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Flashcards in Trauma Deck (46):
1

AMPLE history for trauma

Allergies, meds, pregnancy/PMH, last meal, events surrounding mechanism of injury

2

ABCDEF of trauma

Airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure/environmental control, Foley

3

What procedure is used if unable to intubate airway?

Cricothyroidotomy

4

What size is considered a large bore IV?

14 or 16 gauge

5

When should OGT (oral gastric tube) be placed rather than NGT?

When fx of cribriform is suspected

6

What is the "3 to 1" rule?

Rough estimate for how many liters of crystalloid are needed to replace one liter of lost fluid

7

Four types of hemorrhagic shock

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8

How should type IV hemorrhagic shock be treated?

2 L saline followed by uncrossed (O negative) blood immediately. Death is imminent. 

9

What is FAST?

Focused abdominal sonogram for trauma. Looks at RUQ, LUQ, pelvis, and cardiac views. Most common area for blood to pool is the hepato-renal space (pouch of Morison). 

10

What are the five layers of the scalp?

Mneomonic is SCALP:

Skin, connective tissue, aponeurosis (galea), loose areaolar tissue, pericranium

11

Do you give abx ppx in simple scalp lacerations?

no

12

What CN runs along the edge of the tentorium cerebelli?

CN 3

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13

Equation for cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)

CPP = MAP - ICP 

14

What is Cushing reflex?

HTN and bradycardia in s/o increased ICP. The brain's effort to maintain CPP. 

15

Glasgow coma scale

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16

What is severe vs. moderate vs. mild head injury according to the GCS?

Severe: 8 or less

Moderate: 9-13

Mild: 14-15 

17

Basilar skull fracture features

  • Sign of very signficant mechanism of injury
  • May have raccoon eyes, retruauricular ecchymoses (Battle's sign), otorrhea, rhinorrhea, hemotympanum, CN palsies

18

What is the ring test for CSF rhinorrhea?

Take a sample of blood from the epistaxis and place on filter paper. If CSF present, a large transparent ring will be seen encircling a clot of blood. 

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19

Epidural hematoma

lens-shaped (convex) bleed; tearing of middle meningeal artery common. Classically have "lucid interval" and then go down hard 

20

Subdural hematoma

Concave bleed; better prognosis in elderly due to brain atrophy. Can be acute, subacute, or chronic. 

21

Management of severe head trauma

  • ABC's, intubation
  • Maintain adequate BP with fluids
  • Decrease ICP
    • Mannitol (osmotic diuretic to draw fluid out of brain)- can't use in hypotensive pt
    • Hyperventilation
    • Elevate head of bed
  • Consider seizure ppx with phenytoin. Tx seizures with lorazepam or diazepam and phenytoin
  • Ventriculostomy (burr hole) used to measure ICP 
  • Drain hematoma if present 

22

Anterior and posterior triangles of neck 

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23

Three zones of the neck

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24

How should you manage the airway of someone with laryngo-tracheal separation?

Tracheostomy

25

What type of injury can cause an anterior cord syndrome?

flexion injury 

26

What area of spine is most commonly injured? 

C spine

 

Thoracolumbar junction also fairly vulnerable

27

Indications for C-spine x-rays?

  • Tenderness along C-spine
  • Neuro deficit or altered sensorium
  • Good mechanism of injury
  • Distracting injury present 

28

What type of injury might cause central cord syndrome?

Hyperextension e.g. whiplash 

29

Atlanto-occipital dislocation

Results from severe traumatic flexion. Survival to hospital setting is rare. 

30

Jefferson fracture

C1 (atlas) burst fracture

  • Most common C1 fracture
  • Happens with axial loading, e.g. patient falls right on head, or something falls right on the patient's head 

31

C1 rotatory subluxation

Most commonly  in children, or adults with RA. Patients present with head rotated- don't force it back into place! 

32

Hangman's fracture

Fracture of both C2 pedicles, usu due to hyperextension. Unstable fx but not usu spinal cord injury because spinal cord so wide at C2. 

33

Burst fx of C3-7

Axial loading mechanism -> compression of vertebral body with protrusion of anterior portion of vertebral body anteriorly, and protrusion of posterior portion of vertebral body posteriorly

 

Can cause anterior cord syndrome 

34

Simple wedge fracture

Flexion injury causing compression of anterior portion of vertebral body. Usually stable unless there is ligamentous damage. 

35

Flexion teardrop fracture

Flexion injury caused fx of anteroinferior portion of vertebral body, ends up looking lik teardrop-shaped fragment. Unstable fx assoc with neurologic damage. 

36

Extension tear drop fx

Same idea, but the mechanism is extension causing avulsion rather than compression. In contrast to flexion teardrop fx, this one is stable. But, hard to tell apart from the other one so treat both tthe same initially. 

37

Clay shoveler's fracture

Caused by either flexion or direct blow -> avulsion of tip of the spinous process, usually C7, C6, or T1

38

Unilateral facet dislocation

Flexion-rotation injury. Usually stable

39

Bilateral facet dislocation

Flexion injury. Extremely unstable, high incidence of spinal cord injury. 

40

Subluxation of C-spine

Occurs with disruption of the ligamentous structure without bony involvement 

41

Thoracic spine fractures

  • Not very common due to stability from rib cage
  • When they do occur, they are devastating because spinal cord is narrow here AND it is a watershed region for blood supply  

42

Artery of Adamkiewicz

Greater radicular artery of Adamkiewicz. Enters spinal canal at L1; provides blood as high as T4. Arises from left intercostal artery and provides blood via the anterior spinal artery to the lower 2/3 of spinal cord. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43

What are the most common sites for fx in the thoracolumbar junction/lumbar spine region?

L1 > L2 > T1

44

Distraction or seat belt injury, aka Chance fracture

Horizontal fx through the vertebral body, spinous processes, laminae, pedicles, and tearing of the posterior spinous ligament. Caused by accel-decel injury as in a person in seat belt in MVA. 

45

Sacral spine fractures

Pretty uncommon. If damage to sacral nerve occurs -> bowel/bladder/sexual dysfunction. Loss of sensory/motor function of LE

46

Coccygeal spine fracture

Fracture of coccyx evidence as "step-off" on rectal exam. Must r/o rectal bleeding 2/2 recal tear. Tx is symptomatic, doughnut pillow.