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Flashcards in topic 4 Deck (36)
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1

Transkei - independent Bantustan but dependent on South Africa

1985 - 85% of Transkei income is directly from South African

2

Defence spending 1985

4% of GDP, 13% total expenditure

3

Tambo's declaration 1985

MAKE SOUTH AFRICA UNGOVERNABLE

4

1985 Protest climaxes in townships

burnt down by angry youths, ANC flags emerge and the slogan of 'people's power'

5

how many people were killed as a result of political activity 1985

800

6

conflict in Alexandra

1985 - Michael Diradeng shot by security, prompts 6 day war - night vigil where shops were petrol bombed

7

police retaliation Diradeng's funeral

tear gas funeral crowd of 6000 youths, killing 27

8

governmental retaliation to Alexandra

1985 - State of Emergency called - Botha sends troops to townships
activists houses burnt down and arrests made in Alexandra

9

Second State of Emergency effect on Alexandra

3,000 more arrests and all key leaders arrested

10

Botha's Joint Management Commitee

dismisses Black Councils in 1985 and now just a committee of white army and police to run townships

11

Army Raid Botswana

1985 - kills 12 ANC members

12

Botha and Mandela negotiations 1985

Botha - offers to release Mandela if they renounce violence and armed Struggle

Mandela - refuses- his response read out by his daughter at a UDF rally of 8,000 people in Soweto

13

1986 - International condemnation in America

50 American companies withdraw investments from South Africa (40 do the same the next year)

Leads to financial crisis

14

1986 - Transkeans killed by Zulus

over 100

15

Angols independence

1987 - USA and SA support UNITA against the Marxist liberation group MPLA

16

security force assassination

1987, as many as 40 assassinations, giving help to vigilante groups

17

Mandela Wembley concert

1988 - 67 countries watched by 600 million people

18

Mandela committee of government meetings

1988 - meets 50 times that year, receives political visitors

19

Mandela's freed `

11th Feb 1990

20

Mandela's first public meeting

Soweto, 1990 with a crowd of 120,000

21

2nd Mandela Concert

1990 - global 500 million audience - 8 minute standing ovation and extended speech

22

Seperate Amenities Act repealed and Breaches of Group Areas Act policed less fiercely

1990

23

NP and ANC negotiations come to a halt - when? why?

1990 - NP lift the state of emergency but then arrest members of MK and CP
ANC publicly argue that although they have suspended armed struggle - havent fully abandoned it - ready to resume

in return - NP withdraw charges

24

first CODESA

1991 - World Trade Center near Jan Smuts Airport, changed to Oliver Tambo arport

25

when does Mandela become acting president of ANC

1991

26

white referendum regarding negotiations

1992 - 69% vote yes - encouraging De Klek to continue

27

CODESA 2 - when and what 3 principles agreed

1992
- release political prisoners
- restrict Zulu
- ban traditional weapons

28

Inkatha ANC conflict 1992

Inkatha members kill 45 ANC supporters, Mandela suspends any negotation with Inkatha

29

ANC March 1992

100,000 ANC supporters march to Bisho leads to forces opening fire - killing 30

30

PAC violence 1993

brutally murder an American aid worker