Flashcards in Landing in daylight? Party reform 1868-85 Deck (106):
What was the general influence of the 1867 Reform act on the Liberal and Conservative parties?
The liberals and the conservatives realised that they had to adopt new policies, attitudes and structures if they were to attract working class voters. But also ensure that their traditional voters remained loyal.
What was the liberal party like compared to a modern party?
It was more of a loose body of individuals with certain shared attitudes, united by a leader. (After 1867 it was Gladstone)
What three groups could members of the liberal party be divided into?
-Old traditional Whigs
-Middle of the road liberals
Describe old traditional Whigs?
-Their attitudes lay far to the right, but were open to reform provided its benefits could be demonstrated.
-They were large in the Lords but relatively small in the commons.
-However their influence outweighed their numbers as they held most key posts in all liberal ministries.
Describe the radical liberals?
-They were a relatively small group of the party to the far left of the party.
-They were committed to political, social and economic reform.
-The most important people in the radicals was the nonconformist manufacturing interest- men like John Bright, Samuel Morley, William Rathbone. These were backed by intellectual members like Henry Fawcett and John Stuart Mill.
Describe the Middle of the Road liberals?
-This was the vast bulk of the parliamentary party.
-They were made mainly by landowners, bankers and lawyers.
What were the three new areas of support for the Liberal Party?
-Skilled artisans and the trade union leaders
How did the liberal party get support from the newspapers?
The abolition of stamp and paper duties between 1855 and 1861 combined with the development in the railway, led to a huge growth in newspapers which were usually owned by men who supported the liberals. They used the newspapers to spread liberal views and opinions
Examples of newspaper owners with liberal party persuasion?
-Edward Baines and the Leeds chronicle
-Joseph Cowen and the Newcastle Chronicle
-Robert Leader and the Sheffield Independent
How did the Liberal party gain support from the nonconformists?
The liberals with their reformist tendencies had been far more sympathetic towards nonconformity. The nonconformists hated having to pay a church rate and objected to the Anglican domination of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and argued against the Anglican dominance of the school system. The nonconformists were growing hugely and more and more were being elected as MP's who brought with them support for nonconformity.
According to the 1851 religious census, what percentage of those3 going to church on a specific Sunday in that year went to a nonconformist chapel?
Where was nonconformity strongest?
In the North of England and in Wales
How many nonconformist MP's were elected in the 1865 election?
How did the liberal party gain support from skilled artisans and trade union leaders (the respectable working class)?
The newly enfranchised 'respectable' working class had strong reasons to support the liberal party. There was much to gain, economically, from supporting a party for reform, when the payback may be and improvement in their living conditions and working conditions. There was also an opportunity to combine against the traditional conservatives.
What was the Conservative party like in 1867?
It was a party who were alarmed with the prospect of having to appeal to a working class electorate
Who made up the Conservative party in 1867?
Despite the growing number of industrialists in the party nothing really changed in 1867. The party was mainly made up of the landowning class and the country gentry.
Of the 300 conservative MP's returned in the 1874 general election, how many had connections to the land?
What tensions were there in the Conservative party to do with the landed gentry?
-the landed gentry who made up the bull of the party tended to be suspicious of centralisation and opposed anything that challenged their traditional way of life
-social reform necessary to attract working class votes was not attractive to the landed gentry
What tensions were there with the middle class and the Conservative party?
Many middle class voters began to find the Conservative party more attractive. Therefore the party had to make sure that they found policies which wouldn't scare off the middle class but also attract the working class
What tensions were there with the Conservative party and Disraeli?
Disraeli wasn't a natural leader of the Conservative party. He was born a Jew and baptised as an Anglican. He had no bedrock support among he conservative landed gentry. His position as leader in the commons was by no means secure, he needed to be aware of this when passing any legislation
How did political parties gain support in try constituencies before 1867?
-very little structures party organisation in the constituencies and what there was tended to only spring to life when there was a general election
-treating was common
-central organisation was in the hands of the whips whose job was to ensure attendance, discipline and correct voting among party members . They also raised money for constituency work and found local candidates. However this was only done on responses rather than on basis
What major developments on how political parties gained support from constituencies were made after 1867?
-Both conservatives and liberals set up a central office in London and party organisation became efficient and centralised.
-local party organisations were set up across the country
How effective was Conservative party organisation before 1867?
In the 1860's the conservative party laced the ready support from the newly emerging forces in the constituencies that were enjoyed by the liberals.
What two questions arose from there 1867 reform act about how the conservative party should organise itself outside Westminster?
-Should the local organisations by "bottom up", arising from the needs of local communities and involving the middle and working classes to set them up and run them.
-Should the local organisations be "top down" ones, detected from Westminster.
Did the conservative party chose a "bottom up" or "top down" way of organising local organisations after 1867?
When was the Conservative central office set up?
In 1870 in London
Who was employed as the first conservative National Party Agent?
How successful was John Gorst?
He was very successful in establishing conservative associations in urban constituencies.
How many new conservative associations were founded by the end of 1873?
What was the total number of conservative associations by the end of 1873?
When was the Conservative National Union founded?
What was the aim of the conservative National Union?
The aim was to unite all existing local conservative working men's clubs under one umbrella organisation.
By 1871 how was the Conservative National Union run?
It was run from John Gorst's central office in London.
What was the main use of the Conservative National Union in 1871?
To distribute pamphlets, fliers and other forms of propaganda.
How did Disraeli use the Conservative National Union in 1872?
He used the Union's conferences as a platform from which he could make major policy speeches.
What was the role of Local conservative clubs and associations, like working men clubs, after 1867?
They became Moe or less politically active. There was a strong social aspect as well as a political one to these clubs. They had many outings and gatherings organised by members. Their opinion was of no real interest.
When was the Primrose League set up?
What was the aim of the Primrose League?
To promote the Conservative party and to support aspiring Conservative MP's
What was the Primrose League membership like?
It was very Hierarchical. There was one class of membership for the rich and another for the rest. However it did admit men and women on equal terms.
What was the role of women in local Primrose groups?
-Women were heavily involved in the social side. They would organise fêtes and garden parties and other fund-rasing events.
-On the political side they would deliver leaflets and help bring conservative voters to the polls on election days
Did the Primrose league campaign for Women's suffrage?
Although there were many women in the Primrose League and also many suffragettes, female suffrage was never a policy of the Primrose league.
What were the dangers of a "top down" approach to constituency organisation?
Party organisation could start to become run down.
What happened in 1875 to Gorst?
His contract as party agent came to an end.
What happened after Gorst's contract as party agent came to an end?
The party organisations were passed bark to the whips, who were more traditionalist and represented the aristocratic element in the party. The local organisations started to become run down.
What did Gorst do in 1880?
He was once again employed as party agent to restore the central committee. However with all his skill he was still unable to effectively counter the attempts of the Tory traditionalists to assert control.
What changes were made to Liberal Party Central organisation as a result of the 1867 reform act?
They made no great changes as a result of the 1867 reform act.
Who ran Liberal Party organisation?
The party whips
How successful were the Liberal Party whips?
They did a good work in building up links between local liberal organisations and the central party in Westminster.
Why was there a lack of change in how the liberal party was organised?
-It was partly because they had no one like John Gorst to take the role of party manager.
-It was mainly because the constituencies themselves took the lead in party organisation outside Westminster.
Was liberal party organisational change "bottom up" or "top down"
How many towns had local liberal associations by 1880's?
Every sizable town
What did the local liberal clubs and associations do?
They ran a wide range of social events like picnics and outings. It was meant to attract and retain middle and working class liberals.
What were the aims of local liberal clubs and associations?
-The aim was to support liberal MP's and potential liberal MP's to build up a solid support for liberal policies.
-Also the focus was on local elections like school board elections
What was the most famous and influential Liberal Association?
The Birmingham Caucus
What did Joseph Chamberlain do after 1867?
He worked out a system in Birmingham of persuading electors to vote according to advice and guidance provided by the local liberal organisations
How did Joseph Chamberlain develop his system of persuading voters to vote liberal?
He developed his technique and applied it to local and general elections.
How did Joseph Chamberlain manage to outwit Disraeli's clause in the 1867 reform act where voters in boroughs with three MP's got two votes?
Using this clause Disraeli had hoped to diminish the impact of liberal influence in the boroughs. However by using an efficient party organisation with accurate lists of supporters and advising liberal voters to which candidates they should vote for, Chamberlain ensured that liberal voters were spread evenly between all three liberal candidates and the conservatives were squeezed out.
When was the National Federation of Liberal Associations created, and where was the central office?
It was created in 1877 and the central office was in Birmingham.
Who was President and who was Secretary of the National Federation of Liberal Associations?
-Joseph Chamberlain was president.
-Francis Schandhorst was Secretary
By 1879 how many provincial Liberal Associations were brought under the umbrella of the National Federation of Liberal Associations?
In the 1880 liberal general election victory, how many constituencies were gained or retained where liberal associations existed?
What was the concern with the Liberal "bottom up" way of organising the party?
When would the party start to devise a programme which would be imposed on central office. What would the relationship be like between central liberalism and provincial liberalism.
Who won the 1868 general election, who was prime minister and what majority did they have?
- A majority of 115
Who won the 1874 general election, who was prime minister and what majority did they have?
-A majority of 49
Who won the 1880 general election, who was prime minister and what majority did they have?
-A majority of 51
Why was a general election bound to follow after the 1867 reform act?
Disraeli could not forever hold together a conservative party, that after all the excitement of out-manoeuvring Gladstone had worn off, were a little alarmed at what they had achieved.
What had Gladstone successfully done in April 1968?
Gladstone got the commons to approve a resolution that the Irish Church must be disestablished
What did Disraeli do following the commons agreeing to disestablish the Irish Church?
He declared that he would ask the queen to dissolve parliament in the autumn
What was Gladstone's newly found personal mission in 1868?
His newly found personal mission was Ireland and the need to solve the Irish "problem"
What was the main issue in the 1868 general election?
The disestablishment of the Irish Church
What didn't the parties focus on in the 1868 general election?
They didn't focus much attention on social reform. Neither party made an effort to attract the support of the working class, newly enfranchised voters.
What was the result of the 1868 general election for the conservatives?
They, unsurprisingly, failed to attract the new urban voters. They gained only 25 seats in the 114 largest boroughs and were still heavily dependent on the landed interest, with 60% of their seats coming from the counties.
Who won the 1868 general election?
Gladstone and the Liberal party
What did Disraeli do after losing the 1868 general election?
He stopped his flirtation with democracy and turned to the traditional power-base of the conservative party: the landed interest.
Who were the new voters in 1868 and what was their political inclination?
The majority of new voters were Liberal by inclination. They were mainly non-conformist and supported free trade, low taxation and limited reform to the franchise and to education. Many were also members of trade unions
What did Gladstone have to focus on in 1869 if he wanted to be sure of continued support from the newly enfranchised voters?
He would have to focus on the trade unions
When was the Labour Representation League established and by who?
The Labour Representation League was established by the Liberal trade unionists in 1869
What was the political role of the Labour Representation League?
It wasn't a separate political party, but it was a ginger group within the Liberal Party, aiming to give the needs of the trade unions a higher profile.
When was the Trade Union Act passed?
What did the Trade Union Act do?
It recognised trade unions as legal bodies with the right to own property and funds, and importantly recognised their right to strike.
What act was passed also in 1871 which nullified the goodwill gained by the Trade Union Act?
The Criminal Law Amendment Act, which basically inflicted a punishment of three month's imprisonment for picketing.
How successful were efforts by the Labour Representation League to encourage Liberal selection of working class candidates in the early 1870's?
Their efforts were met with little success
In the early 1870's how many working class men were elected to parliament?
-Thomas Burt, a Northumberland coalminer
-Alexander MacDonald, leader of the Miner's union
How did the nonconformists feel alienated by the 1870 Education Act?
The 187o education act, while extending the schooling provided by the Church authorities by setting up secular school boards and schools in areas not covered by the church, also seemed to be favouring the Anglican Church schools by extending their grants and allowing them some measure of help from the rates as well.
How did the rift between the Nonconformists and government over education worsen by a national campaign for the disestablishment of the Church of England in 1871?
With the commons voting strongly against the disestablishment of the Church of England, it was significant that a large minority of Liberal nonconformists and radicals voted in favour.
When was the licensing act?
What did the Licensing Act do?
-It created the offences of being drunk in public with a maximum fine of £200.
-Propelling cattle, a steam, engine, or a loaded firearm while drunk, could be fined up to £200 or 51 weeks in prison
-It restricted the closing times in public houses to midnight in towns and 11pm in country areas.
-It also regulated the content of beer
What was the response to the Licensing Act?
-They saws it as an attack on their independence and personal liberty.
-The policies were enforced by the police and there were a number of riots when they tried to enforce closing hours.
Who won the 1874 general election?
Disraeli and the Conservatives
What was a significant factor in why the liberals lost in the 1874 general election?
The middle classes had started to turn against the liberals and to the conservatives
How many seats did the conservatives manage to win in London in the 1859, 1865, 1868 and 1874 general elections?
Why was the middle class swing towards conservatism happening?
The great reforms of Gladstone's first administration had, for many new "men of property" seemed to radical. Many Middle class nonconformists had been alarmed by the reforms to education, the regulation of the brewing trade etc.
What proportion of working class people supported the conservative party after 1867?
Where was working class conservative support particularly strong after 1867?
-East end of London
What was the support of the Conservative working classes based upon?
-It seems that the support was based less on conservative policies,
-but more on perceptions of patriotism, as Disraeli was doing a good job of presenting the conservatives as the party of Empire.
What was the dilemma for Disraeli and the Conservatives to do with support from working classes and middle classes?
The dilemmas for Disraeli was how to produce policies which would prove attractive to the working classes and so increase their level of support, but at the same time not frighten the middle classes.
What were some early conservative/Disraeli reforms and why?
Disraeli's ministry began by introducing a range of social reforms. These were reforms were not part of a coherent conservative policy. They were reforms left over from ministries of Russell and Derby. They were also safe reforms like public health, working hours, merchant shipping. They posed no threat to the existing social order
Why was shifting the focus of the conservatives from reform to Empire clever?
-By identifying conservatives with patriotism and national interest, he was appealing to both working and middle classes.
-It was also difficult for the liberal's to argue against support for Empire.
-It also went down well with people in the constituencies who depended on the defence industry, like the armaments industry and the naval dockyard industry
Why did Disraeli decide to call a general election in 1880?
The conservatives won an unexpected victory in the Southwark by-election, and Disraeli decided the time was right for him to call a general election. However it was a complete misjudgement.
What were the damages to the conservative party due to the 1880 general election?
-The conservative party lost more than 100 seats
-They lost 90 seats in the boroughs
-They lost 27 seats in the counties
-The liberals had a majority by 50 seats
Why did the conservatives fail to appeal to the electorate in 1880?
-Disraeli failed to delay calling the election until the "feel good" factor of a successful foreign policy had worn off.
-An economic depression resulted in some businesses facing ruin, the level of unemployment rose from 1-2% to around 11% in 1879
-The Farmer's Alliance, an independent movement formed because of the conservative's negative attitude to helping them during the depression. They put up successful candidates in the counties, which resulted in a slump for conservative votes
-The lack of coherent conservative policy in Ireland caused the Home Rule Party to redouble their efforts to obstruct parliamentary business.
-A powerful nationwide campaign for social reform was begun in Birmingham by Schnadhorst and Chamberlain, which created a lot of support for Gladstone in the Midlands and North.
Why did Gladstone retire from Liberal Party Leadership?
He was unhappy with his Greenwich constituency
When did Gladstone make his comeback into politics?
What was Gladstone's new constituency?
What did Gladstone do in his new constituency?
He made a series of highly effective, nationally reported speeches attacking Disraeli's imperial policy. He won the constituency with ease and returned to lead the Liberal Party.