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Flashcards in Topc 2 - Classification System For Living World Deck (28)
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Where did scientists gather to discuss ideas

The royal society


Who founded the royal society

Charles II of England


What was Academe des Sciences?

Royal society branch in Paris, France


How did the royal society maintain itself

By work of members


Important of royal society

New institutional base for science
New age for academics of organized science


Did the royal society tech and govern

NO, the RS governed themselves & did NO teaching


What were women up to during this time

World of science still mans world
Upper class women reigned in literacy


Who was Madame Chatelet?

Member of several academies
Contributed to original science
Newtons French translator


What is the Philosophical Transactions or journal des Scavans

Published in 1666
1. Created new mode of communicating &
2. disseminating scientific knowledge and research


Who is John Ray?

1. Published 'History of Plants'
2. 3 volumes
3. Classified plants according to family relationships
4. Plant names differ around world @ this time
5. Good friend Francis Willughby


Who is Francis Willughby?

Studied Ornithology (birds) @ uni of Canebridge
2nd book = 'History of Fishes'
Member of royal society


What was found on Europa mountain tops



How were 'Fossils' viewed during this time

Difficult concept to understand
Religion caused dates to not match & confusion of time periods
The great flood = explained how fossil got on mountain tops


What was John Ray's view on "Religion vs. Nature"

If something dies out, God must have created something imperfect
(Goes against belief that everything God made was perfect)


What were Archbishop James Usser Views?

Species are fixed (don't evolve)
Species are perfect
Believed in church explanation = "the great chain of being"


Who is Carl Linnaeus

1. Swedish Botanist
2. Received some knowledge of natural history from studying medicine
3. Associated with George's Lois Leclerc in defining & directing natural history


What did Carl Linnaeus mainly concerned himself with

Classifying natural objects (had 1st hand experience with riches of new specimens)

Very particular with organizing and classifying


How does the royal society and Carl relate?

Linnaeus received grant from Swedish royal society to explore natural history of LAPLAND


What was Carl Linnaeus published book?

Systema Naturae
Published in Latin


What's the significance of System Naturae?

1st published 12 pg manuscript
Attained a sexual system of plants
24 classes of plants according to # & position of stamens (male)
Broke classes into 65 orders according to # & position of pistilis (female)
Made it easy for anyone to understand b/c of his practice method (artificial system) as opposed to Gods (natural) system


What is a natural system

Attempts to reflect actual relationships


What is an artificial system?

Makes no claims about intrinsic relations amount groups that the system defines and orders


What was Carl Linnaeus idea of naming plants?

1. A single name common to all species in a genus
2. Another name distinguishing the species from others in the genus (a binomial nomenclature)
3. Name must have Greek or Latin roots
4. Can only be named after people of sciences


How did Linnaeus think new species came about?

Hybridization in time had produced new species from the original ones


What was Linnaeus Lifetime goal?

To carol of the abundance of nature as fully as possible


Where did Carl Linnaeus teach



How many species did Linnaeus classify?

7700 species


What was the new name from Academes Sciences?

The Linnaean Society (1788)