Parliament, party and people 1832-67 Flashcards Preview

AS History (Britain, 1830-1885: Representation and Reform) > Parliament, party and people 1832-67 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Parliament, party and people 1832-67 Deck (52):
1

Timeline: 1832

Reform Act
-franchise enlargement and some seat redistribution

General election
-Whigs/Liberals in control of Commons
-Founding of Tory/Conservative Carlton Club London to encourage voter registration and dissemination of Tory propaganda

2

Timeline: 1834

Tamworth Manifesto
-Sets out Peel's vision for the future Conservative Party
-Peel becomes Prime Minister in December

3

Timeline: 1835 (1)

General election
-Peel leads a Conservative minority administration

Lichfield House Compact
-Combination of Whig, Irish and radical MPs bring down Peel's government

4

Timeline: 1835 (2)

Municipal Corporations Act
-Borough corporations, the body of people responsible for running the boroughs, to be elected annually
-Establishment of local political clubs and associations

5

Timeline: 1836

Founding of Reform Club
-Formed by Whigs and middle-class radicals to encourage voter registration and dissemination of Whig/ Liberal propaganda

6

Timeline: 1837

Accession of Queen Victoria
-General election: combination of Whig and Irish MPs control the Commons

7

Timeline: 1839

Bedchamber Crisis (sensual)
-Melbourne offers resignation of Whig ministry
-Queen Victoria refuses to swap some of her Whig-leaning ladies of the bedchamber for Conservative-inlclined ones; Peel refuses to form a ministry and Melbourne's Whigs carry on

8

Timeline: 1841

General election
-Peel and Conservatives have a Commons majority of about 80 seats

9

Timeline: 1846

Repeal of the Corn Laws
-Peel's Conservative Party splits between Peelites, who favoured repeal, and the majority, who did not

10

Timeline: 1850

Death of Peel
-Peelites absorbed into the emerging Liberal Party under, first, Lord Aberdeen (himself a Peelite) and then Lord Palmerston

11

What made MPs switch between parties?

-interest
-inclination
-persuasion

went like this throughout much of the 18th C

12

When did the matter of switching between parties "firm up"?

During the election of 1832 held after the passage of the reform act

13

Who was the election of 1832 really fought by?

-not whig and tory
-but those who supported reform vs those who didn't

14

Who supported reform?

-supporters of 'reform in order to preserve' and the CofE and the monarchy
-radicals who favoured free trade and the abolition of the monarchy and the disestablishment of the church

15

The supporters of reform were a mixed bunch. What did this lead to?

-a difficulty body of MPs to keep together as a party and even as a government
-splits over Irish affairs led to the resignation in 1834 of Earl Grey (Whig PM)

16

What happened at the same time as Earl Greys resignation?

Lord Althorp, Whig leader of the HofC inherited his fathers title and moved to HofL

17

What was the consequence of Earl Grey and Lord Althorp leaving the party?

Two important Whigs needed replacing

18

Which King tried to engineer a coalition between a Whig Lord ..?.. and the Tory ..?.. ?

-William IV
-Melbourne
-Robert Peel

19

William IV tried to organise a coalition between who?

-Melbourne
-Robert Peel

20

What happened when the suggested coalition failed?

King William IV didn't like Melbourne's choice of leader (Lord John Russell) in the Commons so dismissed the Whig government

21

Why was it odd for the King to dismiss the Whig government?

They had a secure majority

22

Who was invited by the King to form a government after the Whigs had been dismissed?

Robert Peel

23

What was Peel's first move back in power? Why did he do it? What did he issue?

-fight an election
-didn't have a majority
-Tamworth election manifesto

24

What did the Tamworth Manifest do?

-appeal to electorate in borough of Tamworth
-set out Peel's political position

25

Why was the Tamworth Manifest shocking at the time?

Gentlemen may explain their political position to fellow MPs but not to the scummy, uneducated electorate beyond Westminster was "unheard of"

26

Where was the Tamworth Manifest released?

Published in newspapers

27

What was the result of the 1835 general election?

-Conservatives did well
-gained 80 seats
-Peel left leading minority gov.

28

What was the Lichfield House Compact? Who was it agreed by?

-unwritten agreement at Lichfield House
-in February 1835
-between the Whigs, led by Lord John Russel, and a group of Irish MPs led by Daniel O'Connell

29

What was agreed in the Lichfield House Compact?

The Whigs could depend on Irish support in Commons in return for promising to consider some reforming legislation in Ireland

30

So who defeated Peel's Whig government?

The Lichfield bois

31

Why was this a watershed in British politics? (long answer soz; 5)

-William IV well in constitutional rights to dismiss Melbourne but it would be the last time a monarch dismissed a ministry with majority support in HofC
-Pre-1832 King's minister who fought an election could be certain of returning to HofC with a majority; demonstrates the impact reform act had on power of monarch
-lessening of royal influence = general elections + political parties assume greater importance
-Tamworth Manifesto represented a new approach on the part of a leading politician with regards to elections, electorate and party
-Tamworth manifesto was Peel's vision for the new Conservative party

32

Did the Lichield House Compact achieve its objective? What was it?

-yes
-Whigs returned to gov.

33

What happened after the Whigs returned to government (as a result of the Lichfield House Compact)?

Its nature (Lichfield House Compact) prevented them forming a party and tore them apart

34

What did the death of William IV lead to? Who succeeded him?

-a general election
-Victoria

35

How many seats did the Conservatives win in the 1837 general election? Where did this leave Melbourne and Whigs?

-313
-reliant on Irish MPs for a majority

36

What was the view of the electorate on the Whig parties reliance on Irish MPs?

-electorate = mostly middle-class/ property-owning
-viewed this with suspicion

37

What would the Whigs find it increasingly difficult to do? Why?

-win seats in the counties
-conservatives increasingly seen as the English party

38

How had the number of seats increased? (don't know the date but probs pre-1832 to post-1832)

80 to 144

39

Whigs strength lay where?

In the boroughs and newly enfranchise Midlands and North (also boroughs)

40

On the surface what did the Bedchamber Crisis appear to be?

A petty squabble between the Queen and her potential PM, Robert Peel

41

When did Melbourne offer his resignation? Why?

-1839
-narrow victory on the Government of Jamaica Bill

42

After Melbourne offered his resignation what did Peel do?

-offered to become PM
-so asked the Queen to remove some ladies of her bedchamber who had Whig leanings
-she refused
-so he refused to form a government

43

Why did Peel refuse to form a government?

-calculated risk
-Melbourne had to carry on
-Peel thought he'd fuck up more
-then when Conservative came it would be greater

44

Was Peel's calculated risk correct?

Yes

45

When was the next general election (the most recent being 1837)?

1841

46

Why were the last 2 years under Whig ministry troublesome?

-severe economic depression = social discontent, mass poverty and pressure on poor law (demands for relief to be escalated)
-Chartism revived
-Anti-Corn Law League founded in Manchester 1838 pressed for abolition of Corn Laws

47

Why did the Anti-Corn Law League press for the abolition of Corn Laws?

-social relief - reduce price of bread
-economic relief - encourage free trade

48

What finally brought matters to head (1841)?

-financial crisis
--declining revenues and a budget deficit of £6 million

49

What did the financial crisis lead to?

-conservative motion of 'No confidence' in the gov. won by a single vote
-forced Whig gov. to resign

50

Radicals were weary with the Whigs. Who did they turn to? What did the Whigs attempt to do to stop this? Did it work?

-conservatives
-ended sliding scale of duties on imported corn and replaced it with a fixed duty
-no it did not impress

51

What was the nail in the coffin on Melbourne's chances of winning the general election?

Feargus O'Connor, banking on the Tory criticism of the new Poor Law, urged Chartist supporters to vote for Conservative candidates

52

What was Peel and the Conservatives majority in the 1841 election?

80 seat majority