Challenges and consequences: Chartism 1841-58 Flashcards Preview

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Why wasn't the Chartist movement in disarray after the wave of arrests and trials in 1839-40?

-The desire to persuade parliament to accept the 6 points was still there
-In August 1839, Henry Hetherington headed up a chartist revival in Scotland with delegates meeting in Glasgow to promote Charisma
-In April 1840, Henry Hetherington set up a Metropolitan Charter Union in England
-Although in Prison, Feargus O'Connor continued to write letters to the Northern Star, championing the chartist cause and pointing to the way forward


When was the National Charter Association created?

July 1840


How many members did the NCA claim to have in April 1841?



How many members did the NCA claim to have in April 1842?



What were the reasons behind the huge growth in the NCA ?

-Partly due to an economic downturn
-Mostly to do with Feargus O'Connor's influence. He influenced NCA policy while in prison through letters and directives to leading Chartists through his column in the Northern Star.


How did the NCA fund propaganda activities and the payment of officials?

Through a mass membership paying subscriptions


When was the second Chartist petition?



How well organised was the second chartist petition compared to the first?

It was far more competently organised


How many signatures did the second chartist petition get?



How did the House of Commons vote towards the second chartist petition?

They voted 287 to 49 not to consider the petition


What did William Lovett do in 1839 while in the Warwick prison?

He wrote "Chartism: A New Organization for the People." With John Collins (another chartist)


What did Lovett's and Collin's book "Chartism: A New Organization for the People." Say?

It proposed a national system of education, funded by a penny tax on all those who signed the Chartist petition.


Why was Lovett convince3d that it was essential to educate the Working Class?

He thought it was essential to educate the working classes .
-It would make them worthy of the vote.
-It would make the middle class also believe they were worthy of the vote
-it would make them able to use the vote intelligently.


When was Lovett released from prison?

July 1840


What did Lovett begin to do, once he was released from prison in the summer of 1840?

He began to implement his scheme for a "national association for the moral, social and political improvement of the people".


What was Feargus O'Connor's reaction to Lovett's new scheme of the National Association?

-He was furious,
-denounced Lovett's scheme in the Northern Star, criticising it as destroying Chariot unity.
-He used his position within the National Charter Association to stir up opposition to Lovett and the National Association


What was the response from the people from O'Connor's criticism of Lovett's National Association scheme?

-O'Connor's criticism of Lovett's scheme worked
-In the northern industrial towns, Lovett and Collin's work was roundly condemned as deflecting Charisma from its main objective.


What happened economically and socially in the summer of 1842?

The country was plunged into a severe industrial depression and waves of riots and strikes swept through the industrial areas of the Midlands and North.


When were the plug riots?

Summer of 1842


What were the events which led to the plug riots?

-It began with wage cutting by mine owners in Staffordshire.
-Trouble quickly spread to the textile industry, when the mill owners of Ashton-under-Lyne and Stalybridge decided to reduce wages in the face of a trade downturn
-Mass meetings and marches followed
-By 11 August most of the cotton mills, dye works nada machine shops in Manchester and the surrounding area had stopped work, leaving approx. 50,000 workmen idle.
-Unrest quickly spread across the Pennies to Yorkshire, where one of the techniques used by strikers was to draw the plugs from boilers, thus putting out the furnaces. This prevented employers bringing in strike-breaking workers.


When were the plug riots and strikes largely supressed by?

They were largely suppressed by October 1842


How many arrests were made during the plug riots?



What was the link with the Chartists and the Plug Riots?

-It would seem that the chartists didn't initiate the sakes and violence.
-They were quick to take advantage of the riots, particularly as many strikers were chartists.
-Not all chartists agreed with the NCA giving official support to the strike, although the majority agreed with O'Connor that they had been presented with a marvellous opportunity to show Chartist solidarity with the trades delegates.


What was the harvest of 1842-43 like and what was the impact of this?

-The harvest of 1942-43 was a good one.
-The economic depression had lifted
-There was work to be had and strikers returned to their workplaces.
-There were no further serious outbreaks of unrest until 1848


What happened to the economy in 1847?

There was a sharp economic downturn in 1847, caused by a commercial crisis and a bad harvest


What happened to chartism in 1848?

-In the early months of 1848, there was a revival of Chartist activity, and signatures were collected for a third national petition
-A chartist convention met in London and organised a mass meeting for 10th April.


What was the Chartist plan in 1848?

The plan was to assemble on Kennington common on the 10th April and march from there to present the third petition to parliament


What was the media attention to the chartism convention in 1848?

-The proceedings of the convention were reported in detail in the newspapers


Why had tension heightened in 1848 to do with Europe?

Tension was heightened by recent events in Europe: a series of revolutions, triggered by popular protests in capital cities had toppled old regimes across several countries


What was the government reaction to the threat of revolution in 1848?

-The queen was moved to the safety of Osborne on the Isle of Wight.
-The duke of Wellington was put in charge of the defence of London
-8000 soldiers were called up along with 1500 Chelsea pensioners and some 150,000 constables enrolled