Flashcards in Topc 2 - Classification System For Living World Deck (28)
Where did scientists gather to discuss ideas
The royal society
Who founded the royal society
Charles II of England
What was Academe des Sciences?
Royal society branch in Paris, France
How did the royal society maintain itself
By work of members
Important of royal society
New institutional base for science
New age for academics of organized science
Did the royal society tech and govern
NO, the RS governed themselves & did NO teaching
What were women up to during this time
World of science still mans world
Upper class women reigned in literacy
Who was Madame Chatelet?
Member of several academies
Contributed to original science
Newtons French translator
What is the Philosophical Transactions or journal des Scavans
Published in 1666
1. Created new mode of communicating &
2. disseminating scientific knowledge and research
Who is John Ray?
1. Published 'History of Plants'
2. 3 volumes
3. Classified plants according to family relationships
4. Plant names differ around world @ this time
5. Good friend Francis Willughby
Who is Francis Willughby?
Studied Ornithology (birds) @ uni of Canebridge
2nd book = 'History of Fishes'
Member of royal society
What was found on Europa mountain tops
How were 'Fossils' viewed during this time
Difficult concept to understand
Religion caused dates to not match & confusion of time periods
The great flood = explained how fossil got on mountain tops
What was John Ray's view on "Religion vs. Nature"
If something dies out, God must have created something imperfect
(Goes against belief that everything God made was perfect)
What were Archbishop James Usser Views?
Species are fixed (don't evolve)
Species are perfect
Believed in church explanation = "the great chain of being"
Who is Carl Linnaeus
1. Swedish Botanist
2. Received some knowledge of natural history from studying medicine
3. Associated with George's Lois Leclerc in defining & directing natural history
What did Carl Linnaeus mainly concerned himself with
Classifying natural objects (had 1st hand experience with riches of new specimens)
Very particular with organizing and classifying
How does the royal society and Carl relate?
Linnaeus received grant from Swedish royal society to explore natural history of LAPLAND
What was Carl Linnaeus published book?
Published in Latin
What's the significance of System Naturae?
1st published 12 pg manuscript
Attained a sexual system of plants
24 classes of plants according to # & position of stamens (male)
Broke classes into 65 orders according to # & position of pistilis (female)
Made it easy for anyone to understand b/c of his practice method (artificial system) as opposed to Gods (natural) system
What is a natural system
Attempts to reflect actual relationships
What is an artificial system?
Makes no claims about intrinsic relations amount groups that the system defines and orders
What was Carl Linnaeus idea of naming plants?
1. A single name common to all species in a genus
2. Another name distinguishing the species from others in the genus (a binomial nomenclature)
3. Name must have Greek or Latin roots
4. Can only be named after people of sciences
How did Linnaeus think new species came about?
Hybridization in time had produced new species from the original ones
What was Linnaeus Lifetime goal?
To carol of the abundance of nature as fully as possible
Where did Carl Linnaeus teach
How many species did Linnaeus classify?