Topic 4 - 1st Industrial Revolution & Social Implications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 4 - 1st Industrial Revolution & Social Implications Deck (23)
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What initiated the IR

New farming techniques
The English timber famine


Describe the Norfolk system

Jetrhro Tull
1. Replaced 3-field with 4-field system of crop rotation
2. Added production of turnips & clover to feed animals (cows, sheep) during winter
3. Enclosed land for cultivation only & private owenship
4. Jethro Tulls plough


Describe the English timber famine

Ship building, smelting of iron ore depleted whole forests
Many processes depended on wood as fuel in form of charcoal
Initiated incentive to conserve wood
Invention using charred coal instead of charcoal (charred wood) in blast furnace
Invention of "puddling process" for converting cast iron to wrought iron using coal thus increasing productivity
No need to use wood & world entered Iron Age


What's the diff btwn charcoal and coke

Charcoal = charred wood
Coke = charred coal (from mines)


Who invented the use of coke (charred coal)

Abraham Darby in 1709


Who invented "puddling" process

Henry Cort
Process for converting pig/cast iron to wrought iron


Describing the puddling process

Stirring the melt thus increasing productivity


Describe Patents

First paten in England (1624)
Originally lasted 21 years
Can make paten off original idea if it's being significantly altered
Before patents only way of protecting idea is being secretive


Key industry of the IR

Coal Mining


Coal Mining problems & solutions

Problem: production bottle neck when ground water folded mines

Solution: Fire engines. Devices that would employ suck water out of mine (Newcomen)


Who invented 1st version of the steam engine

Newcomen & John Cawley


How did Newcomen and Cawley invent the 1st version of steam engine

Found method of condensing steam into cylinder & created partial vacuum so atmospheric pressure would drive the piston.

Strictly trial & error (owed nothing to science)


Who invented second version of steam engine?

2 English craftsmen
John Smeaton & James Watt

Improved Newcomen steam engine by condensing steam in separate vessel kept cold outside of cylinder leaving the cylinder hot throughout the cycle. Saved allot of coal use.


What was the problem of the Necomen engine?

It used way too much coal...


Benefits of the John Watt steam engine

Could be used anywhere ... Promoting expansion of manufacturing in Urban Areas


Who invented the railroad locomotive steam engine

English man - Richard Trevthick
Supported increase need for transporting bulky goods


Who invented 1st steam locomotive

British engineer - George Stephenson


Railroads boomed in...

Europe (London to Britain)


Important of Textile industry

John Kay (clockmaker)
Invented "flying shuttle"
- improved weaving but created lag in spinning thread


Who invented the assembly line

Henry Ford


What is the romantic movement

Reaction towards the ravages of industrialization


Describe the factory system

Centralized and standard production using machines, wage labour & organization of processes


What became master governing the workplace

The Clock