Flashcards in Landing in daylight? Party reform 1868-85 Deck (106)
What was the general influence of the 1867 Reform act on the Liberal and Conservative parties?
The liberals and the conservatives realised that they had to adopt new policies, attitudes and structures if they were to attract working class voters. But also ensure that their traditional voters remained loyal.
What was the liberal party like compared to a modern party?
It was more of a loose body of individuals with certain shared attitudes, united by a leader. (After 1867 it was Gladstone)
What three groups could members of the liberal party be divided into?
-Old traditional Whigs
-Middle of the road liberals
Describe old traditional Whigs?
-Their attitudes lay far to the right, but were open to reform provided its benefits could be demonstrated.
-They were large in the Lords but relatively small in the commons.
-However their influence outweighed their numbers as they held most key posts in all liberal ministries.
Describe the radical liberals?
-They were a relatively small group of the party to the far left of the party.
-They were committed to political, social and economic reform.
-The most important people in the radicals was the nonconformist manufacturing interest- men like John Bright, Samuel Morley, William Rathbone. These were backed by intellectual members like Henry Fawcett and John Stuart Mill.
Describe the Middle of the Road liberals?
-This was the vast bulk of the parliamentary party.
-They were made mainly by landowners, bankers and lawyers.
What were the three new areas of support for the Liberal Party?
-Skilled artisans and the trade union leaders
How did the liberal party get support from the newspapers?
The abolition of stamp and paper duties between 1855 and 1861 combined with the development in the railway, led to a huge growth in newspapers which were usually owned by men who supported the liberals. They used the newspapers to spread liberal views and opinions
Examples of newspaper owners with liberal party persuasion?
-Edward Baines and the Leeds chronicle
-Joseph Cowen and the Newcastle Chronicle
-Robert Leader and the Sheffield Independent
How did the Liberal party gain support from the nonconformists?
The liberals with their reformist tendencies had been far more sympathetic towards nonconformity. The nonconformists hated having to pay a church rate and objected to the Anglican domination of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge and argued against the Anglican dominance of the school system. The nonconformists were growing hugely and more and more were being elected as MP's who brought with them support for nonconformity.
According to the 1851 religious census, what percentage of those3 going to church on a specific Sunday in that year went to a nonconformist chapel?
Where was nonconformity strongest?
In the North of England and in Wales
How many nonconformist MP's were elected in the 1865 election?
How did the liberal party gain support from skilled artisans and trade union leaders (the respectable working class)?
The newly enfranchised 'respectable' working class had strong reasons to support the liberal party. There was much to gain, economically, from supporting a party for reform, when the payback may be and improvement in their living conditions and working conditions. There was also an opportunity to combine against the traditional conservatives.
What was the Conservative party like in 1867?
It was a party who were alarmed with the prospect of having to appeal to a working class electorate
Who made up the Conservative party in 1867?
Despite the growing number of industrialists in the party nothing really changed in 1867. The party was mainly made up of the landowning class and the country gentry.
Of the 300 conservative MP's returned in the 1874 general election, how many had connections to the land?
What tensions were there in the Conservative party to do with the landed gentry?
-the landed gentry who made up the bull of the party tended to be suspicious of centralisation and opposed anything that challenged their traditional way of life
-social reform necessary to attract working class votes was not attractive to the landed gentry
What tensions were there with the middle class and the Conservative party?
Many middle class voters began to find the Conservative party more attractive. Therefore the party had to make sure that they found policies which wouldn't scare off the middle class but also attract the working class
What tensions were there with the Conservative party and Disraeli?
Disraeli wasn't a natural leader of the Conservative party. He was born a Jew and baptised as an Anglican. He had no bedrock support among he conservative landed gentry. His position as leader in the commons was by no means secure, he needed to be aware of this when passing any legislation
How did political parties gain support in try constituencies before 1867?
-very little structures party organisation in the constituencies and what there was tended to only spring to life when there was a general election
-treating was common
-central organisation was in the hands of the whips whose job was to ensure attendance, discipline and correct voting among party members . They also raised money for constituency work and found local candidates. However this was only done on responses rather than on basis
What major developments on how political parties gained support from constituencies were made after 1867?
-Both conservatives and liberals set up a central office in London and party organisation became efficient and centralised.
-local party organisations were set up across the country
How effective was Conservative party organisation before 1867?
In the 1860's the conservative party laced the ready support from the newly emerging forces in the constituencies that were enjoyed by the liberals.
What two questions arose from there 1867 reform act about how the conservative party should organise itself outside Westminster?
-Should the local organisations by "bottom up", arising from the needs of local communities and involving the middle and working classes to set them up and run them.
-Should the local organisations be "top down" ones, detected from Westminster.
Did the conservative party chose a "bottom up" or "top down" way of organising local organisations after 1867?
When was the Conservative central office set up?
In 1870 in London
Who was employed as the first conservative National Party Agent?
How successful was John Gorst?
He was very successful in establishing conservative associations in urban constituencies.
How many new conservative associations were founded by the end of 1873?