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Flashcards in Thyroid Deck (44)
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The strap muscles of the neck are __ to the thyroid gland

Anterior

1

The sternocleidomastoid muscle is ___ to the thyroid

Anterior lateral

2

The common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins are ___ to the thyroid.

Lateral

3

The longus colli muscle is ___ to the thyroid

Posterior

4

The minor neurovascular bundle is ___ to the thyroid

Posterior

5

The normally located parathyroid glands are ___ to the thyroid

Posterior

6

Arterial supply to the thyroid

Rt and lt superior thyroid arteries (branch of external carotid)

Rt and lt inferior thyroid arteries (branches of the thyrocervical arteries which come from subclavian artery)

7

Venous drainage from thyroid

Drained into internal jugular vein by the superior and middle thyroid veins.

Drained into innominates by the inferior thyroid veins.

8

Thyroglossal duct cyst

Congenital anomaly that appears as a superficial cyst in the midline of the neck anterior to the trachea and superior to the thyroid

(Thyroglossal duct normally obliterates in fetal life)

9

The MC malignancy of the thyroid

Papillary carcinoma 75-90%, presents with enlg cervical nodes

10

Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis

Autoimmune disease. Painless diffuse enlg of thyroid, young women, mc cause of hypothyroidism, course echo texture. Hypoechoic gland.

Enlg gland cold intolerance, weak, fatigue, facial droop, dry scaly skin, weight gain, intellectual impairment, gradual personality change, course hair, constipation, dec sweating, hair loss

Hypo, norm or inc size, hetero, small Ca+, goiter

11

Pyramidial lobe

Extends off isthmus 15-30%

12

Thyroid

4-6 cm L
1.5-2 cm W
2-3 cm AP
Isthmus 2-6 mm

13

Thyroid

Endocrine gland, controls growth, metabolism, development

Produces T3 triiodothyronine and T4 thyroxine
Produces calcitonin which aids parathyroid and dec Ca in blood.

Requires iodine

Regulated by: TSH & thyrotropin produced by pituitary & TRH from hypothalamus

14

Euthyroid

Normal thyroid hormone levels

15

Hypothyroidism

Under secretion of thyroid hormones

Myxedema, weigt gain, hair loss, subcutaneous tissue around eyes, lethargy, intellectual motor slowing, cold intolerance, constipation, deep husky voice, course hair, dec sweating,facial droops, dry skin

16

Hyperthyroidism

Over secretion of thyroid hormones

Weight loss, inc appetite, nervous, energy tremor, excess sweating, heat intolerance, palpitations, exothalmus

17

Thyroid US

Low mid level echoes, homogeneous, slightly hyperechoic to muscle

18

Variants

Lingual (tongue base)
Sublingual
Suprahyoid
Substernal

19

Multinodular goiter/ adenomatous hyperplasia / nodular hyperplasia

MC cause of thyroid enlargement
Females 50-70yrs

Normal labs, Asymptomatic, pain with hemorrhage

20

Subacute Thyroiditis / De Quervain's / Granulomatous Thyroiditis

Viral
May cause hyperthyroidism that subsides in weeks-months

Painful thyroid, fever, malaise

Enlg hypo goiter hetero

21

Grave's Disease / Diffuse Hyperthyroidism / Diffuse Toxic Goiter / Thyrotoxicosis

MC cause if hyperthyroidism
Females
Child bearing age

Enlg goiter, hyperthyroid, inc vascularity, multinodular

Heat intolerance, inc heart rate, tremors, wt loss, nervous, inc metabolism, exothalmus, acropachy, palp lymph nodes, myxedema

22

Thyroid inferno

Increase vascularity

23

Thyroid & pregnancy

Assoc with infertility and abnl menses

24

Silent thyroiditis

3-6 months after birth. Hyper then hypothyroidism.
Hypo enlg

25

Cyst

20% of solitary nodules
Cold on nuc med

Nodular cyst have Echogenic dot within

26

Adenoma

MC benign neoplasm
Young adults, females

Neck mass, pain with pressure and hemorrhage

Hot on Nuc med. or cold. Usually hot.

Well defined, oval/round, any echogenicity, cystic degeneration, hypo halo

27

Thyroid cancer

Rare
Females, young adults, hx of radiation
Slow growing
Hard/fixed

Asymptomatic, pressure if large, lump, vocal cord paralysis, solitary

Cold on nuc med

Most hypo, solid, solitary
Cystic, complex, calcification, inc vasc flow, no halo, enlg adj lymph nodes

28

Papillary Carcinoma

MC cancer
Young adults
Child bearing women
Least aggressive
Mets to nodes, lungs, bone, brain
Best prognosis
6% mortality in 20 years

29

Follicular Carcinoma

2nd MC cancer
15% of thy ca
Slow growing
May look like a regular nodule
Mets to nodes lung bones