Topic 4 - 1st Industrial Revolution & Social Implications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 4 - 1st Industrial Revolution & Social Implications Deck (23)
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0

What initiated the IR

New farming techniques
The English timber famine

1

Describe the Norfolk system

Jetrhro Tull
1. Replaced 3-field with 4-field system of crop rotation
2. Added production of turnips & clover to feed animals (cows, sheep) during winter
3. Enclosed land for cultivation only & private owenship
4. Jethro Tulls plough

2

Describe the English timber famine

Ship building, smelting of iron ore depleted whole forests
Many processes depended on wood as fuel in form of charcoal
Initiated incentive to conserve wood
Invention using charred coal instead of charcoal (charred wood) in blast furnace
Invention of "puddling process" for converting cast iron to wrought iron using coal thus increasing productivity
No need to use wood & world entered Iron Age

3

What's the diff btwn charcoal and coke

Charcoal = charred wood
Coke = charred coal (from mines)

4

Who invented the use of coke (charred coal)

Abraham Darby in 1709

5

Who invented "puddling" process

Henry Cort
Process for converting pig/cast iron to wrought iron

6

Describing the puddling process

Stirring the melt thus increasing productivity

7

Describe Patents

First paten in England (1624)
Originally lasted 21 years
Can make paten off original idea if it's being significantly altered
Before patents only way of protecting idea is being secretive

8

Key industry of the IR

Coal Mining

9

Coal Mining problems & solutions

Problem: production bottle neck when ground water folded mines

Solution: Fire engines. Devices that would employ suck water out of mine (Newcomen)

10

Who invented 1st version of the steam engine

Newcomen & John Cawley

11

How did Newcomen and Cawley invent the 1st version of steam engine

Found method of condensing steam into cylinder & created partial vacuum so atmospheric pressure would drive the piston.

Strictly trial & error (owed nothing to science)

12

Who invented second version of steam engine?

2 English craftsmen
John Smeaton & James Watt

Improved Newcomen steam engine by condensing steam in separate vessel kept cold outside of cylinder leaving the cylinder hot throughout the cycle. Saved allot of coal use.

13

What was the problem of the Necomen engine?

It used way too much coal...

14

Benefits of the John Watt steam engine

Could be used anywhere ... Promoting expansion of manufacturing in Urban Areas

15

Who invented the railroad locomotive steam engine

English man - Richard Trevthick
Supported increase need for transporting bulky goods

16

Who invented 1st steam locomotive

British engineer - George Stephenson

17

Railroads boomed in...

Europe (London to Britain)

18

Important of Textile industry

John Kay (clockmaker)
Invented "flying shuttle"
- improved weaving but created lag in spinning thread

19

Who invented the assembly line

Henry Ford

20

What is the romantic movement

Reaction towards the ravages of industrialization

21

Describe the factory system

Centralized and standard production using machines, wage labour & organization of processes

22

What became master governing the workplace

The Clock