Flashcards in The Old Order Challenged:From Repression To Reform Deck (62)
Situation before 1832: The government saw their job as
They were not involved in -providing education-providing health services - or deal with poverty, unemployment or housing
Situation before 1832: Crown's influence
Crown selected ministers of state -massive influence on government policies
Situation before 1832: how many MPs owed their seat in commons to influence of aristocracy?
Situation before 1832: counties and boroughs
All counties regardless of size sent two MPs to commonsAll boroughs also sent two MPs
Example of rotten borough
Old Sarum had been important to Normans in 14th century. So it remained a borough. It had 11 voters and still sent two MPs to commons.
Situation before 1832: Franchise
Had to be maleIn counties- had to own freehold property worth at least £2 a yearIn boroughs - varied greatly since it depended on the customs of the borough
Situation before 1832: elections
Meant to happen every 7 yearsAlthough many didn't bother because There was only 1 candidate to choose And in pocket boroughs the vote was controlled by wealthy landowner
Situation before 1832: how many counties/ boroughs actually had general elections
11 counties and 82 boroughs
Situation before 1832: elections 2
Candidate hosted parties and banquetsCandidate paid for everythingNo secret ballot, voting done on Hustings, also poll book was made public
Early reform movements:Spa fields
1816- textile workers hosted v. large meeting in manchester. Lead by Henry Hunt and called for parliamentary reform (nationalise land and abolish all taxes except income tax).Part of crowd rioted and many were arrestedGovernment suspends Habeaus Corpus Act.
Early reform movements: Blanketeers
1817 - unemployed weavers planned a march from Manchester to London to present a petition that called for parliamentary reform and for restoration of Habeaus corpus act.Failed, marchers were arrested and thrown into prison without trial.
Early reform movements:Peterloo
1819- many people gathered n Manchester to hear Henry Hunt speak about reform. Midway through his speech police decided it was kicking off and tried to arrest all the speakers. Resulted in a riot. Police had to call help of military. 11 dead and hundreds injured.
Early reform movements: Six Acts
Not a reform movement. But after Peterloo government were sick of people hosting mass meetings about reform. They made many laws which made legal peaceful protest pretty much impossible. Such as stamp duty and meeting for the purpose of a presentation were limited to inhabitants of the parish where it was hosted.
What also happened in 1830? (think Europe)What affect did this have?
French Revolution began. This heightened political interest and made politicians very nervous that something similar was going to happen in the UK.
Birmingham Political Union (BPU)
Founded in 1829 by Thomas Attwood. Caused lots of other political unions to start popping up all over the country.
What did the political unions do with the public opinion on reform?
They helped create it, focus it and keep it going. Not all unions wanted the same kind of reform. But they showed how the opinion could be expressed without breaking the law.
Why was there a general election in 1830?
There was a general election in 1830 because King George IV ( the monarch) had died.
General attitude to reform in 1830People, press and unions
People - many in union. However most wanted some kind of reform. Unions - nearly all wanted some kind of reformPress - most of the leading papers were in favour. They also helped report on MPs and parliamentary debates.
Attitudes of Whigs and Tories to reform in 1830?
Both wanted to preserve power and status of landowning classes. Both wanted to prevent revolution. Whigs recognised the best means of retaining these was to enact a substantial amount of reform. The Tories had not.
Tories won. Duke of Wellington in power.
Catholic Emancipation: situation
Catholics couldn't voteCatholics could not become MPs
Catholic Emancipation: David O'Connell
Started Catholic association in 1823 (was banned by parliament in 1825) Stood for a bi election (Clare County) in 1828 and won.Began to push for Catholic Emancipation
Catholic Emancipation: Wellington and Peel considering
For: Ireland might start a civil war if we don't give catholics the vote(we couldn't defend a civil war)Against: if we give them the chance to become MPs. Some of them will and they will push for Irish independence.
Catholic Emancipation: The bill
Catholic emancipation bill introduced into parliament in march 1829. Got through commons in 1 month.Was more difficult to get through lords (only made it by two votes).
Catholic Emancipation: the bill and king George's role
The monarch has to give his assent before the bill can be passed. King George delayed his assent and so the cabinet resigned. This meant that for a day the UK was without government.This forced the King to give in and recall wellington.
Catholic Emancipation results for tory party
It caused a big split. Liberal tories were already opposed to wellington over reform and the ultra Tories felt betrayed by their leader. The liberals began to support moves for reform to parliament.
Wellington's speech. 2nd November 1830
Defended the Parliamentary system (went against what all the political unions, press and majority of people were saying)
What had the Duke of Wellington hoped to accomplish with his speech on 2nd November 1830
He had hoped to rally his supporters (who were against reform)
What actually happened after Wellington's speech?
Drove commons into state of panic. The Tories who were nervous but still supported Wellington joined the Whigs. Tories now outnumbered in commons.