide what to so about the ----------

1122
Church
Holy Roman Empire
Lay investiture

29

Concordat of Worms

Only the church can appoint bishops but the Holy Roman Emperor had veto power

30

Another important role of the church:

HUMAN XEROX MACHINES

And preservers of knowledge

31

Greek, Roman, and Medieval books survive because...

Monks copied them down

32

In Feudalism, punishment for the crime was based less on the ----- than on the -------- of the victim

Crime
Social rank

33

Benefits granted a vassal under feudalism

Land
Political power over land
Lords took care of them

34

Vassal's primary obligation to his lord

Perform military service 40 days a year

Give advice

Make payments on certain occasion

Provide ransom if The Lord is captured

35

What factors helped feudalism develop in Western Europe during the ninth and tenth centuries?

Invasions: Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims

Centralized governments get weaker (invasions make it worse)

Central gov. can't help? People turn to local lords who can

36

Why did cities such as Venice flourish as a result of the Crusades?

Crusaders establish 4 kingdoms in Holy Land, need supplies, and Venice provides, Italian cities profit

37

First Crusade

Warriors/knights of Western Europe (France), motivated by religion

Crusaders capture Antioch, Jerusalem; Italian merchants start to get rich; four crusader states are organized

38

Second Crusade

Knights/warriors, Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, King Louis VII of France, Emperor Conrad III of Germany

Failed attempt to help the Crusader states fight Muslim armies

39

Third Crudsade

Knights/warriors, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard of England, Philip II Augustus of France

Richard made a settlement with Saladin so that Christians could have free access to Jerusalem; coastal cities

40

Feudalism social structure

Pope/Church
Monarch
Nobles
Knights/Vassals
Merchants/farmers/Craftsmen
Peasants/Serfs

41

Feudalism: centralized or not?

Decentralized

42

Center of life in the average medieval village

Church/parish

43

Name the modern day countries that were included in Charlemagne's empire

France
Germany
Polland
Italy
Switzerland
Czech. Rep.
Austria

44

Not since the ------------ has so much of the continent been under the command of one man

Fall of Rome

45

Charlemagne launched more than ----- military campaigns on his lifetime. He is at war most of the time

50

46

What happened to people who refused to be a Christian in Charlemagne's kingdom?

The people were executed (death penalty)

47

What move did Charlemagne make that was similar to the Tang empire's, or Prince Shotoku's, reforms?

Divides his empire into territories/counties and has counts (governors) appointed

48

What evidence is there of equality in Charlemagne's policies regarding education?

Schools were free; regardless of class you go to school

49

What did Charlemagne try to learn to do that was so surprising?

How to read and write

50

What event officially made Charlemagne "emperor of the West?"

The pope crowns him emperor of the Roman Empire

51

Crusades

A series of religious wars fought by European Christians to control the Holy Land (modern day Israel/Syria/Palestine)

Fought between Western Christians and Muslims

52

Crusades motivations

"God wills it"--that's what the crowd shouted when Pope Urban II announced the Crusades

The Byzantine emperor asked to help against invading Muslims

Won back the area where Christ lived and worked

Indulgences! Go on Crusade and you'll be free of afterlife penalties for confessed sins

Also? Crusaders were freed of debts and lawsuits

53

Inquisition

A court run by the church. Their job was to find heretics. The Inquisition demonstrates the church's power, and their desire to stop heresy. Punishments ranged from flogging (whipping) to execution

54

Manor

An agricultural estate run by a lord, worked on/in by peasants

55

Serfs

Peasants that were legally bound to the land (about 60% of Europe's population)

56

Money economy

The opposite of a barter system; an economy based on money

57

Commercial capitalism

An economic system where people invest to make a profit; a system of rational self intrest

58

Years of the Black Death

1330--1350

59

Where did the plague start?

China

60

How does the Black Death spread?

Trade routes
Fleas
Rats

61

Cure for the Black Death?

No

62

How many people die of the Black Death in Europe?

1/3-1/2

63

Flagellants

Whipped themselves b/c they thought the plague was a punishment from God and they hit themselves as a punishment

64

What is the Black Death?

A massive plague. The biggest natural disaster in European histrory. The Bubonic plague was the Black Death's most common form

65

Effects of the Black Death?

Decline in trade (fewer workers b/c so many are dead)

Higher cost of labor (fewer workers, so they cost more to hire), more work opportunities) for women

HUGE population decrease

66

How did the Pax Mongolica make it easier for the Black Death to spread?

Plague spread by trade routes, so the Pax Mongolica allowed for death and chaos of the plague. The central Asian trade routes guarded by the Mongols largely close down as a result of the plague

67

Medieval Europe is

Patriarchal

68

From ___-___, more opportunities for women thanks to ------- and ---------

1000
1200
Urbanization
Economic growth

69

By the ----- there were fewer opportunities for women

1400s

70

The church offered opportunities for women in a ------

Nunnery

**meant freedom from a patriarchal world

71

The Late Middle Ages

1300-1500 AD

Characterized by war and the Black Death

72

Important military innovation in England

English longbow

73

Knights

Rich/high on the social ladder

74

Longbow men

Tended to be peasants/ farmers

75

Could a longbow pierce armor?

Yes

76

Does it take a great deal of strength to pull back the arrow?

Yes

77

Range of the longbow

Up to 900 feet

78

The Hundred Years' War

1337-1453

79

Why did the Hundred Years' War start?

Struggles between French and English royal families I've who would rule either country

Conflicts over territory, trade

80

The church was a

Unifying force in the Early and High Middle Ages

81

By the late Middle Ages...

The Church is losing its power

People trust it less

82

One big reason for the decrease in the church influences is the "Babylonian" ----------- (1305-1375) which isn't Babylonian

Captivity

83

In 1303, ----------------- kidnaps the pope from Rome and puts him in -----------.
When that pope dies, ------------

The French Philip IV
Avignon, France
Philip appoints his own pope

84

After Philip appoints his own pope, it makes the pope seem like he is working for ---------, rather than God and the church's followers

The King of France

85

In 1378, the Pope moves back to Rome, but some of the people in the Avignon -------------

Appoint their own pope

86

When The Avignon appointed their own pope, this is called the..

Second Great Schism and it goes on until 1414 when the Avignon papacy shuts down, and the Roman pope, again is in charge

87

Early Middle Ages

500-1000 AD

88

High Middle Ages

1000-1300 AD

89

The Hundred Years War: Battles

England had early victories

The French eventually expelled the British from mainland Europe

English military innovation: the archer and the longbow

90

What significance did Charlemagne's coronation as Roman emperor have to do with the development of European civilization?

This demonstrated the strength of the idea of enduring the Roman Empire. This also showed the coming together of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements