Transportation of infants and children in motor vehicles Flashcards Preview

CPS Statements > Transportation of infants and children in motor vehicles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Transportation of infants and children in motor vehicles Deck (16):

By what percentage do child seats reduce the risk of fatal injury?



By what percentage do child seats reduce the risk of serious injury?



What is the rate of misuse of car seats?



What is the rate of misuse for booster seats?



What is the most common form of misuse?

Not using the correct seat for the weight and/or height of the child


What are the top three errors for infant/child car seat use?

1. Seat not tightly secured to the vehicle (moves more than 2.5 cm [1 inch] in any direction);

2. Harness not snug (more than one finger width fits between the harness strap and the child); and

3. Chest clip not at armpit level.


What are other common errors for infant/child car seat use?

1. Not anchoring the tether strap for forward-facing child seats;

2. Placing a rear-facing infant seat in front of an air bag;

3. Wrong angle of infant seats (should be at a 45 degree angle for head and neck support);

4. Not using a locking clip on the vehicle seat belt when necessary, according to the vehicle manual;

5. Routing the seat belt through an incorrect path of the infant/child restraint;

6. Routing the harness straps through incorrect slots of the infant/child restraint;

7. Using recalled or otherwise unsafe seats (restraints older than 10 years or beyond the manufacturers expiry date, or previously in a vehicle at the time of a crash); and

8. Failing to restrain the child.


When should a stage 1 rear facing infant seat be used?

Until at least 1yo and 10kg (22lbs)


When should a stage 2 forward facing infant/child car seat be used?

Until at least 18kg (40lb)

Maybe used between 10-22kg (22-48lbs) and up to 122cm (48")


When should a stage 3 booster seat be used?

Until at least 36kg (80lb) and 145cm (4'9")


When can a stage 4 seat belt be used?

Children >36kg (80lbs) and at least 8yo who properly fit adult restraints


What are some types of booster seats?

1. High back belt positioning booster

2. Infant/child/booster or child/booster seats aka combination car seats or "3-in-1" or "2-in-1"

3. Low back/backless belt-positioning booster

4. Abdominal shield booster no longer available in Canada


What is the CPS position regarding sales tax exemption for child passenger restraints?

CPS supports sales tax exemptions for proven child and youth safety devices incld. car and booster seats


What is the recommendations regarding seating positioning?

Rear seat until >13yo as air bags can kills or severely harm children and there is 1.7 less likely to incur injury in rear seat passengers

Compact extended cap pick up trucks the front row is safer. Do not install a rear facing infant seat in front of an airbag


What are the recommendations regarding seat installation?

1. Parents should always read the vehicle owner's manual and restraint system’s instructions thoroughly and carefully before installing the restraint system. Once a restraint system is installed in the vehicle, it should be tested regularly to ensure a safe and snug fit. This may reduce any potential safety concerns among the restraint system, vehicle seat and seat belt assembly.

2. Rear-facing restraint systems must never be placed in the front passenger seat of any vehicle equipped with a front passenger air bag. The impact of an air bag against the back of a rear-facing restraint system can cause death or serious harm to its occupant.

3. Transport Canada developed the UAS for restraint systems in vehicles, which was improved on and accepted by the International Organization for Standardization. This new system, outfitted in all vehicle models manufactured after September 1, 2002 , may simplify restraint system installation for some vehicle models and child restraint systems by eliminating the need for using seat belts. UAS attachments on restraint systems are secured to anchors in a UAS-equipped vehicle. Parents should be aware that if used correctly, the UAS method and seat belt assembly method of installation are equally safe in securing a car seat to the vehicle. Therefore, parents should choose the one that best fits their individual vehicle and the one they find easiest to use.

4. All rear-facing and forward-facing restraint systems should be installed tightly, allowing no more than 2.5 cm (1 inch) of movement in either direction when pulled on at the anchor point or at the edge of the routing point. (Note: rear-facing car seats will have some movement along the back of the seat, the part of the seat that is farthest from the anchor point. They are specifically designed to allow for this; it does not indicate improper installation.)

5. A rear-facing restraint system should be positioned at approximately a 45 degree angle to prevent ejection in a collision, and also to prevent head and neck positioning that may cause airway obstruction. This angle may be difficult to obtain in some vehicles due to the vehicle seat slope. If a rear-facing restraint does not feature an angular adjustment mechanism, then a firm roll of cloth or a ‘pool noodle’ can be placed under the restraint system to achieve this angle. Accommodating the system in this way still requires testing for tightness of fit.

6. Forward-facing car seats require the use of a tether strap. The tether strap attaches to an anchor point in the vehicle (see vehicle owner’s manual), and helps to limit the amount of forward head movement in a sudden stop or crash.

7/ Side air bags are installed in the rear seat position of a number of newer vehicles. While little is understood with respect to their effectiveness for child occupants, Transport Canada has identified serious injury potentials in tests using out-of-position three- and six-year-old dummies. Therefore, the safest approach remains to have child occupants seated in the middle rear seat position, thereby farthest away from side airbags, until more is understood about their utility and safety profile.


What are recommendations regarding placement of the child in the seat?

1. For rear-facing restraint systems, the shoulder harness should be threaded through the slots at or below the infant’s shoulders, and the harness should be snug, not allowing more than one finger insertion between the collar bone and the harness, and the restraint system chest clip should be placed at the level of the infant’s armpit.

2. The harness should always be secured when an infant is positioned in a restraint system, even when moving the child from the car to another location and when using the seat outside of the vehicle.

3. An infant should not be placed to sleep in a restraint system outside of the vehicle – infants should be placed to sleep supine in a crib, which meets the current Canadian regulations under the Hazardous Products Act. Parents should not place an infant car seat with a child occupant on an elevated surface (ie, countertop or table) because the car seat may fall from the surface and cause serious injury. Always place car seats on the ground to eliminate the risk of fall injuries.

4. For forward-facing restraint systems, the harness should be threaded through the seat at or above the level of the child’s shoulders, the harness should be snug, not allowing more than one finger insertion between the collar bone (or chest if the seat requires harnesses to be in the top slots) and the harness, and the chest clip should be placed at the level of the child’s armpit.

5. For booster seats, the shoulder portion of the vehicle’s seat belt assembly should be positioned so that it does not come in contact with the child’s neck, but rather keeps the shoulder belt over the middle of the child’s clavicle and chest, and the lap belt of the seat belt assembly should be over the child’s pelvic bones and away from (below) the abdomen. In addition, the child must be able to bend his/her knees comfortably over the edge of the vehicle seat while sitting up straight. Ensuring appropriate seating in this way will prevent the child from slouching to become comfortable and, thereby, causing the lap belt to rise and rest on the abdomen.

6. For older children, the vehicle’s seat belt assembly should fit the child so that the shoulder portion of the seat belt assembly system sits over the mid-clavicle and the mid-chest, and the lap portion of the seat belt assembly system sits low on the pelvis. The child should not slouch and the knees should bend naturally over the vehicle seat edge. If the child must slouch to do this, then the child should be in a booster seat. The shoulder belt should never be placed behind the child’s back.

7. A child should never be left unattended in a restraint system in or out of the vehicle.

Decks in CPS Statements Class (223):